Matching Items (4)

130929-Thumbnail Image.png

Prenatal Supplementation Research

Description

When viewing vitamins and minerals, it is seen that they are essential for human life and vital for pregnancy. When paired with a healthy diet, prenatal supplements can allow for a healthy pregnancy and reduced maternal and infant health problems.

When viewing vitamins and minerals, it is seen that they are essential for human life and vital for pregnancy. When paired with a healthy diet, prenatal supplements can allow for a healthy pregnancy and reduced maternal and infant health problems. Within this thesis, I was able to break down each vitamin and mineral necessary for a healthy pregnancy and birth. Further, I had the opportunity to dive into the addition of Omega-3 Fatty Acid during pregnancy to add more evidence to the study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-12

134303-Thumbnail Image.png

Optimized Prenatal Supplement for Preventing Autism

Description

Vitamins and minerals are, by definition, essential substances that are necessary for good health, and needed by every cell and organ to function appropriately. A deficiency of any one vitamin or mineral can be very serious. Although a very healthy

Vitamins and minerals are, by definition, essential substances that are necessary for good health, and needed by every cell and organ to function appropriately. A deficiency of any one vitamin or mineral can be very serious. Although a very healthy diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and protein can provide sufficient amounts of most vitamins and minerals, many people do not consume an adequate diet. During pregnancy, there is an increased need for vitamins and minerals to promote a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. Prenatal supplements are intended to supplement a normal diet to ensure that adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals are consumed. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established Recommended Dietary Allowances for total vitamin/mineral intake from food and supplements, but they have not established recommendations for prenatal supplements. Therefore, there is a very wide variation in the content and quality of prenatal supplements. Many prenatal supplements contain only minimal levels of some vitamins and few or no minerals, in order to minimize cost and the number of pills. This results in insufficient vitamin/mineral supplementation for many women, and hence does not fully protect them or their children from pregnancy complications and health problems. Therefore, we have created our own set of recommendations for prenatal supplements. Our recommendations are based primarily on four sources: 1) FDA's Recommended Daily Allowances for pregnant women, which are estimated to meet the needs of 97.5% of healthy pregnant women. 2) FDA's Tolerable Upper Limit, which is the maximum amount of vitamins/minerals that can be safely consumed without any risk of health problems. 3) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which evaluates the average intake of vitamins and minerals by women ages 20-40 years in the US 4) Research studies on vitamin/mineral deficiencies or vitamin/mineral supplementation during pregnancy, and the effect on pregnancy, birth, and child health problems. In summary, the RDA establishes minimum recommended levels of vitamin/mineral intake from all sources, and the NHANES establishes the average intake from foods. The difference is what needs to be consumed in a supplement, on average. However, since people vary greatly in the quality of their diet, and since most vitamins and minerals have a high Tolerable Upper Limit, we generally recommend more than the difference between the RDA and the average NHANES. Vitamins generally have a larger Tolerable Upper Limit than do minerals. So, we recommend that prenatal vitamin/mineral supplements contain 100% of the RDA for most vitamins, and about 50% of the RDA for most minerals. However, based on additional research studies described below, in some cases we vary our recommendations from those averages.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

132167-Thumbnail Image.png

Conflict Minerals

Description

Conflict Minerals are mined resources that cause countless human rights violations in their pursuit. The “3Ts and G” (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) are some of the most lucrative sources of income for armed militant groups in eastern Democratic Republic

Conflict Minerals are mined resources that cause countless human rights violations in their pursuit. The “3Ts and G” (tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold) are some of the most lucrative sources of income for armed militant groups in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), linking them to the deadliest global conflicts. A study from the Enough Project found that armed groups made an estimated $185 million from conflict minerals in 2008. A mortality study by the International Rescue Committee looking at conflict-related deaths between August 1998 and April 2007 estimated that more than 5.4 million people died as a result of armed conflict in Congo. Conflict minerals are used in everyday consumer electronics, automobiles, manufacturing equipment, electronics, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, and jewelry. Consumers need to continue to support Conflict Free regulations and policy such as the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. President Donald Trump threatened to remove the Dodd-Frank act which would reverse one of the only pieces of legislature which forces supply chains to be transparent and ethical. Colonialism is the practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth; conflict minerals and human rights violations that subsequently occur are a modern variation of colonialism. I think that consumers would respond with disdain if they were aware that items they purchase and use everyday are #conflicted. I designed a book, campaign, book, and physical exhibit to communicate information about conflict minerals to an audience.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

156103-Thumbnail Image.png

Hydrothermal reactions of organic compounds in the presence of minerals: a study of carboxylic acids

Description

Carboxylic acids are an abundant and reactive species present throughout our solar system. The reactions of carboxylic acids can shape the organic abundances within oil field brines, carbonaceous chondrites, and different ranks of coal.

I have performed hydrothermal experiments with

Carboxylic acids are an abundant and reactive species present throughout our solar system. The reactions of carboxylic acids can shape the organic abundances within oil field brines, carbonaceous chondrites, and different ranks of coal.

I have performed hydrothermal experiments with model aromatic carboxylic acids in the presences of different oxide minerals to investigate the reactions available to carboxylic acids in the presence of mineral surfaces. By performing experiments containing one organic compound and one mineral surface, I can begin to unravel the different reactions that can occur in the presence of different minerals.

I performed experiments with phenylacetic acid (PAA), hydrocinnamic acid (HCA) and benzoic acid (BA) in the presence of spinel (MgAl2O4), magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), and corundum (Al2O3). The focus of this work was metal oxide minerals, with and without transition metal atoms, and with different crystal structures. I found that all four oxide minerals facilitated ketonic decarboxylation reactions of carboxylic acids to form ketone structures. The two minerals containing transition metals (magnetite and hematite) also opened a reaction path involving electrochemical oxidation of one carboxylic acid, PAA, to the shorter chain version of a second carboxylic acid, BA, in experiments starting with PAA. Fundamental studies like these can help to shape our knowledge of the breadth of organic reactions that are possible in geologic systems and the mechanisms of those reactions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017