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Startle can evoke individuated movements of the fingers; implications for neural control

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Startle-evoked-movement (SEM), the involuntary release of a planned movement via a startling stimulus, has gained significant attention recently for its ability to probe motor planning as well as enhance movement of the upper extremity following stroke. We recently showed that

Startle-evoked-movement (SEM), the involuntary release of a planned movement via a startling stimulus, has gained significant attention recently for its ability to probe motor planning as well as enhance movement of the upper extremity following stroke. We recently showed that hand movements are susceptible to SEM. Interestingly, only coordinated movements of the hand (grasp) but not individuated movements of the finger (finger abduction) were susceptible. It was suggested that this resulted from different neural mechanisms involved in each task; however it is possible this was the result of task familiarity. The objective of this study was to evaluate a more familiar individuated finger movement, typing, to determine if this task was susceptible to SEM. We hypothesized that typing movements will be susceptible to SEM in all fingers. These results indicate that individuated movements of the fingers are susceptible to SEM when the task involves a more familiar task, since the electromyogram (EMG) latency is faster in SCM+ trials compared to SCM- trials. However, the middle finger does not show a difference in terms of the keystroke voltage signal, suggesting the middle finger is less susceptible to SEM. Given that SEM is thought to be mediated by the brainstem, specifically the reticulospinal tract, this suggest that the brainstem may play a role in movements of the distal limb when those movements are very familiar, and the independence of each finger might also have a significant on the effect of SEM. Further research includes understanding SEM in fingers in the stroke population. The implications of this research can impact the way upper extremity rehabilitation is delivered.

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2016-12

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Startle-evoked movement in multi-jointed, two-dimensional reaching tasks

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Previous research has shown that a loud acoustic stimulus can trigger an individual's prepared movement plan. This movement response is referred to as a startle-evoked movement (SEM). SEM has been observed in the stroke survivor population where results have shown

Previous research has shown that a loud acoustic stimulus can trigger an individual's prepared movement plan. This movement response is referred to as a startle-evoked movement (SEM). SEM has been observed in the stroke survivor population where results have shown that SEM enhances single joint movements that are usually performed with difficulty. While the presence of SEM in the stroke survivor population advances scientific understanding of movement capabilities following a stroke, published studies using the SEM phenomenon only examined one joint. The ability of SEM to generate multi-jointed movements is understudied and consequently limits SEM as a potential therapy tool. In order to apply SEM as a therapy tool however, the biomechanics of the arm in multi-jointed movement planning and execution must be better understood. Thus, the objective of our study was to evaluate if SEM could elicit multi-joint reaching movements that were accurate in an unrestrained, two-dimensional workspace. Data was collected from ten subjects with no previous neck, arm, or brain injury. Each subject performed a reaching task to five Targets that were equally spaced in a semi-circle to create a two-dimensional workspace. The subject reached to each Target following a sequence of two non-startling acoustic stimuli cues: "Get Ready" and "Go". A loud acoustic stimuli was randomly substituted for the "Go" cue. We hypothesized that SEM is accessible and accurate for unrestricted multi-jointed reaching tasks in a functional workspace and is therefore independent of movement direction. Our results found that SEM is possible in all five Target directions. The probability of evoking SEM and the movement kinematics (i.e. total movement time, linear deviation, average velocity) to each Target are not statistically different. Thus, we conclude that SEM is possible in a functional workspace and is not dependent on where arm stability is maximized. Moreover, coordinated preparation and storage of a multi-jointed movement is indeed possible.

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2016-12

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Relationship between Motor Generalization and Motor Transfer

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Adapting to one novel condition of a motor task has been shown to generalize to other naïve conditions (i.e., motor generalization). In contrast, learning one task affects the proficiency of another task that is altogether different (i.e. motor transfer). Much

Adapting to one novel condition of a motor task has been shown to generalize to other naïve conditions (i.e., motor generalization). In contrast, learning one task affects the proficiency of another task that is altogether different (i.e. motor transfer). Much more is known about motor generalization than about motor transfer, despite of decades of behavioral evidence. Moreover, motor generalization is studied as a probe to understanding how movements in any novel situations are affected by previous experiences. Thus, one could assume that mechanisms underlying transfer from trained to untrained tasks may be same as the ones known to be underlying motor generalization. However, the direct relationship between transfer and generalization has not yet been shown, thereby limiting the assumption that transfer and generalization rely on the same mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between motor generalization and motor transfer. To date, ten healthy young adult subjects were scored on their motor generalization ability and motor transfer ability on various upper extremity tasks. Although our current sample size is too small to clearly identify whether there is a relationship between generalization and transfer, Pearson product-moment correlation results and a priori power analysis suggest that a significant relationship will be observed with an increased sample size by 30%. If so, this would suggest that the mechanisms of transfer may be similar to those of motor generalization.

