Matching Items (27)

132515-Thumbnail Image.png

Around the Corner Imaging: Developing a Graphical User Interface

Description

This Creative Project was carried out in coordination with the capstone project, Around the Corner Imaging with Terahertz Waves. This capstone project deals with a system designed to implement Around the Corner, or Non Line-of-Sight (NLoS) Imaging. This document discusses

This Creative Project was carried out in coordination with the capstone project, Around the Corner Imaging with Terahertz Waves. This capstone project deals with a system designed to implement Around the Corner, or Non Line-of-Sight (NLoS) Imaging. This document discusses the creation of a GUI using MATLAB to control the Terahertz Imaging system. The GUI was developed in response to a need for synchronization, ease of operation, easy parameter modification, and data management. Along the way, many design decisions were made ranging from choosing a software platform to determining how variables should be passed. These decisions and considerations are discussed in this document. The resulting GUI has measured up to the design criteria and will be able to be used by anyone wishing to use the Terahertz Imaging System for further research in the field of Around the Corner or NLoS Imaging.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2019-05

132535-Thumbnail Image.png

The Analysis of the Airflow around a Rotating Cylindrical Arrow

Description

This honors thesis explores and models the flow of air around a cylindrical arrow that is rotating as it moves through the air. This model represents the airflow around an archery arrow after it is released from the bow and

This honors thesis explores and models the flow of air around a cylindrical arrow that is rotating as it moves through the air. This model represents the airflow around an archery arrow after it is released from the bow and rotates while it flies through the air. This situation is important in archery because an understanding of the airflow allows archers to predict the flight of the arrow. As a result, archers can improve their accuracy and ability to hit targets. However, not many computational fluid dynamic simulations modeling the airflow around a rotating archery arrow exist. This thesis attempts to further the understanding of the airflow around a rotating archery arrow by creating a mathematical model to numerically simulate the airflow around the arrow in the presence of this rotation. This thesis uses a linearized approximation of the Navier Stokes equations to model the airflow around the arrow and explains the reasoning for using this simplification of the fully nonlinear Navier Stokes equations. This thesis continues to describe the discretization of these linearized equations using the finite difference method and the boundary conditions used for these equations. A MATLAB code solves the resulting system of equations in order to obtain a numerical simulation of this airflow around the rotating arrow. The results of the simulation for each velocity component and the pressure distribution are displayed. This thesis then discusses the results of the simulation, and the MATLAB code is analyzed to verify the convergence of the solution. Appendix A includes the full MATLAB code used for the flow simulation. Finally, this thesis explains potential future research topics, ideas, and improvements to the code that can help further the understanding and create more realistic simulations of the airflow around a flying archery arrow.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2019-05

Exterior Ballistics Simulation and Aiming Error Correction

Description

The purpose of this project was to create an algorithm to improve firearm aiming. In order to do so, a simulation of exterior ballistics – the bullet’s behavior between the firearm muzzle and the target – was created in MATLAB.

The purpose of this project was to create an algorithm to improve firearm aiming. In order to do so, a simulation of exterior ballistics – the bullet’s behavior between the firearm muzzle and the target – was created in MATLAB. The simulation of bullet trajectory included consideration of three forces: gravity, air drag, and Coriolis ‘force’. An overall equation of motion for the bullet in flight, comprising the effects of the aforementioned forces, was constructed using formulae and theory given in R. L. McCoy’s Modern Exterior Ballistics. For the project, a reference frame was defined based on firearm muzzle and target positions, and an aim vector described by two angles was defined to describe the direction of the firearm’s barrel. The simulations of bullet trajectory take into account eleven parameters: the two aim angles, initial bullet speed (commonly referred to as muzzle velocity), 3-D Cartesian components of wind velocity, air density, bullet diameter, bullet mass, latitude of the firing area, and azimuth of fire (a quantified compass direction of fire).

