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The Impact of Social Media: Revolutionary Changes in Sports Marketing

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The sports industry is unlike any other in that it connects individuals and consumers from destinations around the world with one common interest. That commonality can be as specific as a favorite player, team, league, or sport. All in all,

The sports industry is unlike any other in that it connects individuals and consumers from destinations around the world with one common interest. That commonality can be as specific as a favorite player, team, league, or sport. All in all, it bands together entire communities with their passion for the game. American sports leagues such as the National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, and many more, have all revolutionized the way that businesses view marketing though a user friendly, interactive, marketing tool with a universal reach.

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2020-05

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Holy Teammates - How Sport and Religion Utilize Each Other

Description

In this thesis I will explore the connections that exist between sport and religion by considering how both involve pursuit of perfection, shared lexicon, significant events and rituals, and heroes and legends. Then I will devote time to exploring two

In this thesis I will explore the connections that exist between sport and religion by considering how both involve pursuit of perfection, shared lexicon, significant events and rituals, and heroes and legends. Then I will devote time to exploring two other major themes: (a) how religion utilizes sport and (b) how sport incorporates religion.

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2020-12

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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

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Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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2018-05

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Attendance Elasticity of Win Percentage in the NBA: An Exploration of the Effects of Team Performance on Home Game Attendance

Description

In the wide world of sports, not all fan bases are created equally—especially in the NBA. Differences in factors like tradition, history, team performance amongst teams make each fan base distinctly unique. This paper will analyze how team performance effects

In the wide world of sports, not all fan bases are created equally—especially in the NBA. Differences in factors like tradition, history, team performance amongst teams make each fan base distinctly unique. This paper will analyze how team performance effects one component of fan behavior: home game attendance. Using win-loss data and home game attendance data for each NBA team from 2001 to 2017, I will construct statistical models to estimate how great of an impact team performance has on each team’s home game attendance. I expect each team’s fan base to respond differently to changes in their team’s win-loss record. This paper will also attempt to quantify other facts that impact attendance at NBA games, including year-to-year changes in team salary expenditures, regional income, and the number of star players playing for the team. Finally, this paper will explore the factors that affect home game attendance for specific games within a given season—things like weather, strength of opponent, and win streaks. Ultimately, the goal of this paper will be to provide NBA business analysts with resources to more precisely anticipate their team’s home game attendance. The ability to understand what motivates the behavior of a fan base is invaluable in creating a marketing strategy that drives fans to the arena. This paper will help to identify teams that are most susceptible to significant fluctuations in attendance and outline alternative strategies to positioning their product offering effectively to fans.

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2018-05

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Impact of Political Activism on the Personal Brand of Professional Athletes

Description

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was a brand impact on athletes that chose to engage in political activism. This was investigated through research into examples of athlete activism in history and in the modern era

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was a brand impact on athletes that chose to engage in political activism. This was investigated through research into examples of athlete activism in history and in the modern era as well as with a questionnaire distributed to marketing students at Arizona State University. The research suggests that there is no predictable impact to athlete brand from engaging in politics. Throughout history and in modern times there are examples of athlete's careers getting damaged because of their political involvement as well a instances where the athlete's brand is undamaged by their actions. The primary research results suggest that while the population preferred that sports and politics remain separate, they also believe that athletes have the right to speak out on political issues and engage in protest, and that doing so does not weaken the brand image of the athletes. The information in this research can be used by athletes to determine how their political actions may be received and by companies deciding how sponsoring a politically active athlete may affect their own brand.

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2018-05

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The Thrill of Victory or the Agony of Defeat: Hosting a World Cup

Description

The FIFA World Cup is one of the most anticipated, inspiring, and intense sporting events in the world. Soccer has integrated itself not only in sports circles, but also in politics, commerce, and society as a whole. The sport

The FIFA World Cup is one of the most anticipated, inspiring, and intense sporting events in the world. Soccer has integrated itself not only in sports circles, but also in politics, commerce, and society as a whole. The sport has about two hundred million active players and is still growing, especially in areas such as North America and Asia. As of mid-2007, FIFA’s membership included 208-member associations, making it not only one of the largest and most powerful sports governing bodies, but also one of the most popular in the world.

Since 1930—with the exception of the break for World War II—every four years, the world’s best national teams face off in a soccer tournament. The last two tournaments hosted by South Africa in 2010 and Brazil in 2014 will be the emphasis of this paper. Each tournament featured the thirty-two countries and captured a television audience of over three billion people throughout the month-long tournament, one billion of which tuned in for the final. For comparison, the Super Bowl XLIX where the New England Patriots defeated the Seattle Seahawks 28 to 24 was the most watched event in United States’ history with a viewership of 114.4 million people.

