Matching Items (6)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

152336-Thumbnail Image.png

Frequency response characteristics of respiratory flow-meters

Description

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where

Flow measurement has always been one of the most critical processes in many industrial and clinical applications. The dynamic behavior of flow helps to define the state of a process. An industrial example would be that in an aircraft, where the rate of airflow passing the aircraft is used to determine the speed of the plane. A clinical example would be that the flow of a patient's breath which could help determine the state of the patient's lungs. This project is focused on the flow-meter that are used for airflow measurement in human lungs. In order to do these measurements, resistive-type flow-meters are commonly used in respiratory measurement systems. This method consists of passing the respiratory flow through a fluid resistive component, while measuring the resulting pressure drop, which is linearly related to volumetric flow rate. These types of flow-meters typically have a low frequency response but are adequate for most applications, including spirometry and respiration monitoring. In the case of lung parameter estimation methods, such as the Quick Obstruction Method, it becomes important to have a higher frequency response in the flow-meter so that the high frequency components in the flow are measurable. The following three types of flow-meters were: a. Capillary type b. Screen Pneumotach type c. Square Edge orifice type To measure the frequency response, a sinusoidal flow is generated with a small speaker and passed through the flow-meter that is connected to a large, rigid container. True flow is proportional to the derivative of the pressure inside the container. True flow is then compared with the measured flow, which is proportional to the pressure drop across the flow-meter. In order to do the characterization, two LabVIEW data acquisition programs have been developed, one for transducer calibration, and another one that records flow and pressure data for frequency response testing of the flow-meter. In addition, a model that explains the behavior exhibited by the flow-meter has been proposed and simulated. This model contains a fluid resistor and inductor in series. The final step in this project was to approximate the frequency response data to the developed model expressed as a transfer function.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

150217-Thumbnail Image.png

Comprehensive testing and performance analysis of sensors in lab-on-a-chip for biomedical applications

Description

The past two decades have been monumental in the advancement of microchips designed for a diverse range of medical applications and bio-analysis. Owing to the remarkable progress in micro-fabrication technology, complex chemical and electro-mechanical features can now be integrated into

The past two decades have been monumental in the advancement of microchips designed for a diverse range of medical applications and bio-analysis. Owing to the remarkable progress in micro-fabrication technology, complex chemical and electro-mechanical features can now be integrated into chip-scale devices for use in biosensing and physiological measurements. Some of these devices have made enormous contributions in the study of complex biochemical processes occurring at the molecular and cellular levels while others overcame the challenges of replicating various functions of human organs as implant systems. This thesis presents test data and analysis of two such systems. First, an ISFET based pH sensor is characterized for its performance in a continuous pH monitoring application. Many of the basic properties of ISFETs including I-V characteristics, pH sensitivity and more importantly, its long term drift behavior have been investigated. A new theory based on frequent switching of electric field across the gate oxide to decrease the rate of current drift has been successfully implemented with the help of an automated data acquisition and switching system. The system was further tested for a range of duty cycles in order to accurately determine the minimum length of time required to fully reset the drift. Second, a microfluidic based vestibular implant system was tested for its underlying characteristics as a light sensor. A computer controlled tilt platform was then implemented to further test its sensitivity to inclinations and thus it‟s more important role as a tilt sensor. The sensor operates through means of optoelectronics and relies on the signals generated from photodiode arrays as a result of light being incident on them. ISFET results show a significant drop in the overall drift and good linear characteristics. The drift was seen to reset at less than an hour. The photodiodes show ideal I-V comparison between photoconductive and photovoltaic modes of operation with maximum responsivity at 400nm and a shunt resistance of 394 MΩ. Additionally, post-processing of the tilt sensor to incorporate the sensing fluids is outlined. Based on several test and fabrication results, a possible method of sealing the open cavity of the chip using a UV curable epoxy has been discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

149321-Thumbnail Image.png

NVM challenges in medical devices

Description

Electronic devices are gaining an increasing market share in the medical field. Medical devices are becoming more sophisticated, and encompassing more applications. Unlike consumer electronics, medical devices have far more limitations when it comes to area, power and most importantly

Electronic devices are gaining an increasing market share in the medical field. Medical devices are becoming more sophisticated, and encompassing more applications. Unlike consumer electronics, medical devices have far more limitations when it comes to area, power and most importantly reliability. The medical devices industry has recently seen the advantages of using Flash memory instead of Read Only Memory (ROM) for firmware storage, and in some cases to replace Electrically Programmable Read Only Memories (EEPROMs) in medical devices for frequent data storage. There are direct advantages to using Flash memory instead of Read Only Memory, most importantly the fact that firmware can be rewritten along the development cycle and in the field. However, Flash technology requires high voltage circuitry that makes it harder to integrate into low power devices. There have been a lot of advances in Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) technologies, and many Flash rivals are starting to gain attention. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate these new technologies against Flash to determine the feasibility as well as the advantages of each technology. The focus is on embedded memory in a medical device micro-controller and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC). A behavioral model of a Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) was used to simulate the behavior and determine the advantages of using PMC technology versus flash. When compared to flash test data, PMC based embedded memory showed a reduction in power consumption by many orders of magnitude. Analysis showed that an approximated 20% device longevity increase can be achieved by using embedded PMC technology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

