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Intervention Strategies for the DoD Acquisition Process Using Simulation

Description

The current Enterprise Requirements and Acquisition Model (ERAM), a discrete event simulation of the major tasks and decisions within the DoD acquisition system, identifies several what-if intervention strategies to improve program completion time. However, processes that contribute to the program

The current Enterprise Requirements and Acquisition Model (ERAM), a discrete event simulation of the major tasks and decisions within the DoD acquisition system, identifies several what-if intervention strategies to improve program completion time. However, processes that contribute to the program acquisition completion time were not explicitly identified in the simulation study. This research seeks to determine the acquisition processes that contribute significantly to total simulated program time in the acquisition system for all programs reaching Milestone C. Specifically, this research examines the effect of increased scope management, technology maturity, and decreased variation and mean process times in post-Design Readiness Review contractor activities by performing additional simulation analyses. Potential policies are formulated from the results to further improve program acquisition completion time.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-05

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A model fusion based framework for imbalanced classification problem with noisy dataset

Description

Data imbalance and data noise often coexist in real world datasets. Data imbalance affects the learning classifier by degrading the recognition power of the classifier on the minority class, while data noise affects the learning classifier by providing inaccurate information

Data imbalance and data noise often coexist in real world datasets. Data imbalance affects the learning classifier by degrading the recognition power of the classifier on the minority class, while data noise affects the learning classifier by providing inaccurate information and thus misleads the classifier. Because of these differences, data imbalance and data noise have been treated separately in the data mining field. Yet, such approach ignores the mutual effects and as a result may lead to new problems. A desirable solution is to tackle these two issues jointly. Noting the complementary nature of generative and discriminative models, this research proposes a unified model fusion based framework to handle the imbalanced classification with noisy dataset.

The phase I study focuses on the imbalanced classification problem. A generative classifier, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is studied which can learn the distribution of the imbalance data to improve the discrimination power on imbalanced classes. By fusing this knowledge into cost SVM (cSVM), a CSG method is proposed. Experimental results show the effectiveness of CSG in dealing with imbalanced classification problems.

The phase II study expands the research scope to include the noisy dataset into the imbalanced classification problem. A model fusion based framework, K Nearest Gaussian (KNG) is proposed. KNG employs a generative modeling method, GMM, to model the training data as Gaussian mixtures and form adjustable confidence regions which are less sensitive to data imbalance and noise. Motivated by the K-nearest neighbor algorithm, the neighboring Gaussians are used to classify the testing instances. Experimental results show KNG method greatly outperforms traditional classification methods in dealing with imbalanced classification problems with noisy dataset.

The phase III study addresses the issues of feature selection and parameter tuning of KNG algorithm. To further improve the performance of KNG algorithm, a Particle Swarm Optimization based method (PSO-KNG) is proposed. PSO-KNG formulates model parameters and data features into the same particle vector and thus can search the best feature and parameter combination jointly. The experimental results show that PSO can greatly improve the performance of KNG with better accuracy and much lower computational cost.

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Agent

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Date Created
2014

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The Applications of Deep Learning in Medical Imaging Diagnosis

Description

In this thesis, the applications of deep learning in the analysis, detection and classification of medical imaging datasets were studied, with a focus on datasets having a limited sample size. A combined machine learning-deep learning model was designed to

In this thesis, the applications of deep learning in the analysis, detection and classification of medical imaging datasets were studied, with a focus on datasets having a limited sample size. A combined machine learning-deep learning model was designed to classify one small dataset, prostate cancer provided by Mayo Clinic, Arizona. Deep learning model was implemented to extract imaging features followed by machine learning classifier for prostate cancer diagnosis. The results were compared against models trained on texture-based features, namely gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor. Some of the challenges of performing diagnosis on medical imaging datasets with limited sample sizes, have been identified. Lastly, a set of future works have been proposed. Keywords: Deep learning, radiology, transfer learning, convolutional neural network.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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Outlier-Aware Applications in High-Dimensional Industrial Systems

Description

High-dimensional data is omnipresent in modern industrial systems. An imaging sensor in a manufacturing plant a can take images of millions of pixels or a sensor may collect months of data at very granular time steps. Dimensionality reduction techniques are

High-dimensional data is omnipresent in modern industrial systems. An imaging sensor in a manufacturing plant a can take images of millions of pixels or a sensor may collect months of data at very granular time steps. Dimensionality reduction techniques are commonly used for dealing with such data. In addition, outliers typically exist in such data, which may be of direct or indirect interest given the nature of the problem that is being solved. Current research does not address the interdependent nature of dimensionality reduction and outliers. Some works ignore the existence of outliers altogether—which discredits the robustness of these methods in real life—while others provide suboptimal, often band-aid solutions. In this dissertation, I propose novel methods to achieve outlier-awareness in various dimensionality reduction methods. The problem is considered from many different angles depend- ing on the dimensionality reduction technique used (e.g., deep autoencoder, tensors), the nature of the application (e.g., manufacturing, transportation) and the outlier structure (e.g., sparse point anomalies, novelties).

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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Design and Mining of Health Information Systems for Process and Patient Care Improvement

Description

In healthcare facilities, health information systems (HISs) are used to serve different purposes. The radiology department adopts multiple HISs in managing their operations and patient care. In general, the HISs that touch radiology fall into two categories: tracking HISs and

In healthcare facilities, health information systems (HISs) are used to serve different purposes. The radiology department adopts multiple HISs in managing their operations and patient care. In general, the HISs that touch radiology fall into two categories: tracking HISs and archive HISs. Electronic Health Records (EHR) is a typical tracking HIS, which tracks the care each patient receives at multiple encounters and facilities. Archive HISs are typically specialized databases to store large-size data collected as part of the patient care. A typical example of an archive HIS is the Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS), which provides economical storage and convenient access to diagnostic images from multiple modalities. How to integrate such HISs and best utilize their data remains a challenging problem due to the disparity of HISs as well as high-dimensionality and heterogeneity of the data. My PhD dissertation research includes three inter-connected and integrated topics and focuses on designing integrated HISs and further developing statistical models and machine learning algorithms for process and patient care improvement.

