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The Impact of Social Media: Revolutionary Changes in Sports Marketing

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The sports industry is unlike any other in that it connects individuals and consumers from destinations around the world with one common interest. That commonality can be as specific as a favorite player, team, league, or sport. All in all,

The sports industry is unlike any other in that it connects individuals and consumers from destinations around the world with one common interest. That commonality can be as specific as a favorite player, team, league, or sport. All in all, it bands together entire communities with their passion for the game. American sports leagues such as the National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, and many more, have all revolutionized the way that businesses view marketing though a user friendly, interactive, marketing tool with a universal reach.

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2020-05

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Attendance Elasticity of Win Percentage in the NBA: An Exploration of the Effects of Team Performance on Home Game Attendance

Description

In the wide world of sports, not all fan bases are created equally—especially in the NBA. Differences in factors like tradition, history, team performance amongst teams make each fan base distinctly unique. This paper will analyze how team performance effects

In the wide world of sports, not all fan bases are created equally—especially in the NBA. Differences in factors like tradition, history, team performance amongst teams make each fan base distinctly unique. This paper will analyze how team performance effects one component of fan behavior: home game attendance. Using win-loss data and home game attendance data for each NBA team from 2001 to 2017, I will construct statistical models to estimate how great of an impact team performance has on each team’s home game attendance. I expect each team’s fan base to respond differently to changes in their team’s win-loss record. This paper will also attempt to quantify other facts that impact attendance at NBA games, including year-to-year changes in team salary expenditures, regional income, and the number of star players playing for the team. Finally, this paper will explore the factors that affect home game attendance for specific games within a given season—things like weather, strength of opponent, and win streaks. Ultimately, the goal of this paper will be to provide NBA business analysts with resources to more precisely anticipate their team’s home game attendance. The ability to understand what motivates the behavior of a fan base is invaluable in creating a marketing strategy that drives fans to the arena. This paper will help to identify teams that are most susceptible to significant fluctuations in attendance and outline alternative strategies to positioning their product offering effectively to fans.

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2018-05

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Impact of Political Activism on the Personal Brand of Professional Athletes

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The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was a brand impact on athletes that chose to engage in political activism. This was investigated through research into examples of athlete activism in history and in the modern era

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was a brand impact on athletes that chose to engage in political activism. This was investigated through research into examples of athlete activism in history and in the modern era as well as with a questionnaire distributed to marketing students at Arizona State University. The research suggests that there is no predictable impact to athlete brand from engaging in politics. Throughout history and in modern times there are examples of athlete's careers getting damaged because of their political involvement as well a instances where the athlete's brand is undamaged by their actions. The primary research results suggest that while the population preferred that sports and politics remain separate, they also believe that athletes have the right to speak out on political issues and engage in protest, and that doing so does not weaken the brand image of the athletes. The information in this research can be used by athletes to determine how their political actions may be received and by companies deciding how sponsoring a politically active athlete may affect their own brand.

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2018-05

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Futbol Club Barcelona: 
A case study of their crisis communication plan in the wake of the Catalan Independence Movement

Description

This case study is an analysis about the crisis communication tactics that were taken by Futbol Club Barcelona on September 20th and October 1st in regards to the events related to the Catalan Independence Referendum. This paper will analyze the

This case study is an analysis about the crisis communication tactics that were taken by Futbol Club Barcelona on September 20th and October 1st in regards to the events related to the Catalan Independence Referendum. This paper will analyze the Attribution Theory and what factors to consider when choosing a crisis response strategy. The case study will also analyze the events that took place leading up to and the day the vote took place in Barcelona. It is important to note that this analysis will be done from a general soccer fan’s point of view.
I will begin with a literature review that covers the different crisis communication theories and approaches that fall under the Attribution Theory. I will then discuss the background behind the crisis I am analyzing. This section will include history about the Catalan Independence Movement, the relationship between Futbol Club Barcelona and Catalan Nationalism, and FC Barcelona relationship and involvement with the Independence Referendum. Lastly, I will analyze FC Barcelona’s crisis communication methods and how it was received by the public surrounding the events that took place on and before October 1st 2017.