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Date Created
2018

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Startle Distinguishes Task Expertise

Description

Recently, it was demonstrated that startle-evoked-movements (SEMs) are present during individuated finger movements (index finger abduction), but only following intense training. This demonstrates that changes in motor planning, which occur through training (motor learning - a characteristic which can provide

Recently, it was demonstrated that startle-evoked-movements (SEMs) are present during individuated finger movements (index finger abduction), but only following intense training. This demonstrates that changes in motor planning, which occur through training (motor learning - a characteristic which can provide researchers and clinicians with information about overall rehabilitative effectiveness), can be analyzed with SEM. The objective here was to determine if SEM is a sensitive enough tool for differentiating expertise (task solidification) in a common everyday task (typing). If proven to be true, SEM may then be useful during rehabilitation for time-stamping when task-specific expertise has occurred, and possibly even when the sufficient dosage of motor training (although not tested here) has been delivered following impairment. It was hypothesized that SEM would be present for all fingers of an expert population, but no fingers of a non-expert population. A total of 9 expert (75.2 ± 9.8 WPM) and 8 non-expert typists, (41.6 ± 8.2 WPM) with right handed dominance and with no previous neurological or current upper extremity impairment were evaluated. SEM was robustly present (all p < 0.05) in all fingers of the experts (except the middle) and absent in all fingers of non-experts except the little (although less robust). Taken together, these results indicate that SEM is a measurable behavioral indicator of motor learning and that it is sensitive to task expertise, opening it for potential clinical utility.

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2018

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Exploring the Utilization of Startle as a Therapy Tool in Individuals with Stroke

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Stroke is a debilitating disorder and 75% of individuals with stroke (iwS) have upper extremity deficits. IwS are prescribed therapies to enhance upper-extremity mobility, but current most effective therapies have minimum requirements that the individuals with severe impairment do not

Stroke is a debilitating disorder and 75% of individuals with stroke (iwS) have upper extremity deficits. IwS are prescribed therapies to enhance upper-extremity mobility, but current most effective therapies have minimum requirements that the individuals with severe impairment do not meet. Thus, there is a need to enhance the therapies. Recent studies have shown that StartReact -the involuntary release of a planned movement, triggered by a startling stimulus (e.g., loud sound)- elicits faster and larger muscle activation in iwS compared to voluntary-initiated movement. However, StartReact has been only cursorily studied to date and there are some gaps in the StartReact knowledge. Previous studies have only evaluated StartReact on single-jointed movements in iwS, ignoring more functional tasks. IwS usually have abnormal flexor activity during extension tasks and abnormal muscle synergy especially during multi-jointed tasks; therefore, it is unknown 1) if more complex multi-jointed reach movements are susceptible to StartReact, and 2) if StartReact multi-jointed movements will be enhanced in the same way as single-jointed movements in iwS. In addition, previous studies showed that individuals with severe stroke, especially those with higher spasticity, experienced higher abnormal flexor muscle activation during StartReact trials. However, there is no study evaluating the impact of this elevated abnormal flexor activity on movement, muscle activation and muscle synergy alterations during voluntary-initiated movements after exposure to StartReact.
This dissertation evaluates StartReact and the voluntary trials before and after exposure to StartReact during a point-to-point multi-jointed reach task to three different targets covering a large workspace. The results show that multi-jointed reach tasks are susceptible to StartReact in iwS and the distance, muscle and movement onset speed, and muscle activations percentages and amplitude increase during StartReact trials. In addition, the distance, accuracy, muscle and movement onsets speeds, and muscle synergy similarity indices to the norm synergies increase during the voluntary-initiated trials after exposure to StartReact. Overall, this dissertation shows that exposure to StartReact did not impair voluntary-initiated movement and muscle synergy, but even improved them. Therefore, this study suggests that StartReact is safe for more investigations in training studies and therapy.

