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The gendered pay gap is a phenomenon experienced by many within the workplace. Title IX is presented because of its significance in aiding women to get fair and equal treatment, particularly in sports. Intersectionality is a research lens used to

The gendered pay gap is a phenomenon experienced by many within the workplace. Title IX is presented because of its significance in aiding women to get fair and equal treatment, particularly in sports. Intersectionality is a research lens used to examine how the various aspects that make up an individual (e.g. race, class, sexuality, or gender) impact their life experiences, and is utilized to examine the experiences of athletes in the United States and overseas. The field of professional sports possess salary disparities and in order to analyze them between men and women in professional sports, case studies are presented. Case studies of basketball and soccer, along with interviews and secondary research, are utilized and analyzed to understand how the gendered pay gap continues to persist. In comparison to the United States, women are being paid significantly more in other nations. Women continue to go overseas because of money and the treatment athletes get from local fans. Fans in other nations love their athletes and view them as an expression of pride in their nation. Women in sports currently experience salary disparities and will continue to do so because of various factors.

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2015-05

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Marketing to Millennials Within the Airline and Finance Industries Across Cultures

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Millennials are the group of people that make up the newer generation of the world's population and they are constantly surrounded by technology, as well as known for having different values than the previous generations. Marketers have to adapt to

Millennials are the group of people that make up the newer generation of the world's population and they are constantly surrounded by technology, as well as known for having different values than the previous generations. Marketers have to adapt to newer ways to appeal to millennials and secure their loyalty since millennials are always on the lookout for the next best thing and will "trade up for brands that matter, but trade down when brand value is weak", it poses a challenge for the marketing departments of companies (Fromm, J. & Parks, J.). The airline industry is one of the fastest growing sectors as "the total number of people flying on U.S. airlines will increase from 745.5 million in 2014 and grow to 1.15 billion in 2034," which shows that airlines have a wider population to market to, and will need to improve their marketing strategies to differentiate from competitors (Power). The financial sector also has a difficult time reaching out to millennials because "millennials are hesitant to take financial risks," as well as downing in college debt, while not making as much money as previous generations (Fromm, J. & Parks, J.). By looking into the marketing strategies, specifically using social media platforms, of the two industries, an understanding can be gathered of what millennials are attracted to. Along with looking at the marketing strategies of financial and airline industries, I looked at the perspectives of these industries in different countries, which is important to look at because then we can see if the values of millennials vary across different cultures. Countries chosen for research to further examine their cultural differences in terms of marketing practices are the United States and England. The main form of marketing that was used for this research were social media accounts of the companies, and seeing how they used the social networking platforms to reach and engage with their consumers, especially with those of the millennial generation. The companies chosen for further research for the airline industry from England were British Airways, EasyJet, and Virgin Atlantic, while for the U.S. Delta Airlines, Inc., Southwest Airlines, and United were chosen. The companies chosen to further examine within the finance industry from England include Barclay's, HSBC, and Lloyd's Bank, while for the U.S. the banks selected were Bank of America, JPMorgan Chase, and Wells Fargo. The companies for this study were chosen because they are among the top five in their industry, as well as all companies that I have had previous interactions with. It was meant to see what the companies at the top of the industry were doing that set them apart from their competitors in terms of social media marketing content and see if there were features they lacked that could be changed or improvements they could make. A survey was also conducted to get a better idea of the attitudes and behaviors of millennials when it comes to the airline and finance industries, as well as towards social media marketing practices.

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2016-05

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The Search for Semi-Professionalism

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The progression of men's basketball and football players' careers through the means of colleges and universities has become the beaten path as of late. The problem with this path is that it is full of corruption. Players on men's collegiate

The progression of men's basketball and football players' careers through the means of colleges and universities has become the beaten path as of late. The problem with this path is that it is full of corruption. Players on men's collegiate basketball and football teams suffer the consequences of the many issues surrounding the current collegiate systems including recruiting violations, financial injustices, disregard of proper educations, and much more. Rather than attempt to tackle the many problems within the NCAA and its schools head on, the solution may be to provide an alternative route for players coming out of high school, who wish to pursue a professional career in their respective sport. By analyzing the current structure of baseball's major league and minor league, some aspects may be taken and implemented into new leagues for basketball and football, or potentially the National Basketball Association's existing Developmental League. After analyzing the economical impacts these proposed leagues could have on communities throughout the United States, reasonable changes to the structures of basketball and football can be made. The results show that it would be most beneficial to pursue the implementation of certain aspects stemming from baseball's minor league into the NBA D-League, rather than attempt to formulate new leagues at this time. The results of these changes to the NBA D-League would then be further analyzed to determine the steps worth pursuing further in the sport of football.

