Matching Items (55)

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Differences among High-Achieving Adolescents in Day Schools and Boarding Schools

Description

In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and

In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, past research has also indicated that these maladjustment behaviors are related to parent relationships. A group of high-achieving adolescents that research has not yet focused on are those attending boarding schools, who may have higher-quality relationships with parents due to less daily strife. This study aimed to examine high-achieving adolescents across five samples from five high schools, two of which were boarding schools. This study hypothesized that the high-achieving adolescents attending both boarding schools would report lower rates of substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and lower rates of perceived parent criticism and expectations in comparison to those attending the day schools. Substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and parent relationships were measured using self-report measures that were completed by students attending these schools. Results showed that both boarding schools reported elevated rates of substance use in comparison to the three day schools and these rates measured above national norms. At the same time, both boarding schools reported lower rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms when compared to rates reported by the day school students. This study also found that there were differences among parent relationship measures, such as criticism and expectations, among all school samples. Results of this study also showed that aspects of parent relationship, such as parent knowledge, were associated with rates of substance use among all school samples. In summary, boarding school students showed elevated substance use, similar parental relationship quality, and lower mental health symptoms compared to day school students. For all students, some aspects of the parental relationship were related to levels of substance use.

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  • 2017-12

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Effects of a Lifestyle Intervention on Diabetes Risk in Latino Youth

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Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a community based lifestyle intervention, which encompassed nutrition education and physical activity, on diabetes risk in pre-diabetic Latino adolescents. Diabetes risk was assessed using pancreatic beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. It was hypothesized that reductions in added sugar intake and reductions in saturated fat intake will be associated with improved beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. Study Design/Participants: In this quasi-experimental study design, n=17 pre-diabetic Latino adolescents between the ages of 14-16 participated in a lifestyle intervention. Methods: Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference, BMI) and body composition (body %) were determined for all participants at baseline and post intervention. Fasting proinsulin (PI), fasting insulin (I) and 2hr-OGTT were also determined. Dietary intake was measured using the Block Kids Food Screener for kids ages 2-17y (2007). The intervention consisted of nutrition education classes and physical activity sessions for 12 weeks. Results: We found significant decreases in body fat % following the intervention. There were no significant decreases in fasting insulin. Proinsulin significantly decreased. However we did no see a significant change in PI/I (p= 0.003). Dietary behaviors of added sugar (p=0.03) and saturated fat (p=0.04) showed significant decreases. No significant associations were found between changes in added sugar to improvements in beta cell function, r=0.072, p-value= 0.7. We also did not observe significant associations between reductions in saturated fat intake and improvements in beta cell function, r=0.152, p-value =0.6. Conclusions: We concluded that a 12-week lifestyle intervention resulted in significant changes in dietary behaviors. These changes were not however associated with improvements in beta cell function.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Cycle Therapy improves body fat in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

The purpose of our study was to examine the effectiveness of a cycling intervention on body composition in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Participants completed one of three interventions over

The purpose of our study was to examine the effectiveness of a cycling intervention on body composition in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Participants completed one of three interventions over eight consecutive weeks. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate 2) Assisted Cycling (AC), in which the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were assisted with a motor to ensure the maintenance of 80 rpms. 3) No cycling (NC), in which the participants acted as controls. Participants in the AC intervention did not decrease body fat or increase lean body mass however they did maintain these measures during the intervention as compared to the VC and NO participants who increased body fat and decreased lean body mass. These statistics were not exactly as expected nor were they statistically significant. Future research will try to replicate this data with statistically significant values for more cycling adolescents with DS using more randomized intervention groups.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Role of Sex Education Curricula in Informing Personal Definitions of Virginity

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This study examined differences in personal definitions of virginity among college students who had received either abstinence-stressing sex education or comprehensive sex education. It was hypothesized that participants who received

This study examined differences in personal definitions of virginity among college students who had received either abstinence-stressing sex education or comprehensive sex education. It was hypothesized that participants who received abstinence-education would be more likely to perceive virginity as a gift, to be unsure about what specific sexual activities result in virginity loss, to have taken formal or personal virginity promises, to define their own non-vaginal sexual activity as abstinent, and to have pretended to be a virgin when they were not. Two surveys were distributed online to students at a large Southwestern university, and responses from 352 quantitative surveys and 75 qualitative surveys were analyzed. Participants in the abstinence group were more likely to be unsure about what sexual activities count as virginity loss and were more likely to have pretended they were a virgin when they were not. Women in the abstinence group were more likely to perceive virginity as a gift than those in the comprehensive group, though men were not. No differences were discerned between the abstinence group and the comprehensive group in rates of formal virginity promises or in tendency to define their own sexual activity as abstinent.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Delivering Safe Infant Sleep Practices to the Valley's Pregnant Youth

Description

Following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics' Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) prevention guidelines in 1992, and the subsequent Back to Sleep campaign in 1994, SIDS-related deaths in

Following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics' Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) prevention guidelines in 1992, and the subsequent Back to Sleep campaign in 1994, SIDS-related deaths in the U.S. have decreased by more than half. However, since 2001, this trend has plateaued, and today, thousands of families suffer the unexpected death of their infant. This creative project aims to explore the risks that infants of adolescent mothers face in regard to SIDS-related deaths, and to deliver safe infant sleep guidelines to a group of pregnant teenagers in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Incorporated into the teen childbirth education courses at Chandler Regional Medical Center, this project delivered evidence-based guidance in hopes of providing the prospective mothers the knowledge and confidence to adopt safe infant sleep practices into their lives.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and its Application on Behavior Modification in Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