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Date Created
2019-05

Auspicious Arenas: The Value of Sporting Venues for Fans and Communities

Description

The landscape of professional sporting venues within the United States is changing. From 1990-2018, within the four main American professional sports leagues, 20 new NHL arenas, 24 new NBA arenas, 22 new NFL stadiums, and 26 new MLB stadiums were

The landscape of professional sporting venues within the United States is changing. From 1990-2018, within the four main American professional sports leagues, 20 new NHL arenas, 24 new NBA arenas, 22 new NFL stadiums, and 26 new MLB stadiums were built. As the industry morphs, a handful of new initiatives are being worked into the construct of these venues including increased commercial areas for shopping and restaurants and sharing of the venues between two organizations in an attempt to increase the overall utilization of the spaces. Additionally, in Detroit, San Francisco and Atlanta, where new stadiums and arenas were just recently introduced, the municipalities are using the venues to catalyze further growth and development within the city. However, these trends, while innovative, are tethered to high prices.
This thesis seeks to analyze the changes in how current stadiums are being funded, the public’s reaction to and perception of those financing plans and what the future might hold. Research showed that tax dollars are increasingly unpopular and that teams are moving away from using public money to fund sports venues. Gathered for this report, survey data of 815 Arizona State University students supported anecdotal evidence that people within a community are relatively unhappy with the idea of their money being used to partially subsidize wealthy sports organizations’ infrastructure. Altogether, recent evidence suggests that multi-use facilities funded in majority by private wealth are more popular and generate greater economic impact for the municipality than earlier in history, when heavily subsidized venues allowed teams to take advantage of local government and created fan mistrust. Additionally, sporting organizations can increase value to their consumer by incorporating additional commercial properties into the venue and by collaborating with the public regarding the financing structure of the venue.

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2019-05

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The Winning Losers: Combatting the Economic and Competitive Balance Effects of Tanking in the National Basketball Association

Description

In order to establish sustainable parity in competition year over year, all four major professional sports organizations in the United States have established a first-year draft with an order decided or influenced by their Win-Loss record the previous year. The

In order to establish sustainable parity in competition year over year, all four major professional sports organizations in the United States have established a first-year draft with an order decided or influenced by their Win-Loss record the previous year. The assumption is that this draft structure should keep all teams competitive. Rather, there is an overwhelming shift to analytical problem-solving that suggests building a winning team requires a period of losing and collecting young talent. The separation has become so apparent that it has been referred to as, “Twelve teams a-tanking.” (Boras, 2018) The trend was so pronounced this last season that the seven worst teams that held their own pick all lost by more than 15 points in the span of two days.(Sheinin, 2018) This leaves the ratio of games with a 15 point or more point differential to that of less than 15 points was 8:9 on the date described by Sheinin, as opposed to the usual ratio of 2:5 for the rest of the season. This stretch of games occurred during a pivotal time in the season and should have garnered high interest for entertainment as teams grapple for playoff position heading into the post season. Instead, viewers were treated to seven blow-out games. In this thesis, the effects of tanking will be studied as it pertains to the NBA, as a whole, losing attendance in multiple aspects. This applies directly to the value of sponsorships in the NBA. In short, this thesis will answer three of questions; (1) How does expected point spread, which is highly affected by tanking, affect NBA attendance, of all teams, down the stretch of games? (2) How can the NBA protect its sponsors from the effects of tanking? (3) How can NBA sponsors protect themselves from the effects of tanking?

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2020-05

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Monetizing Fandom: A Look into the Future of Sports and Sponsorship

Description

Starting in the 2017-2018 season, the National Basketball Association (NBA) will become the first major U.S. sports league to put corporate sponsors on their jerseys. This is a monumental move in the course of sports history, as it will have

Starting in the 2017-2018 season, the National Basketball Association (NBA) will become the first major U.S. sports league to put corporate sponsors on their jerseys. This is a monumental move in the course of sports history, as it will have a major impact on the fans. Teams, as well as the league, must walk a line and make sure they are not seen as selling out for more revenue. Even though one of the reasons for allowing teams to sell space on jerseys is for revenue generation, it is also meant to help the NBA increase its exposure and become a global brand that is accepting to corporate investment. To understand how this will play out in the NBA, this report will look at the history of jersey sponsorship in Europe and the United States. Studying how jersey sponsorships have affected fans, teams, and leagues in the past will allow for a better understanding of the new jersey sponsorship market that the NBA is creating. Having a complete grasp on how jersey sponsorship markets in Europe and the U.S. will allow for better predictions on how the market for a major U.S. league will be. As of April 21, 2017, six teams have agreed to deals that involve a corporate sponsor patch on the team jerseys. These teams are from a variety of different markets and have varying level of recent and historical success. This small sample of teams with current deals can be compared to the early deals in other leagues. Some trends can be identified within the current deals based on the monetary investment certain teams are receiving from brands. The partnerships also all have other components to them as well as good brand alignment between the team and the sponsor. To value the remaining 24 teams, a formula was produced that would consider the team's current exposure in the marketplace. Through studying the history of other jersey sponsorship markets, a team's exposure is very important to brands and can allow a team to command a larger dollar amount. A formula was derived to relatively determine the value each team from the point of view of a brand mulling the decision to purchase an NBA jersey patch. Understanding the value of exposure to brands, the formula consisted of five variables that fully encompass how a team gains and maintains its exposure. A survey was also conducted in order to understand the fan in the local area. Our survey sample consisted of students of the W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University. In this survey, we could understand how students felt about certain brands and whether a partnership involving their favorite team could sway their purchase intentions. The survey gave an inside look on some NBA fans and how they feel towards corporate partnerships with teams.