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Date Created
2020

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Final Thesis Draft (Post Defense)

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SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview:

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview: Stroke is responsible for the death of an individual every four minutes in the United States. While all Americans are gravely affected by this statistic, Black Americans are at a significantly increased risk of first stroke incidence when compared to their white counterparts, majorly due to heightened prevalence of stroke risk factors. Not only does race contribute as a factor in stroke incidence, but it also has a considerable impact in the physical impairment of Black Americans following stroke occurrence. While it still remains unclear as to whether or not stroke plays a significant role in stroke rehabilitation efforts, there is a clearly demonstrated need for increased reporting or participation of Black Americans in stroke rehabilitation clinical trials to have the ability to conduct a systematic review of these racial disparities in the near future. In the analysis of 36 stroke rehabilitation-related clinical research studies, 80% of selected trials failed to report any participant racial demographics, with 77.3% of the NIH-funded trials not reporting, as well. Out of the 7 trials that did provide some sort of participant racial information, only 5 successfully provided statistically significant racial data compared to the remainder that simply categorized participants’ race as “white” or “other.” In order to fully investigate the effects of race on stroke rehabilitation, it is imperative that researchers collect and report equally distributed and diverse participant racial data when publishing clinical research. Potential methods of improvement for researchers to include more racially diverse subject populations include more comprehensive and in-depth advertising and recruitment strategies for their studies. Research Methods: In order to produce accurate analyses of the current state of the relationship between race and stroke rehabilitation efforts, 36 stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials from various locations across the United States were identified using the Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation Database for Stroke (SCOAR). These trials were evaluated in order to extract relevant data, such as number of trial participants, average age of participants, if the research trial was funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) or not, and any reported participant racial demographic details. Trends across these categories were compared between all trials to determine if any disparities existed in providing data sufficient to support the relationship between varying racial populations and stroke rehabilitation efforts. Future Project Efforts: Future efforts will include the completion of submitting a Point of View/Directions for Research article for publication to offer an opportunity for clinical and basic researchers to examine the discrepancies surrounding racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation clinical research. The aim is to improve the ability of clinicians to interpret the literature, translate research studies into practices, and better direct future experiments. Further identification of stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials will be necessary, as well as modifications to current written work content.

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Date Created
2021-12

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Honors Thesis Defense Powerpoint

Description

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview:

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview: Stroke is responsible for the death of an individual every four minutes in the United States. While all Americans are gravely affected by this statistic, Black Americans are at a significantly increased risk of first stroke incidence when compared to their white counterparts, majorly due to heightened prevalence of stroke risk factors. Not only does race contribute as a factor in stroke incidence, but it also has a considerable impact in the physical impairment of Black Americans following stroke occurrence. While it still remains unclear as to whether or not stroke plays a significant role in stroke rehabilitation efforts, there is a clearly demonstrated need for increased reporting or participation of Black Americans in stroke rehabilitation clinical trials to have the ability to conduct a systematic review of these racial disparities in the near future. In the analysis of 36 stroke rehabilitation-related clinical research studies, 80% of selected trials failed to report any participant racial demographics, with 77.3% of the NIH-funded trials not reporting, as well. Out of the 7 trials that did provide some sort of participant racial information, only 5 successfully provided statistically significant racial data compared to the remainder that simply categorized participants’ race as “white” or “other.” In order to fully investigate the effects of race on stroke rehabilitation, it is imperative that researchers collect and report equally distributed and diverse participant racial data when publishing clinical research. Potential methods of improvement for researchers to include more racially diverse subject populations include more comprehensive and in-depth advertising and recruitment strategies for their studies. Research Methods: In order to produce accurate analyses of the current state of the relationship between race and stroke rehabilitation efforts, 36 stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials from various locations across the United States were identified using the Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation Database for Stroke (SCOAR). These trials were evaluated in order to extract relevant data, such as number of trial participants, average age of participants, if the research trial was funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) or not, and any reported participant racial demographic details. Trends across these categories were compared between all trials to determine if any disparities existed in providing data sufficient to support the relationship between varying racial populations and stroke rehabilitation efforts. Future Project Efforts: Future efforts will include the completion of submitting a Point of View/Directions for Research article for publication to offer an opportunity for clinical and basic researchers to examine the discrepancies surrounding racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation clinical research. The aim is to improve the ability of clinicians to interpret the literature, translate research studies into practices, and better direct future experiments. Further identification of stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials will be necessary, as well as modifications to current written work content.