Description

Asperger's syndrome is a high-functioning subset of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Diagnosed patients often lack refined social skills but possess a normal level of cognitive skills without delay in language

Asperger's syndrome is a high-functioning subset of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Diagnosed patients often lack refined social skills but possess a normal level of cognitive skills without delay in language development. These deficient social skills can impact the ability to find and maintain a job, which can be burdensome for all individuals involved in the patient's life. Although the causes of this condition are largely unknown, a wide variety of social and cognitive therapies have been used to reduce symptom severity, one of which is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Mindfulness is the act of being aware on purpose to whatever is being experienced in the present moment with non-judgment and receptivity. MBSR has been used to bring greater awareness to sensations, thoughts and emotions with the result being reduced reactivity and increased purposeful responsiveness. It is therefore the aim of this study to address the use of an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in adolescents with clinical Asperger's Syndrome to reduce reactive tendencies. This study will utilize a randomized control group of waitlisted participants given MBSR informational material and a practicing MBSR group. Post-MBSR Parent Global Impressions-III (PGI-III) and Social Responsiveness Scale scores are hypothesized to be improved in MBSR group and unaffected in the control for behavioral markers with no change in core autistic symptoms. Daily average cortisol response is also expected to decrease in the experimental group with unaffected levels in the control.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

Attention and Memory Problems in Everyday Life Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

Description

The need to fully understand the possible consequences of young-adult cannabis use has become increasingly critical as a result of major cannabis policy changes. The purpose of this study was

The need to fully understand the possible consequences of young-adult cannabis use has become increasingly critical as a result of major cannabis policy changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if young-adult users exhibit cognitive deficits on laboratory-based tests and memory and attention deficits in everyday life. Participants were 152 students from a large U.S. university enrolled in introductory psychology courses and the top and bottom 10% of the 12-item Yale University PRIME Screening Test for psychotic-like experiences. Participants were asked about their cannabis use and were given six cognitive tests spanning executive function and memory. To test functional impairment in memory and attention, participants were asked to nominate informants (people who knew them well) and these rated the participants on an attention problems scale of four items and a memory problems scale of three items. Results showed that individuals who used cannabis more frequently were rated as having more attention and memory problems and that, consistent with prior research, more frequent cannabis use was associated with worse memory test performance, though the association was not present between frequency of use and executive function test performance. Additionally, it was found that informant-reported attention problems were associated with poorer performance on two of the executive function cognitive tests. The present findings suggest that individuals who use cannabis more frequently experience noticeable memory and attention problems in everyday life, despite the lack of significant correlation between this functional impairment and cognitive test performance. Informant reports, therefore, may be useful in future research for understanding or predicting cognitive impairment in young adults.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Elusive Social Media Generation and Their Opinions on Organ Donation

Description

Organ, cornea and tissue donation is a widespread public health need that has high rates of public approval, but lower rates of action. In Arizona, an individual can register as

Organ, cornea and tissue donation is a widespread public health need that has high rates of public approval, but lower rates of action. In Arizona, an individual can register as an organ donor at 15 years and six months old, and this ever-growing demographic is a hard-to-influence, yet important part of the pool of registered donors. There are many factors that serve to influence or dissuade adolescents from registering, and it is the duty of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) and others involved in the donation process to appeal to this audience. This undergraduate research project explores the overall idea of what makes someone register as an organ, cornea and tissue donor by looking into several factors of the decision-making process, such as social media usage and engagement, hesitation or support surrounding spiritual beliefs, and how personal opinions and beliefs shape views and action toward organ donation. Based on the data collected, the researcher found relationships between the registration status of adolescents and their social media use, spiritual beliefs and personal relationships and opinions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Early Adolescent Socialization: The Effects of Internet and Technology Use in Grades 7-8

Description

Early adolescence is a pivotal stage of social and emotional development. Socialization traditionally occurs in person, but social interactions via technology (e.g., social media, video games) have grown in popularity.

Early adolescence is a pivotal stage of social and emotional development. Socialization traditionally occurs in person, but social interactions via technology (e.g., social media, video games) have grown in popularity. However, little research has been conducted on how early adolescents interact with technology and how these interactions relate to their socialization as well as other factors such as reading habits or academic achievement. Seventh and eighth grade students (n = 719) completed a survey that captured information about their technology use, their academic habits and performance, and extracurricular involvement. It was hypothesized that those involved in more extracurricular activities would use the internet more socially and that internet use would be negatively correlated to both academic performance and recreational reading. Responses indicated that a majority of students have access to technology (e.g. internet, computers, television, gaming consoles, and tablets) in their homes. Social media use differed drastically between platforms. Analyses indicated a relation between amount of extracurricular activities on social television watching and social internet use, but not on social gaming. A significant negative correlation was found between recreational reading and time spent socializing online, but there was no significant effect of these factors on academic performance. Thus, hypotheses were partially supported by the relation between amount of extracurriculars and social internet use and the negative correlation between time spent socializing online and recreational reading.

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  • 2017-12

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HPV and Vaccination: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intention in Adolescent Boys and Girls

Description

This study aimed to: (a) examine adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intention about HPV and vaccination in adolescent boys and girls aged 11-17; and (b) examine gender differences in responses given by adolescent boys and girls aged 11-17.

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  • 2017-12