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Date Created
2017-05

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The Evolution of Social Media: Its Effect on Various Facets of Society

Description

Social media has evolved so quickly in the past two decades and continues to grow and change at a rapid pace. This way of connecting and communicating with others has become so ingrained in daily life and can have a

Social media has evolved so quickly in the past two decades and continues to grow and change at a rapid pace. This way of connecting and communicating with others has become so ingrained in daily life and can have a major influence on people's actions. Social media and social networking look vastly different today than it did in the past, and will continue to change for the future. The sports and travel industries are no exception to the integration of social media. Both entities understand the importance of being prominent in the online domain and connecting to the Millennial generation. It is crucial for young people to learn how to positively use social media in the classroom and in the workplace as their lives become consumed by this digital world. The emphasis on social media in different facets of society can bring both positive and negative connotations along with it, depending on how, when, and why people decide to use it. Social media is not meant to replace all interactions and forms of contact, but rather enhance these relationships. By analyzing the history of social media, current trends and effects, this project seeks to forecast the impact that social media will continue to have in the future. In the fast paced world today, social media and other forms of electronic communication will only continue to increase and be intensified. This project explores how social media has impacted society, most importantly, the travel industry and the sports industry. Social media will continue to expand knowledge, connect people all over the world, and enhance experiences as it inevitably becomes even more integrated into everyday life.

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2017-05

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Psychographics and Why They Matter: Applying Psychographic Data to Maximize Value in Sport Sponsorship

Description

This paper explores psychographics and how they can be used to increase value in sport sponsorships. Funk (2016) indicates that psychographics are the attitudes, interests, and opinions of consumers. This defines psychographics, which is crucial for the continuation of the

This paper explores psychographics and how they can be used to increase value in sport sponsorships. Funk (2016) indicates that psychographics are the attitudes, interests, and opinions of consumers. This defines psychographics, which is crucial for the continuation of the research. In a study conducted with the W. P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University, psychographics are explored further from the sponsor's perspective. Questions in the survey examine how recognizable different forms of sponsorship are, as well as the consumers' perception of sponsors and other consumer attitudes. Insights regarding general sponsorships within sport are provided from the analysis of this data. Overall, it is seen that the forms of sponsorship with the greatest visibility, especially those with media visibility via television broadcasts, are the easiest to recognize. Additionally, it is seen that consumers purchase based on an emotional connection to a brand, and they perceive the goal of sponsorship as a chance for sponsors to sell their brand, not their products. Knowing this information is useful, because applying it allows sponsors to maximize their sponsorship value by connecting with fans on a deeper level and targeting their promotional efforts accordingly. This piece includes the full list of survey questions and explanations, as well as an in-depth analysis of the setbacks faced in this project, and the potential downfalls of the survey sample. Regardless of that, this is still valuable information that provides an informal example of the power of psychographics as they relate to growing the value of sport sponsorship.

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2017-05

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Market Analysis of Major League Soccer in Arizona

Description

Phoenix, Arizona is the sixth largest city in the United States. However, the city has never had a MLS team. In 1996, Major League Soccer was founded with ten clubs. Now the league plans to expand from twenty-four to twenty-eight.

Phoenix, Arizona is the sixth largest city in the United States. However, the city has never had a MLS team. In 1996, Major League Soccer was founded with ten clubs. Now the league plans to expand from twenty-four to twenty-eight. With multiple teams joining the league, why shouldn't Phoenix be the next market to expand the MLS? This project will analyze if the Phoenix market could host a profitable team. There have been a handful of lower division professional soccer teams in Arizona, but none of them have been sustainable, let alone make it to the MLS. Why is that? What are the steps to create an MLS Franchise? Through researching the factors behind soccer's increased popularity in United States and the history of professional soccer in Arizona perform a market analysis of Arizona's soccer fan base, ownership group, and MLS stadium potential.

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2017-05