Topic 1: Design of super-HIS and tracking of quality of care (QoC). My research developed an information technology that integrates multiple HISs in radiology, and proposed QoC metrics defined upon the data that measure various dimensions of care. The DDD assisted the clinical practices and enabled an effective intervention for reducing lengthy radiologist turnaround times for patients.

Topic 2: Monitoring and change detection of QoC data streams for process improvement. With the super-HIS in place, high-dimensional data streams of QoC metrics are generated. I developed a statistical model for monitoring high- dimensional data streams that integrated Singular Vector Decomposition (SVD) and process control. The algorithm was applied to QoC metrics data, and additionally extended to another application of monitoring traffic data in communication networks.

Topic 3: Deep transfer learning of archive HIS data for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The novelty of the CAD system is the development of a deep transfer learning algorithm that combines the ideas of transfer learning and multi- modality image integration under the deep learning framework. Our system achieved high accuracy in breast cancer diagnosis compared with conventional machine learning algorithms.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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A Disease Progression Modeling Framework for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Using Multiparametric Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Elastography

Description

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of Nonalcoholic fatty liverdisease, that is caused due to excessive calorie intake, sedentary lifestyle and in the
absence of severe alcohol consumption. It is widely prevalent in the United States
and in many

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of Nonalcoholic fatty liverdisease, that is caused due to excessive calorie intake, sedentary lifestyle and in the
absence of severe alcohol consumption. It is widely prevalent in the United States
and in many other developed countries, affecting up to 25 percent of the population.
Due to being asymptotic, it usually goes unnoticed and may lead to liver failure if
not treated at the right time.
Currently, liver biopsy is the gold standard to diagnose NASH, but being an
invasive procedure, it comes with it's own complications along with the inconvenience
of sampling repeated measurements over a period of time. Hence, noninvasive
procedures to assess NASH are urgently required. Magnetic Resonance Elastography
(MRE) based Shear Stiffness and Loss Modulus along with Magnetic Resonance
Imaging based proton density fat fraction have been successfully combined to predict
NASH stages However, their role in the prediction of disease progression still remains
to be investigated.
This thesis thus looks into combining features from serial MRE observations to
develop statistical models to predict NASH progression. It utilizes data from an experiment
conducted on male mice to develop progressive and regressive NASH and
trains ordinal models, ordered probit regression and ordinal forest on labels generated
from a logistic regression model. The models are assessed on histological data collected
at the end point of the experiment. The models developed provide a framework
to utilize a non-invasive tool to predict NASH disease progression.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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A Data Mining Approach to Modeling Customer Preference: A Case Study of Intel Corporation

Description

Understanding customer preference is crucial for new product planning and marketing decisions. This thesis explores how historical data can be leveraged to understand and predict customer preference. This thesis presents a decision support framework that provides a holistic view on

Understanding customer preference is crucial for new product planning and marketing decisions. This thesis explores how historical data can be leveraged to understand and predict customer preference. This thesis presents a decision support framework that provides a holistic view on customer preference by following a two-phase procedure. Phase-1 uses cluster analysis to create product profiles based on which customer profiles are derived. Phase-2 then delves deep into each of the customer profiles and investigates causality behind their preference using Bayesian networks. This thesis illustrates the working of the framework using the case of Intel Corporation, world’s largest semiconductor manufacturing company.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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Novel Deep Learning Models for Medical Imaging Analysis

Description

Deep learning is a sub-field of machine learning in which models are developed to imitate the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for decision making. This dissertation is focused on developing deep learning models for

Deep learning is a sub-field of machine learning in which models are developed to imitate the workings of the human brain in processing data and creating patterns for decision making. This dissertation is focused on developing deep learning models for medical imaging analysis of different modalities for different tasks including detection, segmentation and classification. Imaging modalities including digital mammography (DM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) are studied in the dissertation for various medical applications. The first phase of the research is to develop a novel shallow-deep convolutional neural network (SD-CNN) model for improved breast cancer diagnosis. This model takes one type of medical image as input and synthesizes different modalities for additional feature sources; both original image and synthetic image are used for feature generation. This proposed architecture is validated in the application of breast cancer diagnosis and proved to be outperforming the competing models. Motivated by the success from the first phase, the second phase focuses on improving medical imaging synthesis performance with advanced deep learning architecture. A new architecture named deep residual inception encoder-decoder network (RIED-Net) is proposed. RIED-Net has the advantages of preserving pixel-level information and cross-modality feature transferring. The applicability of RIED-Net is validated in breast cancer diagnosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) staging. Recognizing medical imaging research often has multiples inter-related tasks, namely, detection, segmentation and classification, my third phase of the research is to develop a multi-task deep learning model. Specifically, a feature transfer enabled multi-task deep learning model (FT-MTL-Net) is proposed to transfer high-resolution features from segmentation task to low-resolution feature-based classification task. The application of FT-MTL-Net on breast cancer detection, segmentation and classification using DM images is studied. As a continuing effort on exploring the transfer learning in deep models for medical application, the last phase is to develop a deep learning model for both feature transfer and knowledge from pre-training age prediction task to new domain of Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD conversion prediction task. It is validated in the application of predicting MCI patients’ conversion to AD with 3D MRI images.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019