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Frequency response characteristics of respiratory flow-meters

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Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where the rate of airflow passing the aircraft is used to determine the speed of the plane. A clinical example would be that the flow of a patient's breath which could help determine the state of the patient's lungs. This project is focused on the flow-meter that are used for airflow measurement in human lungs. In order to do these measurements, resistive-type flow-meters are commonly used in respiratory measurement systems. This method consists of passing the respiratory flow through a fluid resistive component, while measuring the resulting pressure drop, which is linearly related to volumetric flow rate. These types of flow-meters typically have a low frequency response but are adequate for most applications, including spirometry and respiration monitoring. In the case of lung parameter estimation methods, such as the Quick Obstruction Method, it becomes important to have a higher frequency response in the flow-meter so that the high frequency components in the flow are measurable. The following three types of flow-meters were: a. Capillary type b. Screen Pneumotach type c. Square Edge orifice type To measure the frequency response, a sinusoidal flow is generated with a small speaker and passed through the flow-meter that is connected to a large, rigid container. True flow is proportional to the derivative of the pressure inside the container. True flow is then compared with the measured flow, which is proportional to the pressure drop across the flow-meter. In order to do the characterization, two LabVIEW data acquisition programs have been developed, one for transducer calibration, and another one that records flow and pressure data for frequency response testing of the flow-meter. In addition, a model that explains the behavior exhibited by the flow-meter has been proposed and simulated. This model contains a fluid resistor and inductor in series. The final step in this project was to approximate the frequency response data to the developed model expressed as a transfer function.

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2013

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Gait analysis of multiple sclerosis patients

Description

Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disease, is one of the most common neurological disorder in which demyelinating of the axon occurs. The main symptoms of MS disease are fatigue, vision problems, stability issue, balance problems. Unfortunately, currently available treatments for this

Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disease, is one of the most common neurological disorder in which demyelinating of the axon occurs. The main symptoms of MS disease are fatigue, vision problems, stability issue, balance problems. Unfortunately, currently available treatments for this disease do not always guarantee the improvement of the condition of the MS patient and there has not been an accurate mechanism to measure the effectiveness of the treatment due to inter-patient heterogeneity. The factors that count for varying the performance of MS patients include environmental setting, weather, psychological status, dressing style and more. Also, patients may react differently while examined at specially arranged setting and this may not be the same while he/she is at home. Hence, it becomes a major problem for MS patients that how effectively a treatment slows down the progress of the disease and gives a relief for the patient. This thesis is trying to build a reliable system to estimate how good a treatment is for MS patients. Here I study the kinematic variables such as velocity of walking, stride length, variability and so on to find and compare the variations of the patient after a treatment given by the doctor, and trace these parameters for some patients after the treatment effect subdued.

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2012

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Noninvasive metabolic monitoring: an assessment of thermoelectric gas adsorption biosensors for acetone and ethanol detection in breath analysis

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In the search for chemical biosensors designed for patient-based physiological applications, non-invasive diagnostic approaches continue to have value. The work described in this thesis builds upon previous breath analysis studies. In particular, it seeks to assess the adsorptive

In the search for chemical biosensors designed for patient-based physiological applications, non-invasive diagnostic approaches continue to have value. The work described in this thesis builds upon previous breath analysis studies. In particular, it seeks to assess the adsorptive mechanisms active in both acetone and ethanol biosensors designed for breath analysis. The thermoelectric biosensors under investigation were constructed using a thermopile for transduction and four different materials for biorecognition. The analytes, acetone and ethanol, were evaluated under dry-air and humidified-air conditions. The biosensor response to acetone concentration was found to be both repeatable and linear, while the sensor response to ethanol presence was also found to be repeatable. The different biorecognition materials produced discernible thermoelectric responses that were characteristic for each analyte. The sensor output data is presented in this report. Additionally, the results were evaluated against a mathematical model for further analysis. Ultimately, a thermoelectric biosensor based upon adsorption chemistry was developed and characterized. Additional work is needed to characterize the physicochemical action mechanism.

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2011

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Influence of histone deacetylase inhibitors on polymer mediated transgene delivery

Description

The effects of specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) on transgene expression in combination with a novel polymer as a delivery vehicle are investigated in this research. Polymer vectors, although safer than viruses, are notorious for low levels of gene expression.

The effects of specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) on transgene expression in combination with a novel polymer as a delivery vehicle are investigated in this research. Polymer vectors, although safer than viruses, are notorious for low levels of gene expression. In this investigation, the use of an emerging chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drug molecule, HDACi, was used to enhance the polymer-mediated gene expression. HDACi are capable of inhibiting deacetylation activities of histones and other non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus, as well as increase transcriptional activities necessary for gene expression. In a prior study, a parallel synthesis and screening of polymers yielded a lead cationic polymer with high DNA-binding properties, and even more attractive, high transgene expressions. Previous studies showed the use of this polymer in conjunction with cytoplasmic HDACi significantly enhanced gene expression in PC3-PSMA prostate cancer cells. This led to the basis for the investigation presented in this thesis, but to use nuclear HDACi to potentially achieve similar results. The HDACi, HDACi_A, was a previously discovered lead drug that had potential to significantly enhance luciferase expression in PC3-PSMA cells. The results of this study found that the 20:1 polymer:plasmid DNA weight ratio was effective with 1 uM and 2 uM HDACI_A concentrations, showing up to a 9-fold enhancement. This enhancement suggested that HDACi_A was effectively aiding transfection. While not an astounding enhancement, it is still interesting enough to investigate further. Cell viabilities need to be determined to supplement the results.

