Matching Items (18)

Attention and Memory Problems in Everyday Life Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

Description

The need to fully understand the possible consequences of young-adult cannabis use has become increasingly critical as a result of major cannabis policy changes. The purpose of this study was

The need to fully understand the possible consequences of young-adult cannabis use has become increasingly critical as a result of major cannabis policy changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if young-adult users exhibit cognitive deficits on laboratory-based tests and memory and attention deficits in everyday life. Participants were 152 students from a large U.S. university enrolled in introductory psychology courses and the top and bottom 10% of the 12-item Yale University PRIME Screening Test for psychotic-like experiences. Participants were asked about their cannabis use and were given six cognitive tests spanning executive function and memory. To test functional impairment in memory and attention, participants were asked to nominate informants (people who knew them well) and these rated the participants on an attention problems scale of four items and a memory problems scale of three items. Results showed that individuals who used cannabis more frequently were rated as having more attention and memory problems and that, consistent with prior research, more frequent cannabis use was associated with worse memory test performance, though the association was not present between frequency of use and executive function test performance. Additionally, it was found that informant-reported attention problems were associated with poorer performance on two of the executive function cognitive tests. The present findings suggest that individuals who use cannabis more frequently experience noticeable memory and attention problems in everyday life, despite the lack of significant correlation between this functional impairment and cognitive test performance. Informant reports, therefore, may be useful in future research for understanding or predicting cognitive impairment in young adults.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Differences in Student-Perceived Anxiety and Attention Levels Between Italian Language and Non-Language College Courses

Description

The levels of student-perceived anxiety and attention in the Italian language classroom were evaluated. The central evaluation focused on the differences between how students experience anxiety and attention between Italian

The levels of student-perceived anxiety and attention in the Italian language classroom were evaluated. The central evaluation focused on the differences between how students experience anxiety and attention between Italian language and non-language courses. First-year Italian language students were surveyed using a self-report measure to identify individual levels of anxiety and attention during Elementary Italian I (ITA 101) courses compared to their experiences in non-language 100-level courses. A total of 65 responses were collected from the ITA 101 students of four different professors at Arizona State University. It was hypothesized that students experience more anxiety and pay greater attention during language courses in comparison to non-language courses. However, the differences between how students experienced both attention and anxiety across language and non-language course types was not significant. Using the demographic and supplementary questions from the survey, the differing experiences of students with or without previous language experience were examined. The results suggest a significant relationship between students with language experience and how they experience attention in Italian language courses. Additionally, statistical analysis suggests that students experience anxiety differently in Italian language courses dependent on previous second language experience. Implications for language course prerequisites were identified and suggest that it is beneficial for students to have prior second language experience before enrolling in Italian courses. Suggestions for future research were made, including a suggestion for additional research to explore how anxiety and attention may differ in higher-level language courses in addition to a suggestion for creating a more reliable and valid survey for testing classroom anxiety and attention levels.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

Reevaluating the Relationship between Contingency and Congruency via the Flanker Task

Description

The purpose of this project was to extend Whitehead 2016 to determine what neural substrates supported conflict-mediated learning. Unfortunately, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic we were unable

The purpose of this project was to extend Whitehead 2016 to determine what neural substrates supported conflict-mediated learning. Unfortunately, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic we were unable to address this. To repurpose the collected data, an analysis of which features of the Flanker task subjects were learning was conducted. Specifically, we wanted to know if subjects were learning by using the flanking stimuli to predict the central target or vice versa. Over 14 blocks comprised of 120 trials, we found that subjects made more stroop errors than flanker and target errors, indicating subjects were responding to stimuli in context of the flanker rather than the stroop effect.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Do Pupillometry and the P3 Event-Related Potential Reflect Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System Activity in Humans?

Description

The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC-NE) has been argued to play a vital role in task engagement and attention control by the adaptive gain theory (Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005). One of

The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC-NE) has been argued to play a vital role in task engagement and attention control by the adaptive gain theory (Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005). One of the central claims of this theory is that tonic LC activity exhibits a quadratic relationship with task performance. Pupil dynamics have been correlated to LC-NE activity via primate intracranial recordings in ways that provide evidence for the adaptive gain theory. Due to the small size and location of the LC, less is known about LC functioning in humans, leading to a desire to find valid, noninvasive psychophysiological proxies to study this structure. In this paper we performed a replication of Murphy, Robertson, Balsters, & O’Connell (2011) to gather evidence on whether pupil fluctuations and the P3 event-related potential are viable markers for measuring tonic and phasic LC-NE activity in humans. A sample of 33 subjects from the Arizona State University human subjects pool provided usable electroencephalogram and pupillometry data collected during an auditory oddball task. Our analyses largely correspond with those found in Murphy et al. (2011) showing some evidence that pupillometry and P3 can be utilized when studying the LC. Moving forward we will reproduce the full set of analyses from Murphy et al. (2011) with our dataset.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Relations Between Central Executive Function and Scores on an ADHD Rating Scale in Second Grade Children