Countries spend years planning and preparing to win a bid to host one of these mega events. Bids are often times awarded eight to twelve years in advance. There has been a recent trend of developing countries hosting the FIFA World Cups and the future bids already awarded follow that trend. Many people ask the question of whether all the money spent on infrastructure, construction, and tourism to host this tournament and gain international exposure are really worth it? Simply put, the 2010 FIFA World Cup was valuable to South Africa while the 2014 FIFA World Cup was not worth the costs to Brazil.

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2018-05

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Associations Between Sleep and Cognitive Function in Middle Childhood: The Moderating Role of Early Life Socioeconomic Status

Description

The objective of the current study was to examine sleep and academic functioning during middle childhood. More specifically, the twin design was used to determine the heritability of academic competence and sleep. Phenotypic analyses using multi-level mixed model regressions were

The objective of the current study was to examine sleep and academic functioning during middle childhood. More specifically, the twin design was used to determine the heritability of academic competence and sleep. Phenotypic analyses using multi-level mixed model regressions were performed to predict academic functioning from sleep. Lastly, socioeconomic status was tested as a moderator in the associations between sleep and academic functioning. Participants included twins (N = 191 families; Mage = 8.47 years) recruited from Arizona birth records at 12 months of age. Sleep duration, latency, onset, efficiency, variability, and sleep problems were assessed using actigraph watches and the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Academic functioning was assessed using subtests of the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Test of Achievement-IV (picture vocabulary, passage comprehension, and applied problems) and the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. As determined by twin intraclass correlations, the heritability of academic competence ranged from 51-76%. Sleep heritability ranged from 14-80%. In addition, phenotypic analyses only showed a significant association between sleep latency and WJ picture vocabulary scores. More specifically, sleep latency was negatively associated with the picture vocabulary subtest. Additional models were run to examine if any interactive effects were present between early SES and the various sleep parameters. Several significant associations were observed with applied problems scores and parent-reported academic competence. Specifically, for children of low SES, a significant positive association was observed for sleep duration and WJ applied problems scores, as well as for sleep efficiency and WJ applied problems scores. No significant associations were observed for sleep efficiency and HBQ scores with children of any SES. Also, no significant relationships were observed with children of high SES for any of the academic measures.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Challenging Valuations of Professional Sports Teams

Description

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the factors leading to the valuations of professional sports teams, with a focus on three of the largest professional sports by revenue: soccer, baseball, and basketball. The main goal of this report

The purpose of this thesis is to examine the factors leading to the valuations of professional sports teams, with a focus on three of the largest professional sports by revenue: soccer, baseball, and basketball. The main goal of this report is to analyze historical growth rates in the total price paid for professional sports teams and the value-added activities that lead to increased sales prices well above the Forbes yearly valuation. Additionally, we will incorporate statistical analysis and data sets highlighting different approaches and valuation tactics used when determining a proper sales price for a team that can be incorporated in future research and provide a basis for explaining the high price many are willing to pay to acquire a sports franchise.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Generating Division One Sports

Description

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to map the process by which Division I sports are added at universities and to create a blueprint for any passionate and driven individual who would like to see their sport of choice

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to map the process by which Division I sports are added at universities and to create a blueprint for any passionate and driven individual who would like to see their sport of choice added at any college.

Methods: Information for this study was gathered through qualitative interviews with sports administrators at eleven of the twelve universities in the PAC-12 conference. This primary research was supplemented with secondary research of media sources and
PAC-12 and NCAA documents.

Results: Four key factors are involved in adding a new Division I sports program at any university. These factors are: funding, Title IX status, conference and sport status, and administrative mindset.

Conclusion: The four factors stated above are critical in the addition of any new sports program, though there will be significant variations from sport to sport and from university to university. In the case of men’s wrestling at USC, the group of advocates needs to demonstrate the significant value adding wrestling will bring to the athletic department and school. They should also follow this up with a clear plan of how they will navigate the funding, Title IX requirements and conference status.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Futbol Club Barcelona: 
A case study of their crisis communication plan in the wake of the Catalan Independence Movement

Description

This case study is an analysis about the crisis communication tactics that were taken by Futbol Club Barcelona on September 20th and October 1st in regards to the events related to the Catalan Independence Referendum. This paper will analyze the

This case study is an analysis about the crisis communication tactics that were taken by Futbol Club Barcelona on September 20th and October 1st in regards to the events related to the Catalan Independence Referendum. This paper will analyze the Attribution Theory and what factors to consider when choosing a crisis response strategy. The case study will also analyze the events that took place leading up to and the day the vote took place in Barcelona. It is important to note that this analysis will be done from a general soccer fan’s point of view.
I will begin with a literature review that covers the different crisis communication theories and approaches that fall under the Attribution Theory. I will then discuss the background behind the crisis I am analyzing. This section will include history about the Catalan Independence Movement, the relationship between Futbol Club Barcelona and Catalan Nationalism, and FC Barcelona relationship and involvement with the Independence Referendum. Lastly, I will analyze FC Barcelona’s crisis communication methods and how it was received by the public surrounding the events that took place on and before October 1st 2017.

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Date Created
2019-05