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2021-12

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beeler-mcnally_fall-2021_thesis-defense-presentation.pdf

Description

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview:

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview: Stroke is responsible for the death of an individual every four minutes in the United States. While all Americans are gravely affected by this statistic, Black Americans are at a significantly increased risk of first stroke incidence when compared to their white counterparts, majorly due to heightened prevalence of stroke risk factors. Not only does race contribute as a factor in stroke incidence, but it also has a considerable impact in the physical impairment of Black Americans following stroke occurrence. While it still remains unclear as to whether or not stroke plays a significant role in stroke rehabilitation efforts, there is a clearly demonstrated need for increased reporting or participation of Black Americans in stroke rehabilitation clinical trials to have the ability to conduct a systematic review of these racial disparities in the near future. In the analysis of 36 stroke rehabilitation-related clinical research studies, 80% of selected trials failed to report any participant racial demographics, with 77.3% of the NIH-funded trials not reporting, as well. Out of the 7 trials that did provide some sort of participant racial information, only 5 successfully provided statistically significant racial data compared to the remainder that simply categorized participants’ race as “white” or “other.” In order to fully investigate the effects of race on stroke rehabilitation, it is imperative that researchers collect and report equally distributed and diverse participant racial data when publishing clinical research. Potential methods of improvement for researchers to include more racially diverse subject populations include more comprehensive and in-depth advertising and recruitment strategies for their studies. Research Methods: In order to produce accurate analyses of the current state of the relationship between race and stroke rehabilitation efforts, 36 stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials from various locations across the United States were identified using the Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation Database for Stroke (SCOAR). These trials were evaluated in order to extract relevant data, such as number of trial participants, average age of participants, if the research trial was funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) or not, and any reported participant racial demographic details. Trends across these categories were compared between all trials to determine if any disparities existed in providing data sufficient to support the relationship between varying racial populations and stroke rehabilitation efforts. Future Project Efforts: Future efforts will include the completion of submitting a Point of View/Directions for Research article for publication to offer an opportunity for clinical and basic researchers to examine the discrepancies surrounding racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation clinical research. The aim is to improve the ability of clinicians to interpret the literature, translate research studies into practices, and better direct future experiments. Further identification of stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials will be necessary, as well as modifications to current written work content.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-12

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beeler_fall_2021.pdf

Description

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview:

SUMMARY: A failed attempt to conduct a systematic review of disparities in racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation research: A call to action Group Members: Adeline Beeler & Mikayla McNally Faculty Mentor(s): Dr. Sydney Schaefer & Dr. Keith Lohse Topic Overview: Stroke is responsible for the death of an individual every four minutes in the United States. While all Americans are gravely affected by this statistic, Black Americans are at a significantly increased risk of first stroke incidence when compared to their white counterparts, majorly due to heightened prevalence of stroke risk factors. Not only does race contribute as a factor in stroke incidence, but it also has a considerable impact in the physical impairment of Black Americans following stroke occurrence. While it still remains unclear as to whether or not stroke plays a significant role in stroke rehabilitation efforts, there is a clearly demonstrated need for increased reporting or participation of Black Americans in stroke rehabilitation clinical trials to have the ability to conduct a systematic review of these racial disparities in the near future. In the analysis of 36 stroke rehabilitation-related clinical research studies, 80% of selected trials failed to report any participant racial demographics, with 77.3% of the NIH-funded trials not reporting, as well. Out of the 7 trials that did provide some sort of participant racial information, only 5 successfully provided statistically significant racial data compared to the remainder that simply categorized participants’ race as “white” or “other.” In order to fully investigate the effects of race on stroke rehabilitation, it is imperative that researchers collect and report equally distributed and diverse participant racial data when publishing clinical research. Potential methods of improvement for researchers to include more racially diverse subject populations include more comprehensive and in-depth advertising and recruitment strategies for their studies. Research Methods: In order to produce accurate analyses of the current state of the relationship between race and stroke rehabilitation efforts, 36 stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials from various locations across the United States were identified using the Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation Database for Stroke (SCOAR). These trials were evaluated in order to extract relevant data, such as number of trial participants, average age of participants, if the research trial was funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) or not, and any reported participant racial demographic details. Trends across these categories were compared between all trials to determine if any disparities existed in providing data sufficient to support the relationship between varying racial populations and stroke rehabilitation efforts. Future Project Efforts: Future efforts will include the completion of submitting a Point of View/Directions for Research article for publication to offer an opportunity for clinical and basic researchers to examine the discrepancies surrounding racial inclusivity in stroke rehabilitation clinical research. The aim is to improve the ability of clinicians to interpret the literature, translate research studies into practices, and better direct future experiments. Further identification of stroke rehabilitation clinical research trials will be necessary, as well as modifications to current written work content.

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Date Created
2021-12