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2014-05

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A comparative study of four factors of fan attendance for the three Arizona sports teams

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Sports teams are an integral part of a city. They attract revenue to the area around the stadium and they also give a city a sense of pride. The aim of this study was to determine what makes a team

Sports teams are an integral part of a city. They attract revenue to the area around the stadium and they also give a city a sense of pride. The aim of this study was to determine what makes a team successful in the area of attendance using four factors (Bernthal & Graham; Jensen; Kim, Trail & Magnusen; Edensor & Millington; Clowes & Tapp; Greenhalgh & Greenwell; Denaux & Yalcin; Paul & Weinbach & Robbins; Levin & McDonald; Lee & Kang; Drayer; L'Etang; McDonald & Rascher; Armstrong; Ross): the history of the team, the location and population of the city where the team plays, the social media following of the team and the promotional giveaways the team uses to attract fans. Using these four factors, a comparison was made among the Arizona teams and the top performing team in attendance in the respective leagues during the 2013 season. The Arizona Diamondbacks are compared with the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Diamondbacks were not as equipped as the Dodgers in any of the categories. There is a more storied history for the Dodgers, the Dodgers play in Los Angeles - a significantly larger city that Phoenix, where the Arizona Diamondbacks play, they use social media more frequently and more effectively, and they offer more promotional giveaways than the Diamondbacks. The Phoenix Suns are compared to the Chicago Bulls. The Suns history competes with the Bulls, but they lack in the other three categories. The Bulls have a better location in Chicago, their stadium is located in the downtown area; they have a massive social media following and their promotional giveaways are more substantial. The Phoenix Coyotes are compared to the Chicago Blackhawks. The Blackhawks exceeded in all of the categories, while the Coyotes were poor performers in each of the four factors. The Blackhawks have a storied history, they share a stadium with the Bulls, they have a great social media following and they give promotional items away 30 of the 41 home games. The overall recommendations for the teams are to win, in order to help build their locations and make it fun to be near the downtown area, to use social media effectively and engage with their audience, and finally to provide more promotional giveaways to attract people to the games.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Intersectionality in Sport: Exploring the Construction of a Black Female Athlete’s Identity

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Research has shown that being a female athlete in a male-dominated sports world is an oppressive burden, yet the experiences of being a black female athlete have been largely ignored. To combat this lack of attention, this paper invokes communication

Research has shown that being a female athlete in a male-dominated sports world is an oppressive burden, yet the experiences of being a black female athlete have been largely ignored. To combat this lack of attention, this paper invokes communication and feminist theorist Bell Hook's concept of moving black women from margin to center to reveal the intersectional oppression of gender and racial narratives that they face in sports. By outlining the difference between white and black femininity and studying media portrayals of popular black female athletes such as Venus and Serena Williams and others, it becomes obvious how black women are typecast into certain social and athletic roles. This research also includes an auto-ethnographic component of my own experience as a black female lacrosse player at the NCAA Division I level. This component functions as a point of comparison and contrast of the ideas and concepts I discuss. Lastly, I offer recommendations and suggestions as to how to empower young black female athletes and retain them in a variety of sports. The goal of my thesis is to place special attention onto black women in an area which there is an extreme lack of representation. My own empirical research has led me to the conclusion that not only is such a discussion important, but it is absolutely necessary. If we are to fight back against hegemonic social structures such as racism and gender roles in the sports world, we must first understand what we are up against. My thesis gives us a glimpse into our imposing opponents, and I hope that future research continues this trend so that black female athletes like myself may one day be considered an athlete in the same sense that our white peers are.

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2021-05