The user inputs target position, muzzle position, and estimated environmental parameters to the system. Then, an aim vector would be calculated to hit the target under estimated conditions. Because the eleven trajectory parameters likely cannot all be precisely known, this solution will have some error. In real life, the system would use feedback from real shots of a firearm to correct for this error. For this project, a real-world proxy simulation was created that had built-in random error and variations in the parameters. The correction algorithm uses the error data from all previous shots to calculate adjustments to the original aim vector, so that each successive shot becomes more accurate. The system was tested with specifications of a common rifle platform, with estimated parameters and variations for a location in Tempe, AZ (since data for an urban area is readily available compared to a point in the wilderness). Results from this testing revealed that the system can “hit” a 2-meter-radius circular target in under 30 shots. When the errors and variations in parameters were halved for the real-world stand-in simulation, the system could “hit” a circular target with 0.55 meter radius in less than 25 shots. After analysis, it was found that the corrected aim angles converged on values, suggesting that the correction algorithm functions as intended (taking into account all past shots). Generally, it was found that any reduction of the means and standard deviations of parameter error improved the ability of the system to hit smaller targets, or hit the same target with less shots.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2019-05

132664-Thumbnail Image.png

Analytical and Insight Problem Solving Analyzed through EEGLAB

Description

Human potential is characterized by our ability to think flexibly and develop novel solutions to problems. In cognitive neuroscience, problem solving is studied using various tasks. For example, IQ can be tested using the RAVEN, which measures abstract reasoning. Analytical

Human potential is characterized by our ability to think flexibly and develop novel solutions to problems. In cognitive neuroscience, problem solving is studied using various tasks. For example, IQ can be tested using the RAVEN, which measures abstract reasoning. Analytical problem solving can be tested using algebra, and insight can be tested using a nine-dot test. Our class of problem-solving tasks blends analytical and insight processes. This can be done by measuring multiply-constrained problem solving (MCPS). MCPS occurs when an individual problem has several solutions, but when grouped with simultaneous problems only one correct solution presents itself. The most common test for MCPS is known at the CRAT, or compound remote associate task. For example, when given the three target words “water, skate, and cream” there are many compound associates that can be assigned each of the target words individually (i.e. salt-water, roller-skate, whipped-cream), but only one that works with all three (ice-water, ice-skate, ice-cream).
This thesis is a tutorial for a MATLAB user-interface, known as EEGLAB. Cognitive and neural correlates of analytical and insight processes were evaluated and analyzed in the CRAT using EEG. It was hypothesized that different EEG signals will be measured for analytical versus insight problem solving, primarily observed in the gamma wave production. The data was interpreted using EEGLAB, which allows psychological processes to be quantified based on physiological response. I have written a tutorial showing how to process the EEG signal through filtering, extracting epochs, artifact detection, independent component analysis, and the production of a time – frequency plot. This project has combined my interest in psychology with my knowledge of engineering and expand my knowledge of bioinstrumentation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

133517-Thumbnail Image.png

Image Analysis for Registration, Segmentation, and Intensity Measurement of 2-Photon Microscope Images using MATLAB

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major concern in public health due to its prevalence and effect. Every year, about 1.7 million TBIs are reported [7]. According to the According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5.5%

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major concern in public health due to its prevalence and effect. Every year, about 1.7 million TBIs are reported [7]. According to the According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5.5% of all emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths from 2002 to 2006 are due to TBI [8]. The brain's natural defense, the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), prevents the entry of most substances into the brain through the blood stream, including medicines administered to treat TBI [11]. TBI may cause the breakdown of the BBB, and may result in increased permeability, providing an opportunity for NPs to enter the brain [3,4]. Dr. Stabenfeldt's lab has previously established that intravenously injected nanoparticles (NP) will accumulate near the injury site after focal brain injury [4]. The current project focuses on confirmation of the accumulation or extravasation of NPs after brain injury using 2-photon microscopy. Specifically, the project used controlled cortical impact injury induced mice models that were intravenously injected with 40nm NPs post-injury. The MATLAB code seeks to analyze the brain images through registration, segmentation, and intensity measurement and evaluate if fluorescent NPs will accumulate in the extravascular tissue of injured mice models. The code was developed with 2D bicubic interpolation, subpixel image registration, drawn dimension segmentation and fixed dimension segmentation, and dynamic image analysis. A statistical difference was found between the extravascular tissue of injured and uninjured mouse models. This statistical difference proves that the NPs do extravasate through the permeable cranial blood vessels in injured cranial tissue.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

