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Frequency response characteristics of respiratory flow-meters

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Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where the rate of airflow passing the aircraft is used to determine the speed of the plane. A clinical example would be that the flow of a patient's breath which could help determine the state of the patient's lungs. This project is focused on the flow-meter that are used for airflow measurement in human lungs. In order to do these measurements, resistive-type flow-meters are commonly used in respiratory measurement systems. This method consists of passing the respiratory flow through a fluid resistive component, while measuring the resulting pressure drop, which is linearly related to volumetric flow rate. These types of flow-meters typically have a low frequency response but are adequate for most applications, including spirometry and respiration monitoring. In the case of lung parameter estimation methods, such as the Quick Obstruction Method, it becomes important to have a higher frequency response in the flow-meter so that the high frequency components in the flow are measurable. The following three types of flow-meters were: a. Capillary type b. Screen Pneumotach type c. Square Edge orifice type To measure the frequency response, a sinusoidal flow is generated with a small speaker and passed through the flow-meter that is connected to a large, rigid container. True flow is proportional to the derivative of the pressure inside the container. True flow is then compared with the measured flow, which is proportional to the pressure drop across the flow-meter. In order to do the characterization, two LabVIEW data acquisition programs have been developed, one for transducer calibration, and another one that records flow and pressure data for frequency response testing of the flow-meter. In addition, a model that explains the behavior exhibited by the flow-meter has been proposed and simulated. This model contains a fluid resistor and inductor in series. The final step in this project was to approximate the frequency response data to the developed model expressed as a transfer function.

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2013

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Comparison of feature selection methods for robust dexterous decoding of finger movements from the primary motor cortex of a non-human primate using support vector machine

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Robust and stable decoding of neural signals is imperative for implementing a useful neuroprosthesis capable of carrying out dexterous tasks. A nonhuman primate (NHP) was trained to perform combined flexions of the thumb, index and middle fingers in addition to

Robust and stable decoding of neural signals is imperative for implementing a useful neuroprosthesis capable of carrying out dexterous tasks. A nonhuman primate (NHP) was trained to perform combined flexions of the thumb, index and middle fingers in addition to individual flexions and extensions of the same digits. An array of microelectrodes was implanted in the hand area of the motor cortex of the NHP and used to record action potentials during finger movements. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used to classify which finger movement the NHP was making based upon action potential firing rates. The effect of four feature selection techniques, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Relative Importance, Principal Component Analysis, and Mutual Information Maximization was compared based on SVM classification performance. SVM classification was used to examine the functional parameters of (i) efficacy (ii) endurance to simulated failure and (iii) longevity of classification. The effect of using isolated-neuron and multi-unit firing rates was compared as the feature vector supplied to the SVM. The best classification performance was on post-implantation day 36, when using multi-unit firing rates the worst classification accuracy resulted from features selected with Wilcoxon signed-rank test (51.12 ± 0.65%) and the best classification accuracy resulted from Mutual Information Maximization (93.74 ± 0.32%). On this day when using single-unit firing rates, the classification accuracy from the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was 88.85 ± 0.61 % and Mutual Information Maximization was 95.60 ± 0.52% (degrees of freedom =10, level of chance =10%)

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2015

Novel organic light emitting diodes for optogenetic experiments

Description

Optical Fibers coupled to laser light sources, and Light Emitting Diodes are the two classes of technologies used for optogenetic experiments. Arizona State University's Flexible Display Center fabricates novel flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes(OLEDs). These OLEDs have the capability of