Description

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose of this study was to determine which components of central executive function were most closely related to parental rating scores of attention.
Method: Two hundred twenty three 2nd graders with typical development, dyslexia, developmental language disorder (DLD), or dyslexia/DLD completed three central executive tasks from the Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children–Working Memory (Gray, Alt, Hogan, Green, & Cowan, n.d.). Parents of the children completed the ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version for their child. None of the participants had been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD
Results: When diagnostic group performance was compared we found significant differences on each central executive task. When ADHD group performance was compared we found a significant between-group performance only on the n-back visual task with the high-risk group scoring lower than the other two groups. ADHD rating scores predicted a significant amount of variance for each central executive task, but percentages were small (3%-6%).
Discussion: Working memory is known to be related to attention control. Stronger attentional control is associated with a higher working memory performance. Our study showed that children most at risk for ADD/ADHD based on parent ratings scored lowest on the visuospatial task, likely because rehearsal of visuospatial information is not possible so relies more heavily on attention. This study is a step toward considering how attention affects working memory performance so that both can be considered when designing instruction and interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Transcranial Focused Ultrasound for Modulation of Attention Networks in Humans

Description

Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a unique neurostimulation modality with potential to develop into a highly sophisticated and effective tool. Unlike any other noninvasive neurostimulation technique, tFUS has a high

Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a unique neurostimulation modality with potential to develop into a highly sophisticated and effective tool. Unlike any other noninvasive neurostimulation technique, tFUS has a high spatial resolution (on the order of millimeters) and can penetrate across the skull, deep into the brain. Sub-thermal tFUS has been shown to induce changes in EEG and fMRI, as well as perception and mood. This study investigates the possibility of using tFUS to modulate brain networks involved in attention and cognitive control.Three different brain areas linked to saliency, cognitive control, and emotion within the cingulo-opercular network were stimulated with tFUS while subjects performed behavioral paradigms. The first study targeted the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which is associated with performance on cognitive attention tasks, conflict, error, and, emotion. Subjects performed a variant of the Erikson Flanker task in which emotional faces (fear, neutral or scrambled) were displayed in the background as distractors. tFUS significantly reduced the reaction time (RT) delay induced by faces; there were significant differences between tFUS and Sham groups in event related potentials (ERP), event related spectral perturbation (ERSP), conflict and error processing, and heart rate variability (HRV).
The second study used the same behavioral paradigm, but targeted tFUS to the right anterior insula/frontal operculum (aIns/fO). The aIns/fO is implicated in saliency, cognitive control, interoceptive awareness, autonomic function, and emotion. tFUS was found to significantly alter ERP, ERSP, conflict and error processing, and HRV responses.
The third study targeted tFUS to the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), employing the Stop Signal task to study inhibition. tFUS affected ERPs and improved stopping speed. Using network modeling, causal evidence is presented for rIFG influence on subcortical nodes in stopping.
This work provides preliminarily evidence that tFUS can be used to modulate broader network function through a single node, affecting neurophysiological processing, physiologic responses, and behavioral performance. Additionally it can be used as a tool to elucidate network function. These studies suggest tFUS has the potential to affect cognitive function as a clinical tool, and perhaps even enhance wellbeing and expand conscious awareness.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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An empirical assessment of the magician's "off-beat

Description

Magicians are informal cognitive scientists who regularly test their hypotheses in the real world. As such, they can provide scientists with novel hypotheses for formal psychological research as well as

Magicians are informal cognitive scientists who regularly test their hypotheses in the real world. As such, they can provide scientists with novel hypotheses for formal psychological research as well as a real-world context in which to study them. One domain where magic can directly inform science is the deployment of attention in time and across modalities. Both magicians and scientists have an incomplete understanding of how attention operates in time, rather than in space. However, magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call "off-beats," and these variables can speak to modern models of temporal attention. The current research examines two of these variables under conditions ranging from artificial laboratory tasks to the (almost) natural viewing of magic tricks. Across three experiments, I show that the detection of subtle dot probes in a noisy visual display and pieces of sleight of hand in magic tricks can be influenced by the seemingly irrelevant rhythmic qualities of auditory stimuli (cross-modal attentional entrainment) and processes of working memory updating (akin to the attentional blink).

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Consumers’ Health-Related Food Choices and Behaviors

Description

This dissertation offers three essays that investigate consumers’ health-related food choices and behaviors from three different, yet complementary, angles. The first essay uses an eye-tracking experiment to examine consumers’ visual

