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Least-squares fit for points measured along line-profiles formed from line and arc segments

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Tolerances on line profiles are used to control cross-sectional shapes of parts, such as turbine blades. A full life cycle for many mechanical devices depends (i) on a wise assignment of tolerances during design and (ii) on careful quality control

Tolerances on line profiles are used to control cross-sectional shapes of parts, such as turbine blades. A full life cycle for many mechanical devices depends (i) on a wise assignment of tolerances during design and (ii) on careful quality control of the manufacturing process to ensure adherence to the specified tolerances. This thesis describes a new method for quality control of a manufacturing process by improving the method used to convert measured points on a part to a geometric entity that can be compared directly with tolerance specifications. The focus of this paper is the development of a new computational method for obtaining the least-squares fit of a set of points that have been measured with a coordinate measurement machine along a line-profile. The pseudo-inverse of a rectangular matrix is used to convert the measured points to the least-squares fit of the profile. Numerical examples are included for convex and concave line-profiles, that are formed from line- and circular arc-segments.

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2013

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Reconciling the differences between tolerance specification and measurement methods

Description

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual

Dimensional Metrology is the branch of science that determines length, angular, and geometric relationships within manufactured parts and compares them with required tolerances. The measurements can be made using either manual methods or sampled coordinate metrology (Coordinate measuring machines). Manual measurement methods have been in practice for a long time and are well accepted in the industry, but are slow for the present day manufacturing. On the other hand CMMs are relatively fast, but these methods are not well established yet. The major problem that needs to be addressed is the type of feature fitting algorithm used for evaluating tolerances. In a CMM the use of different feature fitting algorithms on a feature gives different values, and there is no standard that describes the type of feature fitting algorithm to be used for a specific tolerance. Our research is focused on identifying the feature fitting algorithm that is best used for each type of tolerance. Each algorithm is identified as the one to best represent the interpretation of geometric control as defined by the ASME Y14.5 standard and on the manual methods used for the measurement of a specific tolerance type. Using these algorithms normative procedures for CMMs are proposed for verifying tolerances. The proposed normative procedures are implemented as software. Then the procedures are verified by comparing the results from software with that of manual measurements.

To aid this research a library of feature fitting algorithms is developed in parallel. The library consists of least squares, Chebyshev and one sided fits applied on the features of line, plane, circle and cylinder. The proposed normative procedures are useful for evaluating tolerances in CMMs. The results evaluated will be in accordance to the standard. The ambiguity in choosing the algorithms is prevented. The software developed can be used in quality control for inspection purposes.

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Date Created
2014

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An investigation of kinematic redundancy for reduced error in micromilling

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Small metallic parts of size less than 1mm, with features measured in tens of microns, with tolerances as small as 0.1 micron are in demand for the research in many fields such as electronics, optics, and biomedical engineering. Because of

Small metallic parts of size less than 1mm, with features measured in tens of microns, with tolerances as small as 0.1 micron are in demand for the research in many fields such as electronics, optics, and biomedical engineering. Because of various drawbacks with non-mechanical micromanufacturing processes, micromilling has shown itself to be an attractive alternative manufacturing method. Micromilling is a microscale manufacturing process that can be used to produce a wide range of small parts, including those that have complex 3-dimensional contours. Although the micromilling process is superficially similar to conventional-scale milling, the physical processes of micromilling are unique due to the scale effects. These scale effects occur due to unequal scaling of the parameters from the macroscale to the microscale milling. One key example of scale effects in micromilling process is a geometrical source of error known as chord error. The chord error limits the feedrate to a reduced value to produce the features within machining tolerances. In this research, it is hypothesized that the increase of chord error in micromilling can be alleviated by intelligent modification of the kinematic arrangement of the micromilling machine. Currently, all 3-axis micromilling machines are constructed with a Cartesian kinematic arrangement with three perpendicular linear axes. In this research, the cylindrical kinematic arrangement is introduced, and an analytical expression for the chord error for this arrangement is derived. The numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the chord errors for the cylindrical kinematic arrangement. It is found that cylindrical kinematic arrangement gives reduced chord error for some types of the desired toolpaths. Then, the kinematic redundancy is introduced to design a novel kinematic arrangement. Several desired toolpaths have been numerically simulated to evaluate the chord error for kinematically redundant arrangement. It is concluded that this arrangement gives up to 5 times reduced error for all the desired toolpaths considered, and allows significant gains in allowable feedrates.

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2014