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Analytical and Insight Problem Solving Analyzed through EEGLAB

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Human potential is characterized by our ability to think flexibly and develop novel solutions to problems. In cognitive neuroscience, problem solving is studied using various tasks. For example, IQ can be tested using the RAVEN, which measures abstract reasoning. Analytical

Human potential is characterized by our ability to think flexibly and develop novel solutions to problems. In cognitive neuroscience, problem solving is studied using various tasks. For example, IQ can be tested using the RAVEN, which measures abstract reasoning. Analytical problem solving can be tested using algebra, and insight can be tested using a nine-dot test. Our class of problem-solving tasks blends analytical and insight processes. This can be done by measuring multiply-constrained problem solving (MCPS). MCPS occurs when an individual problem has several solutions, but when grouped with simultaneous problems only one correct solution presents itself. The most common test for MCPS is known at the CRAT, or compound remote associate task. For example, when given the three target words “water, skate, and cream” there are many compound associates that can be assigned each of the target words individually (i.e. salt-water, roller-skate, whipped-cream), but only one that works with all three (ice-water, ice-skate, ice-cream).
This thesis is a tutorial for a MATLAB user-interface, known as EEGLAB. Cognitive and neural correlates of analytical and insight processes were evaluated and analyzed in the CRAT using EEG. It was hypothesized that different EEG signals will be measured for analytical versus insight problem solving, primarily observed in the gamma wave production. The data was interpreted using EEGLAB, which allows psychological processes to be quantified based on physiological response. I have written a tutorial showing how to process the EEG signal through filtering, extracting epochs, artifact detection, independent component analysis, and the production of a time – frequency plot. This project has combined my interest in psychology with my knowledge of engineering and expand my knowledge of bioinstrumentation.

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2019-05

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Somatosensory Modulation during Speech Planning

Description

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the internal forward model processing an efferent copy of the motor

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the internal forward model processing an efferent copy of the motor command and creating a prediction that is used to cancel out the resulting sensory feedback. Currently, there are no published accounts of the perception of tactile signals for motor tasks and contexts related to the lips during both speech planning and production. In this study, we measured the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech planning using light electrical stimulation below the lower lip by comparing perception during mixed speaking and silent reading conditions. Participants were asked to judge whether a constant near-threshold electrical stimulation (subject-specific intensity, 85% detected at rest) was present during different time points relative to an initial visual cue. In the speaking condition, participants overtly produced target words shown on a computer monitor. In the reading condition, participants read the same target words silently to themselves without any movement or sound. We found that detection of the stimulus was attenuated during speaking conditions while remaining at a constant level close to the perceptual threshold throughout the silent reading condition. Perceptual modulation was most intense during speech production and showed some attenuation just prior to speech production during the planning period of speech. This demonstrates that there is a significant decrease in the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech production as well as milliseconds before speech is even produced which has implications for speech disorders such as stuttering and schizophrenia with pronounced deficits in the somatosensory system.

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2019-05

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Image Analysis for Registration, Segmentation, and Intensity Measurement of 2-Photon Microscope Images using MATLAB

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major concern in public health due to its prevalence and effect. Every year, about 1.7 million TBIs are reported [7]. According to the According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5.5%

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major concern in public health due to its prevalence and effect. Every year, about 1.7 million TBIs are reported [7]. According to the According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5.5% of all emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths from 2002 to 2006 are due to TBI [8]. The brain's natural defense, the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), prevents the entry of most substances into the brain through the blood stream, including medicines administered to treat TBI [11]. TBI may cause the breakdown of the BBB, and may result in increased permeability, providing an opportunity for NPs to enter the brain [3,4]. Dr. Stabenfeldt's lab has previously established that intravenously injected nanoparticles (NP) will accumulate near the injury site after focal brain injury [4]. The current project focuses on confirmation of the accumulation or extravasation of NPs after brain injury using 2-photon microscopy. Specifically, the project used controlled cortical impact injury induced mice models that were intravenously injected with 40nm NPs post-injury. The MATLAB code seeks to analyze the brain images through registration, segmentation, and intensity measurement and evaluate if fluorescent NPs will accumulate in the extravascular tissue of injured mice models. The code was developed with 2D bicubic interpolation, subpixel image registration, drawn dimension segmentation and fixed dimension segmentation, and dynamic image analysis. A statistical difference was found between the extravascular tissue of injured and uninjured mouse models. This statistical difference proves that the NPs do extravasate through the permeable cranial blood vessels in injured cranial tissue.

