Matching Items (5)

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“Natural” Personal Care Product and Cosmetic Marketing: An Ideographic Analysis on Product Marketing

Description

The discussion of the word “natural” in product marketing and its power to persuade consumers is not often discussed. Research on consumer behavior surrounding “natural” products is compelling due to the current lack of research on the topic and true

The discussion of the word “natural” in product marketing and its power to persuade consumers is not often discussed. Research on consumer behavior surrounding “natural” products is compelling due to the current lack of research on the topic and true meaning of the word. Without any legal guidelines for the marketed use of the word “natural” in the sale of personal care products and cosmetics, consumers’ perceptions of the “naturally” marketed items are subjective. Additionally, brands identify with the word “natural” in different ways, using the word as an ideograph to suggest brand enhancing associations to consumers without legally needing to support these associations.

The following thesis is a creative project that looks at all facets of the “natural” personal care product and cosmetics industry. This includes the origin, history of use, regulations, and consumers’ understanding of the word “natural” in marketing, as well as the identity of the word “natural” as an ideograph. In addition, this project illustrates in-depth analyses of the three major consumer segments of this industry. These analyses uncover each consumer type’s perceived connotations of the word “natural” in personal care product and cosmetics and their characteristics and buying behavior. Lastly, this project features a plan for a digital marketing campaign to showcase this research and incite discussion that raises awareness surrounding the word “natural” in the beauty space.

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Date Created
2020-12

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Total Synthesis of Dolastatin 16 and the Silstatins: Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Sea

Description

The 23-step total synthesis of dolastatin 16, a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin, is presented. Included are syntheses of nonnatural amino acids dolamethylleuine and dolaphenvaline. The biological activity of the synthetic product differed from naturally isolated dolastatin 16, which may

The 23-step total synthesis of dolastatin 16, a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin, is presented. Included are syntheses of nonnatural amino acids dolamethylleuine and dolaphenvaline. The biological activity of the synthetic product differed from naturally isolated dolastatin 16, which may indicate the initial screening identified an inactive compound and the active one was not detected initially, or may be a result of the conformational dynamics induced by the proline residues. Additionally, a family of structural analogues to the bacillistatins, another cyclic marine depsipeptide, were synthesized. These were deemed the silstatins. 8 modifications were produced. The alterations aimed to introduce a heteroatomic residue for further derivatization, such as producing an antibody-drug conjugate. This introduction did in general decrease the neoplastic activity of these agents, as expected, but by modulating the lipophilicity of the compound we were able to salvage much of the potency of the bacillistatins while potentially allowing prodrug development.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Progress towards the synthesis of polyalthenol

Description

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents.

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus (MRSA) continues to plague the United States as well as throughout the world, at least in part because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, scientists continue to scour natural products as potential leads, either directly or indirectly, for antibiotics to treat MRSA. The structure of the indole sesquiterpene, polyalthenol, was discovered in 1976 and recent work shows a 4µg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a variety of strains of MRSA. Given the unique framework of this natural product and its biological activity against MRSA, the total synthesis becomes the next logical step. Presently a racemic synthesis has successfully afforded an indole ketone with the correct relative stereochemistry of polyalthenol, however, the completion of the total synthesis of polyalthenol presents several challenges. Herein, the work towards the synthesis is described in addition to the proposed completion of the synthesis.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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Organic innovation: shaping the continuous improvement of organic

Description

This report is a compilation of opportunities for organic innovation and deep dives on specific opportunities that may be of interest for the Organic Trade Association, or others, to pursue as distinct initiatives

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Created

Date Created
2020-08

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In vitro and In vivo assessment of the mechanism of action and efficacy of antibacterial clays for the treatment of cutaneous infections

Description

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens has increased since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s. Insufficient development of novel antibacterial agents is leaving us with a failing arsenal of therapies to combat these pathogenic organisms. We have identified

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens has increased since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s. Insufficient development of novel antibacterial agents is leaving us with a failing arsenal of therapies to combat these pathogenic organisms. We have identified a clay mineral mixture (designated CB) that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, yet the antibacterial mechanism of action remains unknown. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of four different clay samples collected from the same source revealed that these natural clays had markedly different antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction analyses of these minerals revealed minor mineralogical differences across the samples; however, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate resulted in antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the in vitro antibacterial clay mixture leachates. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to CB-L. Supplementation of CB-L with ROS scavengers eliminated oxidative damage in E. coli, but did not rescue the cells from killing, indicating that in vitro killing is due to direct metal toxicity and not to indirect oxidative damage. Finally, we ion-exchanged non-antibacterial clays with Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn and established antibacterial activity in these samples. Treatment of MRSA skin infections with both natural and ion-exchanged clays significantly decreased the bacterial load after 7 days of treatment. We conclude that 1) in vitro clay-mediated killing is due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions and not to indirect oxidative damage and 2) that in vivo killing is due to the physical properties of the clays rather than metal ion toxicity.

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Date Created
2014