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The Push for Perfection: Parent Influence, Perfectionism, & Stress as Predictors of Student Adjustment

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Nearly a decade of research has shown that high achieving students are at elevated risk for serious adjustment problems \u2014 including internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use. In this study, we examine the relationship among three types of risk

Nearly a decade of research has shown that high achieving students are at elevated risk for serious adjustment problems \u2014 including internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use. In this study, we examine the relationship among three types of risk factors, including parent expectations and criticism, self-reported perfectionism, and daily stressors, and internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and substance use.

Perfectionism and daily stressors (e.g., relationship stress and hours of sleep) were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms and rule-breaking behaviors for both males and females across schools. Our findings suggest that there may be a unique interplay among perfectionism, relationship stress, and hours of sleep for students attending high achieving schools. Future research should attempt to tease apart the interactions among these risk factors and determine whether interventions should address them as separate, modifiable dimensions or treat them in a holistic manner.

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2018-12

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The Rhythm of Running: An Analysis of Preferred Running Tempo

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The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day, recreational runners typically listen to music while running, and so

The action of running is difficult to measure, but well worth it to receive valuable information about one of our most basic evolutionary functions. In the context of modern day, recreational runners typically listen to music while running, and so the purpose of this experiment is to analyze the influence of music on running from a more dynamical approach. The first experiment was a running task involving running without a metronome and running with one while setting one's own preferred running tempo. The second experiment sought to manipulate the participant's preferred running tempo by having them listen to the metronome set at their preferred tempo, 20% above their preferred tempo, or 20% below. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether or not rhythmic perturbations different to one's preferred running tempo would interfere with one's preferred running tempo and cause a change in the variability of one's running patterns as well as a change in one's running performance along the measures of step rate, stride length, and stride pace. The evidence suggests that participants naturally entrained to the metronome tempo which influenced them to run faster or slower as a function of metronome tempo. However, this change was also accompanied by a shift in the variability of one's step rate and stride length.

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2017-05

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Early Adolescent Socialization: The Effects of Internet and Technology Use in Grades 7-8

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Early adolescence is a pivotal stage of social and emotional development. Socialization traditionally occurs in person, but social interactions via technology (e.g., social media, video games) have grown in popularity. However, little research has been conducted on how early adolescents

Early adolescence is a pivotal stage of social and emotional development. Socialization traditionally occurs in person, but social interactions via technology (e.g., social media, video games) have grown in popularity. However, little research has been conducted on how early adolescents interact with technology and how these interactions relate to their socialization as well as other factors such as reading habits or academic achievement. Seventh and eighth grade students (n = 719) completed a survey that captured information about their technology use, their academic habits and performance, and extracurricular involvement. It was hypothesized that those involved in more extracurricular activities would use the internet more socially and that internet use would be negatively correlated to both academic performance and recreational reading. Responses indicated that a majority of students have access to technology (e.g. internet, computers, television, gaming consoles, and tablets) in their homes. Social media use differed drastically between platforms. Analyses indicated a relation between amount of extracurricular activities on social television watching and social internet use, but not on social gaming. A significant negative correlation was found between recreational reading and time spent socializing online, but there was no significant effect of these factors on academic performance. Thus, hypotheses were partially supported by the relation between amount of extracurriculars and social internet use and the negative correlation between time spent socializing online and recreational reading.

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2017-12

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Differences among High-Achieving Adolescents in Day Schools and Boarding Schools

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In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, past research has also indicated

In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, past research has also indicated that these maladjustment behaviors are related to parent relationships. A group of high-achieving adolescents that research has not yet focused on are those attending boarding schools, who may have higher-quality relationships with parents due to less daily strife. This study aimed to examine high-achieving adolescents across five samples from five high schools, two of which were boarding schools. This study hypothesized that the high-achieving adolescents attending both boarding schools would report lower rates of substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and lower rates of perceived parent criticism and expectations in comparison to those attending the day schools. Substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and parent relationships were measured using self-report measures that were completed by students attending these schools. Results showed that both boarding schools reported elevated rates of substance use in comparison to the three day schools and these rates measured above national norms. At the same time, both boarding schools reported lower rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms when compared to rates reported by the day school students. This study also found that there were differences among parent relationship measures, such as criticism and expectations, among all school samples. Results of this study also showed that aspects of parent relationship, such as parent knowledge, were associated with rates of substance use among all school samples. In summary, boarding school students showed elevated substance use, similar parental relationship quality, and lower mental health symptoms compared to day school students. For all students, some aspects of the parental relationship were related to levels of substance use.

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2017-12

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Media's Impact on Adolescent Sexual Activity and Body Image

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The purpose of this study is to explore the impact that media messages has on adolescents and the development of their sexual activity and body image. Specifically the question of how the hypersexualized and stereotypical portrayals of men and women

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact that media messages has on adolescents and the development of their sexual activity and body image. Specifically the question of how the hypersexualized and stereotypical portrayals of men and women in the media impact the adolescents that consume them. The proposed study will analyze how media consumption impacts male adolescents growing up in a single mother household. The methods used in this study are ethnographic research, interviews, and self-report surveys.