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2018-05

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Systemic Model of Morphine by Compartmentalization

Description

Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in pain management. Opioid administration to a patient after surgery, such as spinal decompression surgery, can lead to adverse side effects. To demonstrate these adverse side effects could be decreased we created

Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in pain management. Opioid administration to a patient after surgery, such as spinal decompression surgery, can lead to adverse side effects. To demonstrate these adverse side effects could be decreased we created a model of how morphine and its metabolites are transported and excreted from the body. Using the of morphine and a standard compartment approach this thesis aimed at projecting pharmacokinetics trends of morphine overtime. A Matlab compartment model predicting the transport of morphine through the body can contribute to a better understanding of the concentrations at the systemic level, specifically with respect to a CSF, and what happens when you compare an intravenous injection to a local delivery. Other studies and models commonly utilized patient data over small periods of time2,3,5. An extended period of time will provide information into morphine’s time course after surgery. This model focuses on a compartmentalization of the major organs and the use of a simple Mechalis-Menten enzyme kinetics for the metabolites in the liver. Our results show a CSF concentration of about 1.086×〖10〗^(-12) nmol/L in 6 weeks and 1.0097×〖10〗^(-12) nmol/L in 12 weeks. The concentration profiles in this model are similar to what was expected. The implications of this suggest that patients who reported effects of morphine paste, a locally administered opioid, weeks after the surgery were due to other reasons. In creating a model we can determine important variables and dosage information. This information allows for a greater understanding of what is happening in the body and how to improve surgical outcomes. We propose this study has implications in general research in the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of pharmacology through the body.

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2014-05

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A Novel Computing Platform for Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Cancer Imaging

Description

Compressed sensing magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a noninvasive and in vivo potential diagnostic technique for cancer imaging. This technique undersamples the distribution of specific cancer biomarkers within an MR image as well as changes in the temporal dimension

Compressed sensing magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a noninvasive and in vivo potential diagnostic technique for cancer imaging. This technique undersamples the distribution of specific cancer biomarkers within an MR image as well as changes in the temporal dimension and subsequently reconstructs the missing data. This technique has been shown to retain a high level of fidelity even with an acceleration factor of 5. Currently there exist several different scanner types that each have their separate analytical methods in MATLAB. A graphical user interface (GUI) was created to facilitate a single computing platform for these different scanner types in order to improve the ease and efficiency with which researchers and clinicians interact with this technique. A GUI was successfully created for both prospective and retrospective MRSI data analysis. This GUI retained the original high fidelity of the reconstruction technique and gave the user the ability to load data, load reference images, display intensity maps, display spectra mosaics, generate a mask, display the mask, display kspace and save the corresponding spectra, reconstruction, and mask files. Parallelization of the reconstruction algorithm was explored but implementation was ultimately unsuccessful. Future work could consist of integrating this parallelization method, adding intensity overlay functionality and improving aesthetics.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Startle-evoked movement in multi-jointed, two-dimensional reaching tasks

Description

Previous research has shown that a loud acoustic stimulus can trigger an individual's prepared movement plan. This movement response is referred to as a startle-evoked movement (SEM). SEM has been observed in the stroke survivor population where results have shown

Previous research has shown that a loud acoustic stimulus can trigger an individual's prepared movement plan. This movement response is referred to as a startle-evoked movement (SEM). SEM has been observed in the stroke survivor population where results have shown that SEM enhances single joint movements that are usually performed with difficulty. While the presence of SEM in the stroke survivor population advances scientific understanding of movement capabilities following a stroke, published studies using the SEM phenomenon only examined one joint. The ability of SEM to generate multi-jointed movements is understudied and consequently limits SEM as a potential therapy tool. In order to apply SEM as a therapy tool however, the biomechanics of the arm in multi-jointed movement planning and execution must be better understood. Thus, the objective of our study was to evaluate if SEM could elicit multi-joint reaching movements that were accurate in an unrestrained, two-dimensional workspace. Data was collected from ten subjects with no previous neck, arm, or brain injury. Each subject performed a reaching task to five Targets that were equally spaced in a semi-circle to create a two-dimensional workspace. The subject reached to each Target following a sequence of two non-startling acoustic stimuli cues: "Get Ready" and "Go". A loud acoustic stimuli was randomly substituted for the "Go" cue. We hypothesized that SEM is accessible and accurate for unrestricted multi-jointed reaching tasks in a functional workspace and is therefore independent of movement direction. Our results found that SEM is possible in all five Target directions. The probability of evoking SEM and the movement kinematics (i.e. total movement time, linear deviation, average velocity) to each Target are not statistically different. Thus, we conclude that SEM is possible in a functional workspace and is not dependent on where arm stability is maximized. Moreover, coordinated preparation and storage of a multi-jointed movement is indeed possible.