133531-Thumbnail Image.png

Algorithmic Prediction of Binding Sites of TNFα/TNFR2 and PD-1/PD-L1

Description

Predicting the binding sites of proteins has historically relied on the determination of protein structural data. However, the ability to utilize binding data obtained from a simple assay and computationally make the same predictions using only sequence information would be

Predicting the binding sites of proteins has historically relied on the determination of protein structural data. However, the ability to utilize binding data obtained from a simple assay and computationally make the same predictions using only sequence information would be more efficient, both in time and resources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an algorithm developed to predict regions of high-binding on proteins as it applies to determining the regions of interaction between binding partners. This approach was applied to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), its receptor TNFR2, programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and one of its ligand PD-L1. The algorithms applied accurately predicted the binding region between TNFα and TNFR2 in which the interacting residues are sequential on TNFα, however failed to predict discontinuous regions of binding as accurately. The interface of PD-1 and PD-L1 contained continuous residues interacting with each other, however this region was predicted to bind weaker than the regions on the external portions of the molecules. Limitations of this approach include use of a linear search window (resulting in inability to predict discontinuous binding residues), and the use of proteins with unnaturally exposed regions, in the case of PD-1 and PD-L1 (resulting in observed interactions which would not occur normally). However, this method was overall very effective in utilizing the available information to make accurate predictions. The use of the microarray to obtain binding information and a computer algorithm to analyze is a versatile tool capable of being adapted to refine accuracy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

134487-Thumbnail Image.png

Monatomic Gas Effects on Brayton Cycle Propulsion and Power Systems

Description

Monatomic gases are ideal working mediums for Brayton cycle systems due to their favorable thermodynamic properties. Closed Brayton cycle systems make use of these monatomic gases to increase system performance and thermal efficiency. Open Brayton cycles, on the other hand,

Monatomic gases are ideal working mediums for Brayton cycle systems due to their favorable thermodynamic properties. Closed Brayton cycle systems make use of these monatomic gases to increase system performance and thermal efficiency. Open Brayton cycles, on the other hand, operate with primarily diatomic and polyatomic gases from air and combustion products, which have less favorable properties. The focus of this study is to determine if monatomic gases can be utilized in an open Brayton cycle system, in a way that increases the overall performance, but is still cost effective.
Two variations on open cycle Brayton systems were analyzed, consisting of an “airborne” thrust producing propulsion system, and a “ground-based” power generation system. Both of these systems have some mole fraction of He, Ne, or Ar injected into the flow path at the inlet, and some fraction of monatomic gas recuperated and at the nozzle exit to be re-circulated through the system. This creates a working medium of an air-monatomic gas mixture before the combustor, and a combustion products-monatomic gas mixture after combustor. The system’s specific compressor work, specific turbine work, specific net power output, and thermal efficiency were analyzed for each case. The most dominant metric for performance is the thermal efficiency (η_sys), which showed a significant increase as the mole fraction of monatomic gas increased for all three gas types. With a mole fraction of 0.15, there was a 2-2.5% increase in the airborne system, and a 1.75% increase of the ground-based system. This confirms that “spiking” any open Brayton system with monatomic gas will lead to an increase in performance. Additionally, both systems showed an increase in compressor and turbine work for a set temperature difference with He and Ne, which can additionally lead to longer component lifecycles with less frequent maintenance checks.
The cost analysis essentially compares the operating cost of a standard system with the operating cost of the monatomic gas “spiked” system, while keeping the internal mass flow rate and total power output the same. This savings is denoted as a percent of the standard system with %NCS. This metric lumps the cost ratio of the monatomic gas and fuel (MGC/FC) with the fraction of recuperated monatomic gas (RF) into an effective cost ratio that represents the cost per second of monatomic gas injected into the system. Without recuperation, the results showed there is no mole fraction of any monatomic gas type that yields a positive %NCS for a reasonable range of current MGC/FC values. Integrating recuperation machinery in an airborne system is hugely impractical, effectively meaning that the use of monatomic gas in this case is not feasible. For a ground-based system on the other hand, recuperation is much more practical. The ground-based system showed that a RF value of at least 50% for He, 89% for Ne, and 94% for Ar is needed for positive savings. This shows that monatomic gas could theoretically be used cost effectively in a ground-based, power-generating open Brayton system. With an injected monatomic gas mole fraction of 0.15, and full 100% recuperation, there is a net cost savings of about 3.75% in this ground-based system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

