Matching Items (12)

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The Comparison of Frontostriatal Tracts Between Adolescents with ADHD and a Typically Developing Adolescent Control Group

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The frontostriatal reward circuit serves an underlying role in reward processing, cognitive planning, and motor control in the context of achieving a goal. Furthermore, research suggests a relationship between the

The frontostriatal reward circuit serves an underlying role in reward processing, cognitive planning, and motor control in the context of achieving a goal. Furthermore, research suggests a relationship between the reward circuits and behavior expressed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the specific structural differences of the reward circuits in those with ADHD remain ambiguous. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques were used to analyze diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data in order to examine the structural connectivity of frontostriatal reward pathways in ADHD adolescents compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents. It was hypothesized that measures of impulsivity would be predicted by white matter tract integrity measures in frontostriatal tracts related to affective processing (ventromedial prefrontal cortex to ventral striatum, vmPFC) in adolescents with ADHD, and that there would be reduced tract integrity in tracts related to executive control (dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex—dlPFC and ACC, respectively). Frontostriatal tracts as well as the hippocampus and amygdala were examined in relation to age and impulsivity using both correlation and regression models. Results indicated that impulsivity declined with age in the TD group while no significant trend was identified for the ADHD group. The hypotheses were not supported and results for both predictions on the affective and executive circuits showed opposite trends from what was expected.

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  • 2017-12

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Parental Stress in Raising a Child with ADHD

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This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with

This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with ADHD, as well as to determine what parents need from healthcare providers to mediate this stress. A survey was developed to identify sources of stress, consequences of parental stress, parental coping methods, resources provided by their healthcare provider that have been helpful, along with what they feel that they need from their healthcare providers in order to better support themselves and their family. Participants were composed of members of Facebook support groups for parents of children with ADHD. Major findings of this study include: parents experience the most stress when dealing with their child's oppositional and aggressive behaviors; parents frequently experience disruption in their marital relationship; and parents perceive that they receive little health care resources that are helpful for themselves, their child, and their family overall.

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  • 2018-05

The Effect of Assisted Cycle Therapy on Fine Motor Skills in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Previous research has found improvements in motor control following Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) in persons with Parkinson's disease, Down syndrome (DS) and autism. Our study examined the effect of ACT

Previous research has found improvements in motor control following Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) in persons with Parkinson's disease, Down syndrome (DS) and autism. Our study examined the effect of ACT on manual dexterity in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Nine adults with ADHD completed six weeks of light intensity cycling on a stationary bicycle, three times per week for 30 minutes. Four adults with ADHD were in the voluntary cycling (VC) group in which they pedaled at their self-selected rate. Five adults with ADHD were in the ACT group in which a motor moved their legs at a rate approximately 13% faster than their voluntary rate. Our results showed that the dominant hand moved more pegs following ACT than VC. Our results were interpreted with respect to upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the motor cortex following ACT.

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  • 2016-05

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Story of Samuel: A Boy Living with ADHD

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Abstract The purpose of this thesis to bring awareness to children who experience symptoms of ADHD to inform them they are not alone. In the form of a book that

Abstract The purpose of this thesis to bring awareness to children who experience symptoms of ADHD to inform them they are not alone. In the form of a book that is intended for readers between the ages of 8 and 11 years old can help them realize they are not the only ones that struggle with ADHD. Children who read this book hopefully can relate to the story of Samuel. The intent is to allow children with ADHD to know that there are children who are like them. They should not feel alone and know that with supportive family, friends, and teachers they can have successful relationships. It is important for children to realize that even though they may behave different from their peer it is acceptable to be different. When faced with bullying they should stand up for themselves or let their parents and teachers know what is going on. Children should be able to talk with their parents, and friends. When faced with change as long as children have a support system they can adjust with time to the change. Keywords: ADHD, Children, Book, Fiction

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  • 2018-05

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Familial Risk and Social Support in Children’s ADHD Symptoms

