Matching Items (8)

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CFD Analysis of a Wind Turbine Airfoil with Active Flow Control

Description

Active flow control for airfoil designs has been researched for the past few decades. This has been achieved through steady blowing, pulsed blowing, synthetic jets, and plasma jets. These techniques

Active flow control for airfoil designs has been researched for the past few decades. This has been achieved through steady blowing, pulsed blowing, synthetic jets, and plasma jets. These techniques have been applied to both single and dual jet configurations. This technology was examined for a wind turbine blade application so that lift and drag can be altered without needing a mechanical flap. Research was completed to also allow for thicker airfoils with more blunt trailing edges that result in the higher structural strength needed for large, heavy wind turbine blades without the negative aerodynamic effects such as boundary layer separation. This research tested steady blowing in a dual jet configuration for the S830 airfoil from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) database of airfoils. Computational Fluid Dynamics was used in the software Ansys Fluent. Calculations were completed for a modified S830 airfoil with a rounded trailing edge surface at momentum coefficients of 0.01 for the lower jet and 0.1, 0.12, and 0.14 for the upper jet. These results were then compared to the original S830 results for the lift over drag efficiency. The design with momentum coefficients of 0.12 for the upper surface resulted in the highest increase in efficiency of 53% at an angle of attack of 12 degrees. At this momentum coefficient, the angle of attack where zero lift occurred was at -8.62 degrees, compared to the case with no blowing at -1.90 degrees. From previous research and research completed in this thesis it was concluded that active flow control is an effective technique to improve wind turbine energy collection.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Tribological Failures of Wind Turbine Bearings

Description

Although wind turbine bearings are designed to operate 18-20 years, in the recent years premature failure among these bearings has caused this life to reduce to as low as a

Although wind turbine bearings are designed to operate 18-20 years, in the recent years premature failure among these bearings has caused this life to reduce to as low as a few months to a year. One of the leading causes of premature failure called white structure flaking is a mechanism that was first cited in literature decades ago but not much is understood about it even today. The cause of this mode of failure results from the initiation of white etched cracks (WECs). In this report, different failure mechanisms, especially premature failure mechanisms that were tested and analyzed are demonstrated as a pathway to understanding this phenomenon. Through the use of various tribometers, samples were tested in diverse and extreme conditions in order to study the effect of these different operational conditions on the specimen. Analysis of the tested samples allowed for a comparison of the microstructure alterations in the tested samples to the field bearings affected by WSF.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Scalability Analysis of Recycling Markets for NdFeB Magnets in the United States

Description

Over the past decades, rare earth elements (REE) have become a crucial backbone to the functioning of modern technology infrastructure, particularly due to their inclusion within NdFeB magnets which power

Over the past decades, rare earth elements (REE) have become a crucial backbone to the functioning of modern technology infrastructure, particularly due to their inclusion within NdFeB magnets which power technologies such as hard disk drives and wind turbines. However, mining and extraction of REEs pose significant environmental and human health risks, thus signaling a need for more sustainable methods of sourcing. This research aims to compare the impact and effectiveness of three recycling processes for decommissioned NdFeB magnets sourced from end-of-life wind turbines, as well as consider strategies for developing these processes on an industrial scale. A material flow analysis (MFA) has been conducted to determine comparable input and output factors for two types of laboratory-scale recycling methods, molten salt electrolysis and hydrometallurgy, and one industrial-scale method, magnet-to-magnet. Following this, an impact analysis of potential industrial level magnet recycling operations for molten salt electrolysis and hydrometallurgy was conducted. The results show that molten salt electrolysis had the highest levels of impact for global warming, ozone depletion, and energy usage of the three methods when scaled on an industrial level. Hydrometallurgy had relatively low energy usage and emissions impacts but required large amounts of water and produced high levels of wastewater. The magnet-to-magnet process showed promising impact results in comparison with the alternate two methods, but further development needs to be done to circumvent the continued use of virgin REE in the final production steps for novel magnets. Overall, it is recommended that locations of recycling operations should be pursued for each process relative to energy and water usage needs, as well as transportation distance from wind farms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Numerical simulation of environmental flow over urban landscape for applications to renewable energy

Description

Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast

Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Economics of residential photovoltaic and wind systems in Arizona and California

Description

Renewable energy has been a very hot topic in recent years due to the traditional energy crisis. Incentives that encourage the renewables have been established all over the world. Ordinary