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2015-12

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Impact of Divorce on a Child's Perception of Parental Attachment

Description

With divorce rates rising (Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014), it is important to consider the impact of parental marital status on children and adolescents. In this study, we looked at whether children's relationships with their parents differ based on their parents

With divorce rates rising (Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014), it is important to consider the impact of parental marital status on children and adolescents. In this study, we looked at whether children's relationships with their parents differ based on their parents being married or divorced/separated. We hypothesized that a child's perceived relationship with their parents would be significantly influenced by parental marital status, such that those whose parents are divorced will demonstrate a negative relationship with the perception of their parents. Using data collected from the longitudinal New England Study of Suburban Youth (NESSY), we ran correlational analyses as well as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether different aspects of attachment (Alienation, Communication, and Trust), measured with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment \u2014 Revised for Children (IPPA-R) were significantly linked to parental marital status (Luthar & Barkin, 2012). Using our sample size of 489 students in the twelfth grade, we divided the groups into children with married parents (414) and children with divorced or separated parents (75). An ANOVA produced a significant difference between children's perceived relationship with their father and parental marital status; the adolescents' perception of the father's Alienation, Communication, and Trust were negatively associated with divorce. However, the child's perceived relationship with their mother was similar across both groups. These results suggest further research is needed to determine the effects of a child's perception of their relationship with their father during development, in particular in situations when parents have divorced before high school graduation.

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Date Created
2016-05

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How Social Intelligence Correlates with and Affects Securely and Insecurely Attached Individuals

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The author examined the relationship between social intelligence and attachment style, specifically how attachment style affects how individuals respond to social intelligence training. Students at the Herberger Young Scholars Academy, a school for the highly gifted, completed an online social

The author examined the relationship between social intelligence and attachment style, specifically how attachment style affects how individuals respond to social intelligence training. Students at the Herberger Young Scholars Academy, a school for the highly gifted, completed an online social intelligence training program through the Social Intelligence Institute and were assessed on a number of items. These items include the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS), the Attachment Questionnaire for Children (AQ-C), and a daily diary measure in which they recorded and rated their social interactions day to day. All participants were found to be either securely or insecurely attached, and those that were insecurely attached were further divided into insecure anxious attachment style and insecure avoidant attachment style. It was hypothesized that those with a secure attachment style would have higher initial TSIS scores than those with an insecure attachment style. It was also hypothesized that insecurely attached individuals would benefit more from the social intelligence training program than securely attached individuals indicated by "In tune" scores from the daily diaries, and insecure avoidant individuals would benefit more from the program than insecure anxious individuals indicated by "In tune" scores from the daily diaries. None of these hypotheses were supported by the data, as there was no significant difference between the initial social intelligence scores of the three attachment styles, and none of the variables measured were found to be significant predictors of "In tune" scores. Key Words: social intelligence, social intelligence training, attachment, attachment style, children, adolescents, gifted, IQ, high IQ

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Date Created
2014-12

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Adolescent Relationship with Parents, Romantic Partners, & Close Friends as a Predictor to Depressive Symptoms

Description

Research indicates that adolescents with low quality relationships with parents are susceptible to risk of depression. There is little known about how other relationships relate to depression. This study examined adolescent's relationship with parents, romantic partners, and best friends as

Research indicates that adolescents with low quality relationships with parents are susceptible to risk of depression. There is little known about how other relationships relate to depression. This study examined adolescent's relationship with parents, romantic partners, and best friends as a predictor of depressive symptoms. A primarily Dutch population of 80 adolescent couples in the age group of 13 to 18 years old (M = 15.48 SD: 1.16) completed the Epidemiological Depression Scale, Investment Scale of Rusbult, along with an Emotional Warmth scale at Time one and then a year later (Time two). Depressive symptoms at Time two was negatively related with adolescent's emotional warmth with parents. There is also a positive correlation between depressive symptoms at Time one and Time two. However, no significant data was found for an association between satisfaction with romantic partner or best friend and depressive symptoms at Time two. These findings indicate that the type of relationship formed with parents might contribute to the depression adolescent's face.

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2014-05

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Links Between Adolescents’ and Parents’ Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-origin Families

Description

The present study examined associations between depressive symptoms among mothers, fathers,<br/>and adolescents and considered whether different associations emerged by parent and adolescent<br/>gender. In addition, the combination of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms was<br/>examined in relation to adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Participants

The present study examined associations between depressive symptoms among mothers, fathers,<br/>and adolescents and considered whether different associations emerged by parent and adolescent<br/>gender. In addition, the combination of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms was<br/>examined in relation to adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Participants were 246 families of<br/>Mexican-origin in two-parent households who resided in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Data<br/>were collected during home interviews at Time 1 and phone calls with adolescents at Time 2.<br/>Findings revealed concurrent bivariate associations between adolescents’ and mothers’ and<br/>fathers’ depressive symptoms. Further, mothers’ depressive symptoms predicted increases in<br/>adolescents’ symptoms two years later. However, there were no significant gender differences,<br/>and the combination of mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms did not predict adolescents’<br/>depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to understanding the interrelations between<br/>Mexican-origin mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ depressive symptoms.

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2021-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Depression in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate 2) Assisted Cycling (AC), in which the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented with a motor to ensure the maintenance of 80 rpms. In each intervention, the participant completed three cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. Depression scores did decrease or improved after both AC and VC, but not significantly. There was a greater mean improvement for participants in the AC group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these mental health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adolescents with DS.

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2013-12