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder characterized by symptoms of impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity that interfere with development. Given the lasting academic and social deficits associated with ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder characterized by symptoms of impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity that interfere with development. Given the lasting academic and social deficits associated with ADHD symptoms, it is critical to study the risk factors of this disorder and possible factors that could protect against its development. Therefore, the current study investigated the potential role of social support from parents, siblings, teachers, and peers as promotive and protective factors against the development of ADHD symptoms for children at familial risk of developing ADHD symptoms. Participants included 903 twins (30.5% monozygotic twins, 35.9% same-sex dizygotic twins, 31.7% opposite-sex dizygotic twins) from the longitudinal Arizona Twin Project. Children (51.6% female) were assessed for social support and ADHD symptoms at age 8 (M = 8.42, SD = 0.68) and for ADHD symptoms at age 9 (M = 9.71, SD = 0.93). Children’s familial risk for developing ADHD symptoms was assessed as a function of their cotwin’s symptom status at age 8 and the pair’s zygosity. Mixed model regression analyses indicated that familial risk was a robust predictor of ADHD symptoms. Further, peer acceptance was found to operate as a promotive factor against the development of ADHD symptoms, with some evidence for positive parenting as a promotive factor, as well. None of the forms of social support were found to be protective factors for children at familial risk of developing ADHD symptoms. Bivariate twin analyses revealed that peer acceptance and ADHD were related for both genetic and environmental reasons, suggesting that children’s heritable behaviors influence their peer acceptance. Future directions may include examining additional factors as possible moderators of familial risk of developing ADHD symptoms.

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  • 2020-12

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Relations Between Central Executive Function and Scores on an ADHD Rating Scale in Second Grade Children

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Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose

Purpose: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to have central executive deficits in working memory as well as less academic success than children with typical development. The purpose of this study was to determine which components of central executive function were most closely related to parental rating scores of attention.
Method: Two hundred twenty three 2nd graders with typical development, dyslexia, developmental language disorder (DLD), or dyslexia/DLD completed three central executive tasks from the Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children–Working Memory (Gray, Alt, Hogan, Green, & Cowan, n.d.). Parents of the children completed the ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Home Version for their child. None of the participants had been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD
Results: When diagnostic group performance was compared we found significant differences on each central executive task. When ADHD group performance was compared we found a significant between-group performance only on the n-back visual task with the high-risk group scoring lower than the other two groups. ADHD rating scores predicted a significant amount of variance for each central executive task, but percentages were small (3%-6%).
Discussion: Working memory is known to be related to attention control. Stronger attentional control is associated with a higher working memory performance. Our study showed that children most at risk for ADD/ADHD based on parent ratings scored lowest on the visuospatial task, likely because rehearsal of visuospatial information is not possible so relies more heavily on attention. This study is a step toward considering how attention affects working memory performance so that both can be considered when designing instruction and interventions.

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  • 2019-12

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The Role of Attention in the Development of Coordination: Assessing the Effects of Attention on Fine and Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children

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Previous research has shown that there is a significant relation between one’s attentional abilities and one’s motor coordination. However, little research has been done that compares attention’s effects on the

Previous research has shown that there is a significant relation between one’s attentional abilities and one’s motor coordination. However, little research has been done that compares attention’s effects on the two major motor skills and what that could mean for one with significant attention problems. Additionally, there has not been much research done on this topic among a population of preschool-aged children. The current study sought to explore the relation between attention and motor coordination among a sample of preschoolers. A comparison of gross motor skills and fine motor skills was also assessed in order to address any potential differing effects. A sample of twenty-six preschool children participated in an experiment consisting of completing fine motor tasks, gross motor tasks, and an attention task. Additionally, parent and teacher surveys were collected that asked both parents and teachers to report their child’s behaviors at home. It was hypothesized that attention would have a significant relation with fine motor skills because past research has found that the variable of inattention is highly correlated with weaker fine motor skills. However, the current study found that attention had a more significant relation with gross motor skills. This finding was reflected across the experiments that the children completed and across the parent/teacher surveys.