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2016-12

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Dela Rosa Final Project (Spring 2022)

Description

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was to model initial simulations predicting the output signal of the future compact x-ray free electron laser (CXFEL) XPCI source. The signal was reported in tonal values (“counts”), where MATLAB and MATLAB App Designer were the computing environments used to develop the simulations. The experimental setup’s components included a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) scintillating screen, mirror, and Mako G-507C camera with a Sony IMX264 sensor. The main function of the setup was to aim the X-rays at the YAG screen, then measure its scintillation through the photons emitted that hit the camera sensor. The resulting quantity used to assess the signal strength was tonal values (“counts”) per pixel on the sensor. Data for X-ray transmission through water, air, and polyimide was sourced from The Center for X-ray Optics’s simulations website, after which the data was interpolated and referenced in MATLAB. Matrices were an integral part of the saturation calculations; field-of-view (FOV), magnification and photon energies were also necessary. All the calculations were compiled into a graphical user interface (GUI) using App Designer. The code used to build this GUI can be used as a template for later, more complex GUIs and is a great starting point for future work in XPCI research at CXFEL.

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Date Created
2022-05

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CXFEL Screens

Description

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was to model initial simulations predicting the output signal of the future compact x-ray free electron laser (CXFEL) XPCI source. The signal was reported in tonal values (“counts”), where MATLAB and MATLAB App Designer were the computing environments used to develop the simulations. The experimental setup’s components included a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) scintillating screen, mirror, and Mako G-507C camera with a Sony IMX264 sensor. The main function of the setup was to aim the X-rays at the YAG screen, then measure its scintillation through the photons emitted that hit the camera sensor. The resulting quantity used to assess the signal strength was tonal values (“counts”) per pixel on the sensor. Data for X-ray transmission through water, air, and polyimide was sourced from The Center for X-ray Optics’s simulations website, after which the data was interpolated and referenced in MATLAB. Matrices were an integral part of the saturation calculations; field-of-view (FOV), magnification and photon energies were also necessary. All the calculations were compiled into a graphical user interface (GUI) using App Designer. The code used to build this GUI can be used as a template for later, more complex GUIs and is a great starting point for future work in XPCI research at CXFEL.

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Created

Date Created
2022-05

Image Intensity Calculations for XPCI Simulations Using a MATLAB GUI

Description

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is a novel imaging method that utilizes phase information of X-rays in order to produce images. XPCI allows for highly resolved features that traditional X-ray imaging modalities cannot discern. The objective of this experiment was to model initial simulations predicting the output signal of the future compact x-ray free electron laser (CXFEL) XPCI source. The signal was reported in tonal values (“counts”), where MATLAB and MATLAB App Designer were the computing environments used to develop the simulations. The experimental setup’s components included a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) scintillating screen, mirror, and Mako G-507C camera with a Sony IMX264 sensor. The main function of the setup was to aim the X-rays at the YAG screen, then measure its scintillation through the photons emitted that hit the camera sensor. The resulting quantity used to assess the signal strength was tonal values (“counts”) per pixel on the sensor. Data for X-ray transmission through water, air, and polyimide was sourced from The Center for X-ray Optics’s simulations website, after which the data was interpolated and referenced in MATLAB. Matrices were an integral part of the saturation calculations; field-of-view (FOV), magnification and photon energies were also necessary. All the calculations were compiled into a graphical user interface (GUI) using App Designer. The code used to build this GUI can be used as a template for later, more complex GUIs and is a great starting point for future work in XPCI research at CXFEL.

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Created

Date Created
2022-05