135758-Thumbnail Image.png

An Image Analysis Environment for Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles

Description

Food safety is vital to the well-being of society; therefore, it is important to inspect food products to ensure minimal health risks are present. A crucial phase of food inspection is the identification of foreign particles found in the sample,

Food safety is vital to the well-being of society; therefore, it is important to inspect food products to ensure minimal health risks are present. A crucial phase of food inspection is the identification of foreign particles found in the sample, such as insect body parts. The presence of certain species of insects, especially storage beetles, is a reliable indicator of possible contamination during storage and food processing. However, the current approach to identifying species is visual examination by human analysts; this method is rather subjective and time-consuming. Furthermore, confident identification requires extensive experience and training. To aid this inspection process, we have developed in collaboration with FDA analysts some image analysis-based machine intelligence to achieve species identification with up to 90% accuracy. The current project is a continuation of this development effort. Here we present an image analysis environment that allows practical deployment of the machine intelligence on computers with limited processing power and memory. Using this environment, users can prepare input sets by selecting images for analysis, and inspect these images through the integrated pan, zoom, and color analysis capabilities. After species analysis, the results panel allows the user to compare the analyzed images with referenced images of the proposed species. Further additions to this environment should include a log of previously analyzed images, and eventually extend to interaction with a central cloud repository of images through a web-based interface. Additional issues to address include standardization of image layout, extension of the feature-extraction algorithm, and utilizing image classification to build a central search engine for widespread usage.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

136851-Thumbnail Image.png

Systemic Model of Morphine by Compartmentalization

Description

Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in pain management. Opioid administration to a patient after surgery, such as spinal decompression surgery, can lead to adverse side effects. To demonstrate these adverse side effects could be decreased we created

Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in pain management. Opioid administration to a patient after surgery, such as spinal decompression surgery, can lead to adverse side effects. To demonstrate these adverse side effects could be decreased we created a model of how morphine and its metabolites are transported and excreted from the body. Using the of morphine and a standard compartment approach this thesis aimed at projecting pharmacokinetics trends of morphine overtime. A Matlab compartment model predicting the transport of morphine through the body can contribute to a better understanding of the concentrations at the systemic level, specifically with respect to a CSF, and what happens when you compare an intravenous injection to a local delivery. Other studies and models commonly utilized patient data over small periods of time2,3,5. An extended period of time will provide information into morphine’s time course after surgery. This model focuses on a compartmentalization of the major organs and the use of a simple Mechalis-Menten enzyme kinetics for the metabolites in the liver. Our results show a CSF concentration of about 1.086×〖10〗^(-12) nmol/L in 6 weeks and 1.0097×〖10〗^(-12) nmol/L in 12 weeks. The concentration profiles in this model are similar to what was expected. The implications of this suggest that patients who reported effects of morphine paste, a locally administered opioid, weeks after the surgery were due to other reasons. In creating a model we can determine important variables and dosage information. This information allows for a greater understanding of what is happening in the body and how to improve surgical outcomes. We propose this study has implications in general research in the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of pharmacology through the body.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

137108-Thumbnail Image.png

FOURFUN: A new system for automatic computations using Fourier expansions

Description

Using object-oriented programming in MATLAB, a collection of functions, named Fourfun, has been created to allow quick and accurate approximations of periodic functions with Fourier expansions. To increase efficiency and reduce the number of computations of the Fourier transform, Fourfun

Using object-oriented programming in MATLAB, a collection of functions, named Fourfun, has been created to allow quick and accurate approximations of periodic functions with Fourier expansions. To increase efficiency and reduce the number of computations of the Fourier transform, Fourfun automatically determines the number of nodes necessary for representations that are accurate to close to machine precision. Common MATLAB functions have been overloaded to keep the syntax of the Fourfun class as consistent as possible with the general MATLAB syntax. We show that the system can be used to efficiently solve several differential equations. Comparisons with Chebfun, a similar system based on Chebyshev polynomial approximations, are provided.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-05