Multiplexed, In-Solution Protein Array (MISPA) for Identification of Novel Protein Interactions and Early Detection of Pathogen Induced Cancers
Disturbances in the protein interactome often play a large role in cancer progression. Investigation of protein-protein interactions (PPI) can increase our understanding of cancer pathways and will disclose unknown targets involved in cancer disease biology. Although numerous methods are available to study protein interactions, most platforms suffer from drawbacks including high false positive rates, low throughput, and lack of quantification. Moreover, most methods are not compatible for use in a clinical setting. To address these limitations, we have developed a multiplexed, in-solution protein microarray (MISPA) platform with broad applications in proteomics. MISPA can be used to quantitatively profile PPIs and as a robust technology for early detection of cancers. This method utilizes unique DNA barcoding of individual proteins coupled with next generation sequencing to quantitatively assess interactions via barcode enrichment. We have tested the feasibility of this technology in the detection of patient immune responses to oropharyngeal carcinomas and in the discovery of novel PPIs in the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway. To achieve this goal, 96 human papillomavirus (HPV) antigen genes were cloned into pJFT7-cHalo (99% success) and pJFT7-n3xFlag-Halo (100% success) expression vectors. These libraries were expressed via a cell-free in vitro transcription-translation system with 93% and 96% success, respectively. A small-scale study of patient serum interactions with barcoded HPV16 antigens was performed and a HPV proteome-wide study will follow using additional patient samples. In addition, 15 query proteins were cloned into pJFT7_nGST expression vectors, expressed, and purified with 93% success to probe a library of 100 BCR pathway proteins and detect novel PPIs.