Matching Items (73)

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An optimization model for emergency response crew location within a theme park

Description

Every year, millions of guests visit theme parks internationally. Within that massive population, accidents and emergencies are bound to occur. Choosing the correct location for emergency responders inside of the park could mean the difference between life and death. In

Every year, millions of guests visit theme parks internationally. Within that massive population, accidents and emergencies are bound to occur. Choosing the correct location for emergency responders inside of the park could mean the difference between life and death. In an effort to provide the utmost safety for the guests of a park, it is important to make the best decision when selecting the location for emergency response crews. A theme park is different from a regular residential or commercial area because the crowds and shows block certain routes, and they change throughout the day. We propose an optimization model that selects staging locations for emergency medical responders in a theme park to maximize the number of responses that can occur within a pre-specified time. The staging areas are selected from a candidate set of restricted access locations where the responders can store their equipment. Our solution approach considers all routes to access any park location, including areas that are unavailable to a regular guest. Theme parks are a highly dynamic environment. Because special events occurring in the park at certain hours (e.g., parades) might impact the responders' travel times, our model's decisions also include the time dimension in the location and re-location of the responders. Our solution provides the optimal location of the responders for each time partition, including backup responders. When an optimal solution is found, the model is also designed to consider alternate optimal solutions that provide a more balanced workload for the crews.

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Date Created
2017-12

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A Stochastic Airline Staff Scheduling Model with Risk Considerations that Minimizes Costs

Description

Most staff planning for airline industries are done using point estimates; these do not account for the probabilistic nature of employees not showing up to work, and the airline company risks being under or overstaffed at different times, which increases

Most staff planning for airline industries are done using point estimates; these do not account for the probabilistic nature of employees not showing up to work, and the airline company risks being under or overstaffed at different times, which increases costs and deteriorates customer service. This model proposes utilizing a stochastic method for American Airlines to schedule their ground crew staff. We developed a stochastic model for scheduling that incorporates the risks of absent employees and as well as reliability so that stakeholders can determine the level of reliability they want to maintain in their system based on the costs. We also incorporated a preferences component to the model in order to increase staff satisfaction in the schedules they get assigned based on their predetermined preferences. Since this is a general staffing model, this can be utilized for an airline crew or virtually any other workforce so long as certain parameters about the population can be determined.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Operations Research Contributions to Emergency Department Patient Flow Optimization: A Review

Description

In recent years, Operations Research (OR) has had a signicant impact on improving the performance of hospital Emergency Departments (EDs). This includes improving a wide range of processes involving patient ow from the initial call to the ED through disposition,

In recent years, Operations Research (OR) has had a signicant impact on improving the performance of hospital Emergency Departments (EDs). This includes improving a wide range of processes involving patient ow from the initial call to the ED through disposition, discharge home, or admission to the hospital. We mainly seek to illustrate the benet of OR in EDs, and provide an overview of research performed in this vein to assist both researchers and practitioners. We also elaborate on possibilities for future researchers by shedding light on some less studied aspects that can have valuable impacts on practice.

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Created

Date Created
2013-12

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Production scheduling and system configuration for capacitated flow lines with application in the semiconductor backend process

Description

A good production schedule in a semiconductor back-end facility is critical for the on time delivery of customer orders. Compared to the front-end process that is dominated by re-entrant product flows, the back-end process is linear and therefore more suitable