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2012

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Development of an ECM-mimetic, electrospun hydrogel scaffold for soft tissue repair application

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The objective of this research is to develop a biocompatible scaffold based on dextran and poly acrylic acid (PAA) with the potential to be used for soft tissue repair. In this thesis, physical and chemical properties of the scaffold were

The objective of this research is to develop a biocompatible scaffold based on dextran and poly acrylic acid (PAA) with the potential to be used for soft tissue repair. In this thesis, physical and chemical properties of the scaffold were investigated. The scaffolds were made using electrospinning and cross-linked under high temperature. After heat treatment, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the structures of these scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the cross-linking level of scaffold samples given different times of heat treatment by detecting and comparing the newly formed ester bonds. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were added to enhance the mechanical properties of dextran-PAA scaffolds. Attachment of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells to the scaffold and the response upon implantation into rabbit vaginal tissue were also evaluated to investigate the performance of SWCNT dextran-PAA scaffold. SEM was then used to characterize morphology of fibroblast cells and rabbit tissues. The results suggest that SWCNT could enhance cell attachment, distribution and spreading performance of dextran-PAA scaffold.

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2014

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Optimization of design factors for electrospun scaffolds for regenerative medicine

Description

The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship among key process design variables associated with the development of nanoscale electrospun polymeric scaffolds capable of tissue regeneration. To date, there has been no systematic approach toward understanding electrospinning process

The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship among key process design variables associated with the development of nanoscale electrospun polymeric scaffolds capable of tissue regeneration. To date, there has been no systematic approach toward understanding electrospinning process parameters responsible for the production of 3-D nanoscaffold architectures with desired levels quality assurance envisioned to satisfy emerging regenerative medicine market needs. , As such, this study encompassed a more systematic, rational design of experiment (DOE) approach toward the identification of electrospinning process conditions responsible for the production of dextran-polyacrylic acid (DEX-PAA) nanoscaffolds with desired architectures and tissue engineering properties. The latter includes scaffold fiber diameter, pore size, porosity, and degree of crosslinking that together can provide a range of scaffold nanomechanical properties that closely mimics the cell microenvironment. The results obtained from this preliminary DOE study indicate that there exist electrospinning operation conditions capable of producing Dex-PAA nanoarchitecture having potential utility for regenerative medicine applications.

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Date Created
2013

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Feasibility of investigating mineralization processes under simulated microgravity free convectionless conditions in unit gravity environment with implication on bone mineral density

Description

The overall goal of this research project was to assess the feasibility of investigating the effects of microgravity on mineralization systems in unit gravity environments. If possible to perform these studies in unit gravity earth environments, such as earth, such

The overall goal of this research project was to assess the feasibility of investigating the effects of microgravity on mineralization systems in unit gravity environments. If possible to perform these studies in unit gravity earth environments, such as earth, such systems can offer markedly less costly and more concerted research efforts to study these vitally important systems. Expected outcomes from easily accessible test environments and more tractable studies include the development of more advanced and adaptive material systems, including biological systems, particularly as humans ponder human exploration in deep space. The specific focus of the research was the design and development of a prototypical experimental test system that could preliminarily meet the challenging design specifications required of such test systems. Guided by a more unified theoretical foundation and building upon concept design and development heuristics, assessment of the feasibility of two experimental test systems was explored. Test System I was a rotating wall reactor experimental system that closely followed the specifications of a similar test system, Synthecon, designed by NASA contractors and thus closely mimicked microgravity conditions of the space shuttle and station. The latter includes terminal velocity conditions experienced by both innate material systems, as well as, biological systems, including living tissue and humans but has the ability to extend to include those material test systems associated with mineralization processes. Test System II is comprised of a unique vertical column design that offered more easily controlled fluid mechanical test conditions over a much wider flow regime that was necessary to achieving terminal velocities under free convection-less conditions that are important in mineralization processes. Preliminary results indicate that Test System II offers distinct advantages in studying microgravity effects in test systems operating in unit gravity environments and particularly when investigating mineralization and related processes. Verification of the Test System II was performed on validating microgravity effects on calcite mineralization processes reported earlier others. There studies were conducted on calcite mineralization in fixed-wing, reduced gravity aircraft, known as the `vomit comet' where reduced gravity conditions are include for very short (~20second) time periods. Preliminary results indicate that test systems, such as test system II, can be devised to assess microgravity conditions in unit gravity environments, such as earth. Furthermore, the preliminary data obtained on calcite formation suggest that strictly physicochemical mechanisms may be the dominant factors that control adaptation in materials processes, a theory first proposed by Liu et al. Thus the result of this study may also help shine a light on the problem of early osteoporosis in astronauts and long term interest in deep space exploration.

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Date Created
2013