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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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2018-05

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The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted cycling therapy group (ACT) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), and a control group (NC) in which the participants did not undergo any exercise therapy. Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight-weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the eight-week session the participants completed tasks to evaluate their cognitive function. They completed three trials of the card sort test (i.e., set-switching) and three trials of the knock-tap test (i.e, inhibition) before and after eight-weeks of cycling therapy. The scores of these tests were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between groups and paired samples t-tests. The results showed that after eight-weeks of cycling therapy the participants in the VCT group performed worse in the knock-tap test, but improved in two trials of the card sort test. The results also showed that the participants in the ACT group performed worse after eight-weeks of exercise therapy in one trial of the card sort test. No significant changes were seen for the control group. Due to the fact that on average the participants in the VCT group cycled with a higher heart rate, our results suggest exercise that significantly elevates heart rate can improve cognitive function, specifically set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome.

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2015-05

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The Acute Effects of Resistance Training and Assisted Cycling Therapy (Act) on Cognitive Function and Enjoyment of Adults With Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study

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Background: Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. Executive function is an area that people with Down syndrome have a diminished capacity compared to those in the general population. In recent years it has been determined that

Background: Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. Executive function is an area that people with Down syndrome have a diminished capacity compared to those in the general population. In recent years it has been determined that acute and chronic exercise has a small but positive effect on measures of executive function in typically developed individuals. The effect has been recorded separately in both aerobic, high-rate passive and resistance exercises in adolescents with DS but has not been compared between exercise types in adults with DS. Methods: A randomized crossover study was utilized to determine the effect of resistance exercise, assisted cycling therapy, and no exercise on executive function and enjoyment in adults with Down syndrome. Resistance Training (RT)- participants completed a total of 16- repetitions of approximately 75% of a 1-RM in the leg press, chest press, seated row, and latissimus pulldown. ACT- participants completed 30-minutes of cycling at 35% above voluntary (e.g., self-selected pace) rate. No-Training (NT)- participants spent 35-minutes playing board games. Cognitive assessments were recorded pre- and post- intervention. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Survey was collected post-intervention. Statistics: The cognitive measures and Physical Activity Self-efficacy scale were analyzed using the delta scores (pre-post) in a Linear mixed models analyais. The main effect of sequence (A, B, C) and intervention (RT, ACT, NT), and visit were assessed. Significance level was set with α=0.05. If any differences were detected, the Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to determine differences. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale post scores were compared using a General Linear Model. Alpha was set at 0.05 with a Bonferroni post-hoc test to determine differences. A secondary analysis was conducted investigating the effect of participants that completed testing individually compared to those that completed the testing in a group setting. Results: There were no significant difference in the delta score of any of the measures. The secondary analysis also found no significant difference but showed a trend that those tested individually had opposite results than those tested in a group.

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2021