A good production schedule in a semiconductor back-end facility is critical for the on time delivery of customer orders. Compared to the front-end process that is dominated by re-entrant product flows, the back-end process is linear and therefore more suitable for scheduling. However, the production scheduling of the back-end process is still very difficult due to the wide product mix, large number of parallel machines, product family related setups, machine-product qualification, and weekly demand consisting of thousands of lots. In this research, a novel mixed-integer-linear-programming (MILP) model is proposed for the batch production scheduling of a semiconductor back-end facility. In the MILP formulation, the manufacturing process is modeled as a flexible flow line with bottleneck stages, unrelated parallel machines, product family related sequence-independent setups, and product-machine qualification considerations. However, this MILP formulation is difficult to solve for real size problem instances. In a semiconductor back-end facility, production scheduling usually needs to be done every day while considering updated demand forecast for a medium term planning horizon. Due to the limitation on the solvable size of the MILP model, a deterministic scheduling system (DSS), consisting of an optimizer and a scheduler, is proposed to provide sub-optimal solutions in a short time for real size problem instances. The optimizer generates a tentative production plan. Then the scheduler sequences each lot on each individual machine according to the tentative production plan and scheduling rules. Customized factory rules and additional resource constraints are included in the DSS, such as preventive maintenance schedule, setup crew availability, and carrier limitations. Small problem instances are randomly generated to compare the performances of the MILP model and the deterministic scheduling system. Then experimental design is applied to understand the behavior of the DSS and identify the best configuration of the DSS under different demand scenarios. Product-machine qualification decisions have long-term and significant impact on production scheduling. A robust product-machine qualification matrix is critical for meeting demand when demand quantity or mix varies. In the second part of this research, a stochastic mixed integer programming model is proposed to balance the tradeoff between current machine qualification costs and future backorder costs with uncertain demand. The L-shaped method and acceleration techniques are proposed to solve the stochastic model. Computational results are provided to compare the performance of different solution methods.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Passenger volumes post-accession to the European Union: signs of Southwest Airlines' model in Central and Eastern Europe

Description

In 2004 the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the European Union (EU) as part of the EU's greatest enlargement to date. These countries were followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007. One benefit of

In 2004 the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the European Union (EU) as part of the EU's greatest enlargement to date. These countries were followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007. One benefit of joining the EU was the freedom for residents in the new EU member states to migrate to western European nations, notably the United Kingdom (UK). A result of this new freedom was an increased need for air travel. The intersection of the expansion of the EU with the introduction of low-cost airline service was the topic addressed in this study. Yearly traffic statistics obtained from the UK Civil Aviation Authority were used to formulate a trend line of passenger volume growth from 1990 to 2003. Through a time series regression analysis, a confidence interval was calculated that established that, beginning with the year 2004, passenger volumes exceeded the probable margin of error, despite flat population growth. Low-cost carriers responded to these market conditions through the introduction of new flights across the region. These carriers modeled themselves after Southwest Airlines, a strategy that appeared to be more effective at meeting the needs of the post-accession travel boom. The result was a dramatic rise in both passenger volumes and low-cost airline routes in an east-west direction across the continent.

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Created

Date Created
2012

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Routing and scheduling of electric and alternative-fuel vehicles

Description

Vehicles powered by electricity and alternative-fuels are becoming a more popular form of transportation since they have less of an environmental impact than standard gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately, their success is currently inhibited by the sparseness of locations where the vehicles

Vehicles powered by electricity and alternative-fuels are becoming a more popular form of transportation since they have less of an environmental impact than standard gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately, their success is currently inhibited by the sparseness of locations where the vehicles can refuel as well as the fact that many of the vehicles have a range that is less than those powered by gasoline. These factors together create a "range anxiety" in drivers, which causes the drivers to worry about the utility of alternative-fuel and electric vehicles and makes them less likely to purchase these vehicles. For the new vehicle technologies to thrive it is critical that range anxiety is minimized and performance is increased as much as possible through proper routing and scheduling. In the case of long distance trips taken by individual vehicles, the routes must be chosen such that the vehicles take the shortest routes while not running out of fuel on the trip. When many vehicles are to be routed during the day, if the refueling stations have limited capacity then care must be taken to avoid having too many vehicles arrive at the stations at any time. If the vehicles that will need to be routed in the future are unknown then this problem is stochastic. For fleets of vehicles serving scheduled operations, switching to alternative-fuels requires ensuring the schedules do not cause the vehicles to run out of fuel. This is especially problematic since the locations where the vehicles may refuel are limited due to the technology being new. This dissertation covers three related optimization problems: routing a single electric or alternative-fuel vehicle on a long distance trip, routing many electric vehicles in a network where the stations have limited capacity and the arrivals into the system are stochastic, and scheduling fleets of electric or alternative-fuel vehicles with limited locations to refuel. Different algorithms are proposed to solve each of the three problems, of which some are exact and some are heuristic. The algorithms are tested on both random data and data relating to the State of Arizona.