This dissertation offers three essays that investigate consumers’ health-related food choices and behaviors from three different, yet complementary, angles. The first essay uses an eye-tracking experiment to examine consumers’ visual attention to the Nutrition Facts Panels for healthy and unhealthy products. In this essay, I focus on how involvement and familiarity affect consumers’ attention toward the Nutrition Facts panel and how these two psychological factors interact with new label format changes in attracting consumers’ attention. In the second essay, I demonstrate using individual-level scanner data that nutritional attributes interact with marketing mix elements to affect consumers’ nutrition intake profiles and their intra-category substitution patterns. My findings suggest that marketing-mix sensitivities are correlated with consumers’ preferences for nutrient attributes in ways that depend on the “healthiness” of the nutrient. For instance, featuring promotes is positively correlated with “healthy” nutritional characteristics such as high-protein, low-fat, or low-carbohydrates, whereas promotion and display are positively correlated with preferences for “unhealthy” characteristics such as high-fat, or high-carbohydrates. I use model simulations to show that some marketing-mix elements are able to induce consumers to purchase items with higher maximum-content levels than others. The fourth chapter shows that dieters are not all the same. I develop and validate a new scale that measures lay theories about abstinence vs. moderation. My findings from a series of experiments indicate that dieters’ recovery from recalled vs. actual indulgences depend on whether they favor abstinence or moderation. However, compensatory coping strategies provide paths for people with both lay theories to recover after an indulgence, in their own ways. The three essays provide insights into individual differences that determine approaches of purchase behaviors, and consumption patterns, and life style that people choose, and these insights have potential policy implications to aid in designing the food-related interventions and policies to improve the healthiness of consumers’ consumption profiles and more general food well-being.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Improving sentence comprehension post-stroke using neuroimaging and neuropsychological approaches

Description

Cognitive deficits often accompany language impairments post-stroke. Past research has focused on working memory in aphasia, but attention is largely underexplored. Therefore, this dissertation will first quantify attention deficits post-stroke

Cognitive deficits often accompany language impairments post-stroke. Past research has focused on working memory in aphasia, but attention is largely underexplored. Therefore, this dissertation will first quantify attention deficits post-stroke before investigating whether preserved cognitive abilities, including attention, can improve auditory sentence comprehension post-stroke. In Experiment 1a, three components of attention (alerting, orienting, executive control) were measured in persons with aphasia and matched-controls using visual and auditory versions of the well-studied Attention Network Test. Experiment 1b then explored the neural resources supporting each component of attention in the visual and auditory modalities in chronic stroke participants. The results from Experiment 1a indicate that alerting, orienting, and executive control are uniquely affected by presentation modality. The lesion-symptom mapping results from Experiment 1b associated the left angular gyrus with visual executive control, the left supramarginal gyrus with auditory alerting, and Broca’s area (pars opercularis) with auditory orienting attention post-stroke. Overall, these findings indicate that perceptual modality may impact the lateralization of some aspects of attention, thus auditory attention may be more susceptible to impairment after a left hemisphere stroke.

Prosody, rhythm and pitch changes associated with spoken language may improve spoken language comprehension in persons with aphasia by recruiting intact cognitive abilities (e.g., attention and working memory) and their associated non-lesioned brain regions post-stroke. Therefore, Experiment 2 explored the relationship between cognition, two unique prosody manipulations, lesion location, and auditory sentence comprehension in persons with chronic stroke and matched-controls. The combined results from Experiment 2a and 2b indicate that stroke participants with better auditory orienting attention and a specific left fronto-parietal network intact had greater comprehension of sentences spoken with sentence prosody. For list prosody, participants with deficits in auditory executive control and/or short-term memory and the left angular gyrus and globus pallidus relatively intact, demonstrated better comprehension of sentences spoken with list prosody. Overall, the results from Experiment 2 indicate that following a left hemisphere stroke, individuals need good auditory attention and an intact left fronto-parietal network to benefit from typical sentence prosody, yet when cognitive deficits are present and this fronto-parietal network is damaged, list prosody may be more beneficial.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Attention harvesting for knowledge production

Description

This dissertation seeks to understand and study the process of attention harvesting and knowledge production on typical online Q&A communities. Goals of this study include quantifying the attention harvesting and

This dissertation seeks to understand and study the process of attention harvesting and knowledge production on typical online Q&A communities. Goals of this study include quantifying the attention harvesting and online knowledge, damping the effect of competition for attention on knowledge production, and examining the diversity of user behaviors on question answering. Project 1 starts with a simplistic discrete time model on a scale-free network and provides the method to measure the attention harvested. Further, project 1 highlights the effect of distractions on harvesting productive attention and in the end concludes which factors are influential and sensitive to the attention harvesting. The main finding is the critical condition to optimize the attention harvesting on the network by reducing network connection. Project 2 extends the scope of the study to quantify the value and quality of knowledge, focusing on the question answering dynamics. This part of research models how attention was distributed under typical answering strategies on a virtual online Q&A community. The final result provides an approach to measure the efficiency of attention transferred into value production and observes the contribution of different scenarios under various computed metrics. Project 3 is an advanced study on the foundation of the virtual question answering community from project 2. With highlights of different user behavioral preferences, algorithm stochastically simulates individual decisions and behavior. Results from sensitivity analysis on different mixtures of user groups gives insight of nonlinear dynamics for the objectives of success. Simulation finding shows reputation rewarding mechanism on Stack Overflow shapes the crowd mixture of behavior to be successful. In addition, project proposed an attention allocation scenario of question answering to improve the success metrics when coupling with a particular selection strategy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019