Optical Fibers coupled to laser light sources, and Light Emitting Diodes are the two classes of technologies used for optogenetic experiments. Arizona State University's Flexible Display Center fabricates novel flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes(OLEDs). These OLEDs have the capability of being monolithically fabricated over flexible, transparent plastic substrates and having power efficient ways of addressing high density arrays of LEDs. This thesis critically evaluates the technology by identifying the key advantages, current limitations and experimentally assessing the technology in in-vivo and in-vitro animal models. For in-vivo testing, the emitted light from a flat OLED panel was directly used to stimulate the neo-cortex in the M1 region of transgenic mice expressing ChR2 (B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-ChR2/EYFP) 9Gfng/J). An alternative stimulation paradigm using a collimating optical system coupled with an optical fiber was used for stimulating neurons in layer 5 of the motor cortex in the same transgenic mice. EMG activity was recorded from the contralateral vastus lateralis muscles. In vitro testing of the OLEDs was done in primary cortical neurons in culture transfected with blue light sensitive ChR2. The neurons were cultured on a microelectrode array for taking neuronal recordings.

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2015

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Investigation of ultrasonically powered implantable microdevices for wireless tissue impedance measurements

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Bioimpedance measurements have been long used for monitoring tissue ischemia and blood flow. This research employs implantable microelectronic devices to measure impedance chronically as a potential way to monitor the progress of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Ultrasonically powered implantable microdevices

Bioimpedance measurements have been long used for monitoring tissue ischemia and blood flow. This research employs implantable microelectronic devices to measure impedance chronically as a potential way to monitor the progress of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Ultrasonically powered implantable microdevices previously developed for the purposes of neuroelectric vasodilation for therapeutic treatment of PVD were found to also allow a secondary function of tissue bioimpedance monitoring. Having no structural differences between devices used for neurostimulation and impedance measurements, there is a potential for double functionality and closed loop control of the neurostimulation performed by these types of microimplants. The proposed technique involves actuation of the implantable microdevices using a frequency-swept amplitude modulated continuous waveform ultrasound and remote monitoring of induced tissue current. The design has been investigated using simulations, ex vivo testing, and preliminary animal experiments. Obtained results have demonstrated the ability of ultrasonically powered neurostimulators to be sensitive to the impedance changes of tissue surrounding the device and wirelessly report impedance spectra. Present work suggests the potential feasibility of wireless tissue impedance measurements for PVD applications as a complement to neurostimulation.

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2015

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System design and evaluation of a low cost epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system, integrable with ECoG electrodes

Description

Intracranial pressure is an important parameter to monitor, and elevated intracranial pressure can be life threatening. Elevated intracranial pressure is indicative of distress in the brain attributed by conditions such as aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, hydrocephalus, stroke, or

Intracranial pressure is an important parameter to monitor, and elevated intracranial pressure can be life threatening. Elevated intracranial pressure is indicative of distress in the brain attributed by conditions such as aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, hydrocephalus, stroke, or meningitis.

Electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings are invaluable in understanding epilepsy and detecting seizure zones. However, ECoG electrodes cause a foreign body mass effect, swelling, and pneumocephaly, which results in elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). Thus, the aim of this work is to design an intracranial pressure monitoring system that could augment ECoG electrodes.

A minimally invasive, low-cost epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system is developed for this purpose, using a commercial pressure transducer available for biomedical applications. The system is composed of a pressure transducer, sensing cup, electronics, and data acquisition system. The pressure transducer is a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based die that works on piezoresistive phenomenon with dielectric isolation for direct contact with fluids.

The developed system was bench tested and verified in an animal model to confirm the efficacy of the system for intracranial pressure monitoring. The system has a 0.1 mmHg accuracy and a 2% error for the 0-10 mmHg range, with resolution of 0.01 mmHg. This system serves as a minimally invasive (2 mm burr hole) epidural ICP monitor, which could augment existing ECoG electrode arrays, to simultaneously measure intracranial pressure along with the neural signals.

This device could also be employed with brain implants that causes elevation in ICP due to tissue - implant interaction often leading to edema. This research explores the concept and feasibility for integrating the sensing component directly on to the ECoG electrode arrays.