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Date Created
2014

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Metrics to Compare Arc-based and Node-based Districting Models

Description

The outbreak of the coronavirus has impacted retailers and the food industry after they were forced to switch to delivery services due to social distancing measures. During these times, online sales and local deliveries started to see an increase in

The outbreak of the coronavirus has impacted retailers and the food industry after they were forced to switch to delivery services due to social distancing measures. During these times, online sales and local deliveries started to see an increase in their demand - making these methods the new way of staying in business. For this reason, this research seeks to identify strategies that could be implemented by delivery service companies to improve their operations by comparing two types of p-median models (node-based and edge-based). To simulate demand, geographical data will be analyzed for the cities of San Diego and Paris. The usage of districting models will allow the determination on how balance and compact the service regions are within the districts. After analyzing the variability of each demand simulation run, conclusions will be made on whether one model is better than the other.

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Date Created
2020-12

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Optimal Scheduling of the Refurbishment of Rotable Parts in an Aircraft Maintenance System

Description

The efficient refurbishment of rotable parts on an aircraft proves to be a main concern for airline carriers today. Airlines must be able to seamlessly rotate parts into and out of the system for maintenance in accordance with FAA requirements

The efficient refurbishment of rotable parts on an aircraft proves to be a main concern for airline carriers today. Airlines must be able to seamlessly rotate parts into and out of the system for maintenance in accordance with FAA requirements while leaving daily operations uninterrupted. In this paper, we develop an airline maintenance scheduling model that constructs an optimal schedule for part maintenance over a given time horizon using deterministic forecasting techniques. The model generates a schedule that minimizes the total cost of a maintenance schedule solution while maximizing the utility of all parts in the system. The model is then tested against actual network data of three part types crucial to airline operations and used to investigate the current data collection processes of US Airways maintenance lead time metrics. Manual sensitivity analysis is performed to generate the marginal value of each parameter and potential model extensions are highlighted as a result of these conclusions.

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Created

Date Created
2013-12

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Fix-and-optimize heuristic and MP-based approaches for capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging

Description

In this thesis, a single-level, multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging is investigated. This problem is typically used in the tactical and operational planning stage, determining the optimal production quantities and sequencing for all

In this thesis, a single-level, multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging is investigated. This problem is typically used in the tactical and operational planning stage, determining the optimal production quantities and sequencing for all the products in the planning horizon. Although the capacitated lot sizing problems have been investigated with many different features from researchers, the simultaneous consideration of setup carryover and setup splitting is relatively new. This consideration is beneficial to reduce costs and produce feasible production schedule. Setup carryover allows the production setup to be continued between two adjacent periods without incurring extra setup costs and setup times. Setup splitting permits the setup to be partially finished in one period and continued in the next period, utilizing the capacity more efficiently and remove infeasibility of production schedule.

The main approaches are that first the simple plant location formulation is adopted to reformulate the original model. Furthermore, an extended formulation by redefining the idle period constraints is developed to make the formulation tighter. Then for the purpose of evaluating the solution quality from heuristic, three types of valid inequalities are added to the model. A fix-and-optimize heuristic with two-stage product decomposition and period decomposition strategies is proposed to solve the formulation. This generic heuristic solves a small portion of binary variables and all the continuous variables rapidly in each subproblem. In addition, the case with demand backlogging is also incorporated to demonstrate that making additional assumptions to the basic formulation does not require to completely altering the heuristic.

The contribution of this thesis includes several aspects: the computational results show the capability, flexibility and effectiveness of the approaches. The average optimality gap is 6% for data without backlogging and 8% for data with backlogging, respectively. In addition, when backlogging is not allowed, the performance of fix-and-optimize heuristic is stable regardless of period length. This gives advantage of using such approach to plan longer production schedule. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed solution approaches is analyzed so that later research on similar topics could compare the result with different solution strategies.

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Date Created
2015

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Energy market transparency: analyzing the impacts of constraint relaxation and out-of-market correction practices in electric energy markets

Description

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated.

Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

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Date Created
2016