161729-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization, Implementation and Control of Paramagnetic Beads for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Patient Bio-Fluids in Point of Need Microfluidics Systems

Description

Point-of-Care diagnostics is one of the most popular fields of research in bio-medicine today because of its portability, speed of response, convenience and quality assurance. One of the most important steps in such a device is to prepare and purify

Point-of-Care diagnostics is one of the most popular fields of research in bio-medicine today because of its portability, speed of response, convenience and quality assurance. One of the most important steps in such a device is to prepare and purify the sample by extracting the nucleic acids, for which small spherical magnetic particles called magnetic beads are often used in laboratories. Even though magnetic beads have the ability to isolate DNA or RNA from bio-samples in their purified form, integrating these into a microfluidic point-of-need testing kit is still a bit of a challenge. In this thesis, the possibility of integrating paramagnetic beads instead of silica-coated dynabeads, has been evaluated with respect to a point-of-need SARS-CoV-2 virus testing kit. This project is a comparative study between five different sizes of carboxyl-coated paramagnetic beads with reference to silica-coated dynabeads, and how each of them behave in a microcapillary chip in presence of magnetic fields of different strengths. The diameters and velocities of the beads have been calculated using different types of microscopic imaging techniques. The washing and elution steps of an extraction process have been recreated using syringe pump, microcapillary channels and permanent magnets, based on which those parameters of the beads have been studied which are essential for extraction behaviour. The yield efficiency of the beads have also been analysed by using these to extract Salmon DNA. Overall, furthering this research will improve the sensitivity and specificity for any low-cost nucleic-acid based point-of-care testing device.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

156613-Thumbnail Image.png

Thermal Actuation and Fluidic Characterization of a Fluorescence-Based Multiplexed Detection System

Description

This work describes efforts made toward the development of a compact, quantitative fluorescence-based multiplexed detection platform for point-of-care diagnostics. This includes the development of a microfluidic delivery and actuation system for multistep detection assays. Early detection of infectious diseases requires

This work describes efforts made toward the development of a compact, quantitative fluorescence-based multiplexed detection platform for point-of-care diagnostics. This includes the development of a microfluidic delivery and actuation system for multistep detection assays. Early detection of infectious diseases requires high sensitivity dependent on the precise actuation of fluids.

Methods of fluid actuation were explored to allow delayed delivery of fluidic reagents in multistep detection lateral flow assays (LFAs). Certain hydrophobic materials such as wax were successfully implemented in the LFA with the use of precision dispensed valves. Sublimating materials such as naphthalene were also characterized along with the implementation of a heating system for precision printing of the valves.

Various techniques of blood fractionation were also investigated and this work demonstrates successful blood fractionation in an LFA. The fluid flow of reagents was also characterized and validated with the use of mathematical models and multiphysics modeling software. Lastly intuitive, user-friendly mobile and desktop applications were developed to interface the underlying Arduino software. The work advances the development of a system which successfully integrates all components of fluid separation and delivery along with highly sensitive detection and a user-friendly interface; the system will ultimately provide clinically significant diagnostics in a of point-of-care device.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

157755-Thumbnail Image.png

An Investigative Study on Effects of Geometry, Relative Humidity, and Temperature on Fluid Flow Rate in Porous Media

Description

Developing countries suffer from various health challenges due to inaccessible medical diagnostic laboratories and lack of resources to establish new laboratories. One way to address these issues is to develop diagnostic systems that are suitable for the low-resource setting. In

Developing countries suffer from various health challenges due to inaccessible medical diagnostic laboratories and lack of resources to establish new laboratories. One way to address these issues is to develop diagnostic systems that are suitable for the low-resource setting. In addition to this, applications requiring rapid analyses further motivates the development of portable, easy-to-use, and accurate Point of Care (POC) diagnostics. Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIAs) are among the most successful POC tests as they satisfy most of the ASSURED criteria. However, factors like reagent stability, reaction rates limit the performance and robustness of LFIAs. The fluid flow rate in LFIA significantly affect the factors mentioned above, and hence, it is desirable to maintain an optimal fluid velocity in porous media.

The main objective of this study is to build a statistical model that enables us to determine the optimal design parameters and ambient conditions for achieving a desired fluid velocity in porous media. This study mainly focuses on the effects of relative humidity and temperature on evaporation in porous media and the impact of geometry on fluid velocity in LFIAs. A set of finite element analyses were performed, and the obtained simulation results were then experimentally verified using Whatman filter paper with different geometry under varying ambient conditions. Design of experiments was conducted to estimate the significant factors affecting the fluid flow rate.

Literature suggests that liquid evaporation is one of the major factors that inhibit fluid penetration and capillary flow in lateral flow Immunoassays. The obtained results closely align with the existing literature and conclude that a desired fluid flow rate can be achieved by tuning the geometry of the porous media. The derived statistical model suggests that a dry and warm atmosphere is expected to inhibit the fluid flow rate the most and vice-versa.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019