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2015

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Applications of Magnetic Resonance Cytography: Assessing Underlying Cytoarchitecture

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In medical imaging, a wide variety of methods are used to interrogate structural and physiological differences between soft tissues. One of the most ubiquitous methods in clinical practice is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which has the advantage of limited invasiveness,

In medical imaging, a wide variety of methods are used to interrogate structural and physiological differences between soft tissues. One of the most ubiquitous methods in clinical practice is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which has the advantage of limited invasiveness, soft tissue discrimination, and adequate volumetric resolution. A myriad of advanced MRI methods exists to investigate the microstructural, physiologic and metabolic characteristics of tissue. For example, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC) MRI non-invasively interrogates the dynamic passage of an exogenously administered MRI contrast agent through tissue to quantify local tracer kinetic properties like blood flow, vascular permeability and tissue compartmental volume fractions. Recently, an improved understanding of the biophysical basis of DSC-MRI signals in brain tumors revealed a new approach to derive multiple quantitative biomarkers that identify intrinsic sub-voxel cellular and vascular microstructure that can be used differentiate tumor sub-types. One of these characteristic biomarkers called Transverse Relaxivity at Tracer Equilibrium (TRATE), utilizes a combination of DCE and DSC techniques to compute a steady-state metric which is particularly sensitive to cell size, density, and packing properties. This work seeks to investigate the sensitivity and potential utility of TRATE in a range of disease states including Glioblastomas, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). The MRC measures of TRATE showed the most promise in mouse models of ALS where TRATE values decreased with disease progression, a finding that correlated with reductions in myofiber size and area, as quantified by immunohistochemistry. In the animal models of cancer and DMD, TRATE results were more inconclusive, due to marked heterogeneity across animals and treatment state. Overall, TRATE seems to be a promising new biomarker but still needs further methodological refinement due to its sensitivity to contrast to noise and further characterization owing to its non-specificity with respect to multiple cellular features (e.g. size, density, heterogeneity) that complicate interpretation.

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2018

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Biomechanical Micromotion at the Neural Interface Modulates Intercellular Membrane Potential In-Vivo

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Brain micromotion is a phenomenon that arises from basic physiological functions such as respiration (breathing) and vascular pulsation (pumping blood or heart rate). These physiological processes cause small micro displacements of 2-4µm for vascular pulsation and 10-30µm for respiration, in

Brain micromotion is a phenomenon that arises from basic physiological functions such as respiration (breathing) and vascular pulsation (pumping blood or heart rate). These physiological processes cause small micro displacements of 2-4µm for vascular pulsation and 10-30µm for respiration, in rat models. One problem related to micromotion is the instability of the probe and its ability to acquire stable neural recordings in chronic studies. It has long been thought the membrane potential (MP) changes due to micromotion in the presence of brain implants were an artefact caused by the implant. Here is shown that intracellular membrane potential changes are a consequence of the activation of mechanosensitive ion channels at the neural interface. A combination of aplysia and rat animal models were used to show activation of mechanosensitive ion channels is occurring during a neural recording. During simulated micromotion of displacements of 50μm and 100μm at a frequency of 1 Hz, showed a change of 8 and 10mV respectively and that the addition of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited the membrane potential changes. The application of EDTA showed a 71% decrease in changes in membrane potential changes due to micromotion. Simulation of breathing using periodic motion of a probe in an Aplysia model showed that there were no membrane potential changes for <1.5kPa and action potentials were observed at >3.1kPa. Drug studies utilizing 5-HT showed an 80% reduction in membrane potentials. To validate the electrophysiological changes due to micromotion in a rat model, a double barrel pipette for simultaneous recording and drug delivery was designed, the drug delivery tip was recessed from the recording tip no greater than 50μm on average. The double barrel pipette using iontophoresis was used to deliver 30 μM of Gadolinium Chloride (Gd3+) into the microenvironment of the cell. Here is shown a significant reduction in membrane potential for n = 13 cells across 4 different rats tested using Gd3+. Membrane potential changes related to breathing and vascular pulsation were reduced between approximately 0.25-2.5 mV for both breathing and heart rate after the addition of Gd3+, a known mechanosensitive ion channel blocker.

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2020