Renewable energy has been a very hot topic in recent years due to the traditional energy crisis. Incentives that encourage the renewables have been established all over the world. Ordinary homeowners are also seeking ways to exploit renewable energy. In this thesis, residential PV system, wind turbine system and a hybrid wind/solar system are all investigated. The solar energy received by the PV panels varies with many factors. The most essential one is the irradiance. As the PV panel been installed towards different orientations, the incident insolation received by the panel also will be different. The differing insolation corresponds to the different angles between the irradiance and the panel throughout the day. The result shows that for PV panels in the northern hemisphere, the ones facing south obtain the highest level insolation and thus generate the most electricity. However, with the two different electricity rate plans, flat rate plan and TOU (time of use) plan, the value of electricity that PV generates is different. For wind energy, the wind speed is the most significant variable to determine the generation of a wind turbine. Unlike solar energy, wind energy is much more regionally dependent. Wind resources vary between very close locations. As expected, the result shows that, larger wind speed leads to more electricity generation and thus shorter payback period. For the PV/wind hybrid system, two real cases are analyzed for Altamont and Midhill, CA. In this part, the impact of incentives, system cost and system size are considered. With a hybrid system, homeowners may choose different size combinations between PV and wind turbines. It turns out that for these two locations, the system with larger PV output always achieve a shorter payback period due to the lower cost. Even though, for a longer term, the system with a larger wind turbine in locations with excellent wind resources may lead to higher return on investment. Meanwhile, impacts of both wind and solar incentives (mainly utility rebates) are analyzed. At last, effects of the cost of both renewables are performed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

Hydrodynamic study of a suction stabilized float (SSF)

Description

In this work, the hydrodynamics of Suction Stabilization is studied. Suction stabilization was found to stabilize floating platforms/floats in a much better way as compared to the conventional methods.

In this work, the hydrodynamics of Suction Stabilization is studied. Suction stabilization was found to stabilize floating platforms/floats in a much better way as compared to the conventional methods. This was achieved by an effective increment in the metacentric height due to the Inverse Slack Tank (IST) effect. The study involves the analysis of the existing designs and optimizing its performance. This research investigates the stability of such floats and the hydrodynamic forces acting on the same for offshore applications, such as wind turbines. A simple mathematical model for the condition of parametric resonance is developed and the results are verified, both analytically and experimentally.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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CFD analysis of wind power potential across rooftop gaps of tall buildings

Description

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the

dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a

special type of building with a nuzzle-like ga

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the

dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a

special type of building with a nuzzle-like gap at its rooftop. Numerical simulations using

ANSYS Fluent are carried out to quantify the above-mentioned dependency due to three

major geometric parameters of the building: (i) the height of the building, (ii) the depth of

the roof-top gap, and (iii) the width of the roof-top gap. The height of the building is varied

from 8 m to 24 m. Likewise, the gap depth is varied from 3 m to 5 m and the gap width

from 2 m to 4 m. The aim of this entire research is to relate these geometric parameters of

the building to the maximum value and the spatial pattern of wind power potential across

the roof-top gap. These outcomes help guide the design of the roof-top geometry for wind

power applications and determine the ideal position for mounting a micro wind turbine.

From these outcomes, it is suggested that the wind power potential is greatly affected by

the increasing gap width or gap depth. It, however, remains insensitive to the increasing

building height, unlike turbulence intensity which increases with increasing building

height. After performing a set of simulations with varying building geometry to quantify

the wind power potential before the installation of a turbine, another set of simulations is

conducted by installing a static turbine within the roof-top gap. The results from the latter

are used to further adjust the estimate of wind power potential. Recommendations are made

for future applications based on the findings from the numerical simulations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Impact of increased penetration of DFIG based wind turbine generators on rotor angle stability of power systems

Description

An advantage of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) as compared to conventional fixed speed wind turbine generators is higher efficiency. This higher efficiency is achieved due to the ability of

An advantage of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) as compared to conventional fixed speed wind turbine generators is higher efficiency. This higher efficiency is achieved due to the ability of the DFIG to operate near its optimal turbine efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds through variable speed operation. This is achieved through the application of a back-to-back converter that tightly controls the rotor current and allows for asynchronous operation. In doing so, however, the power electronic converter effectively decouples the inertia of the turbine from the system. Hence, with the increase in penetration of DFIG based wind farms, the effective inertia of the system will be reduced. With this assertion, the present study is aimed at identifying the systematic approach to pinpoint the impact of increased penetration of DFIGs on a large realistic system. The techniques proposed in this work are tested on a large test system representing the Midwestern portion of the U.S. Interconnection. The electromechanical modes that are both detrimentally and beneficially affected by the change in inertia are identified. The combination of small-signal stability analysis coupled with the large disturbance analysis of exciting the mode identified is found to provide a detailed picture of the impact on the system. The work is extended to develop suitable control strategies to mitigate the impact of significant DFIG penetration on a large power system. Supplementary control is developed for the DFIG power converters such that the effective inertia contributed by these wind generators to the system is increased. Results obtained on the large realistic power system indicate that the frequency nadir following a large power impact is effectively improved with the proposed control strategy. The proposed control is also validated against sudden wind speed changes in the form of wind gusts and wind ramps. The beneficial impact in terms of damping power system oscillations is observed, which is validated by eigenvalue analysis. Another control mechanism is developed aiming at designing the power system stabilizer (PSS) for a DFIG similar to the PSS of synchronous machines. Although both the supplementary control strategies serve the purpose of improving the damping of the mode with detrimental impact, better damping performance is observed when the DFIG is equipped with both the controllers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010