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  • 2020-05

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Modeling ADHD: impulsivity, hyperlocomotion, and sensitivity to nicotine in the SHR strain of rat

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ADHD is a childhood neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inordinate levels of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The inability to withhold a reinforced response, or response inhibition capacity (RIC), is one aspect

ADHD is a childhood neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inordinate levels of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The inability to withhold a reinforced response, or response inhibition capacity (RIC), is one aspect of impulsivity associated with ADHD. The first goal of this dissertation was to evaluate the fixed minimum interval (FMI) schedule as a method for assessing RIC. Chapter 2 showed that latencies were substantially more sensitive than FMI-derived estimates of RIC to the effects of pre-feeding and changes in rate and magnitude of reinforcement. Chapter 3 examined the ability of the FMI to discriminate between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD, and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Results from Chapter 3 showed that RIC was not substantially different between SHR and WKY rats. However, latencies were significantly shorter for SHRs than for WKYs suggesting incentive motivation differed between strains. The second goal of this dissertation was to examine the sensitivity of the SHR to nicotine. ADHD is a risk factor for tobacco dependence. The goal of Chapters 4 and 5 was to determine whether the SHR provided a model of ADHD-related tobacco sensitivity. Chapter 4 examined nicotine's locomotor and rewarding effects in adolescent SHRs using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. SHRs developed CPP to the highest nicotine dose tested and were sensitive to nicotine's locomotor-enhancing properties. WKY controls did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested and were not sensitive to nicotine's locomotor properties. However, it is likely that nicotine effects were obscured by a pseudo-conditioning to saline in WKYs. Chapter 5 demonstrated that SHRs were more active than WKYs in the open-field but not in the Rotorat apparatus. Results also showed that SHRs and WKYs were both sensitive to nicotine's locomotor sensitizing effects. However, WKYs were more sensitive than SHRs to nicotine's locomotor suppressing effects. Collectively, results from Chapters 4 and 5 show that SHRs are sensitive to the rewarding and locomotor-enhancing properties of nicotine. However, more research is necessary to confirm that SHRs are a suitable model for studying ADHD-related tobacco use.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Effects of nicotine on response inhibition and fos activation in spontaneously hypertensive and wistar kyoto Rats

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Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and early initiation is associated with greater difficulty quitting. Among adolescent smokers, those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and early initiation is associated with greater difficulty quitting. Among adolescent smokers, those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by difficulties associated with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention, smoke at nearly twice the rate of their peers. Although cigarette smoking is highly addictive, nicotine is a relatively weak primary reinforcer, spurring research on other potential targets that may maintain smoking, including the potential benefits of nicotine on attention, inhibition, and reinforcer efficacy. The present study employs the most prevalent rodent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and its control comparison Wistar Kyoto (WKY) to examine the effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous nicotine injections on performance in three operant response inhibition paradigms. Functional activation in select regions of the prefrontal cortex and striatum was also explored. Acute (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) and chronic (0.3 mg/kg) nicotine increased impulsive responding regardless of strain, dose, or operant schedule. Dose-dependent decreases in latency to initiate the task were also observed. SHR receiving daily nicotine injections showed less activation in the nucleus accumbens shell compared to saline controls. Despite close similarities, one of the three operant tasks did not detect response inhibition deficits in SHR relative to WKY. A closer examination of these tasks may highlight critical components involved in the amelioration of response inhibition deficits.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Making better students: ADHD in higher education and the biopolitics of stimulant medication

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According to my 2016 survey of ASU undergraduate students, 33% have used stimulant medications (e.g. Adderall or Ritalin) without a prescription to study. I view this practice as a ste

According to my 2016 survey of ASU undergraduate students, 33% have used stimulant medications (e.g. Adderall or Ritalin) without a prescription to study. I view this practice as a step towards cognitive enhancement, which is the deliberate application of biotechnology to radically alter the human condition. From a foresight perspective, the ability to actively improve human beings, to take our evolutionary destiny into our own hands, may be a turning point on par with agriculture or the use of fossil fuels. The existential risks, however, may be greater than the benefits—and many of the most radical technologies have made little documented progress.

I turn to an actual example where people are trying to make themselves marginally better at academic tasks, as a guide to how future transformative development in human enhancement may be incorporated into everyday practice. This project examines the history and context that led to the widespread use of stimulant medication on college campuses. I describe how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), for which stimulant medication is prescribed and diverted, governs students, negotiates relationships between parents and school authorities, and manages anxieties resulting from a competitive neoliberal educational system. I extend this archeology of ADHD through the actions and ethical beliefs of college students, and the bioethical arguments for and against human enhancement. Through this work, I open a new space for an expanded role for universities as institutions capable of creating experimental communities supporting ethical cognitive enhancement.

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Date Created
  • 2016