Matching Items (3)

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The role of tactile information in transfer of learned manipulation following changes in degrees of freedom

Description

Humans are capable of transferring learning for anticipatory control of dexterous object manipulation despite changes in degrees-of-freedom (DoF), i.e., switching from lifting an object with two fingers to lifting the same object with three fingers. However, the role that tactile

Humans are capable of transferring learning for anticipatory control of dexterous object manipulation despite changes in degrees-of-freedom (DoF), i.e., switching from lifting an object with two fingers to lifting the same object with three fingers. However, the role that tactile information plays in this transfer of learning is unknown. In this study, subjects lifted an L-shaped object with two fingers (2-DoF), and then lifted the object with three fingers (3-DoF). The subjects were divided into two groups--one group performed the task wearing a glove (to reduce tactile sensibility) upon the switch to 3-DoF (glove group), while the other group did not wear the glove (control group). Compensatory moment (torque) was used as a measure to determine how well the subject could minimize the tilt of the object following the switch from 2-DoF to 3-DoF. Upon the switch to 3-DoF, subjects wearing the glove generated a compensatory moment (Mcom) that had a significantly higher error than the average of the last five trials at the end of the 3-DoF block (p = 0.012), while the control subjects did not demonstrate a significant difference in Mcom. Additional effects of the reduction in tactile sensibility were: (1) the grip force for the group of subjects wearing the glove was significantly higher in the 3-DoF trials compared to the 2-DoF trials (p = 0.014), while the grip force of the control subjects was not significantly different; (2) the difference in centers of pressure between the thumb and fingers (ΔCoP) significantly increased in the 3-DoF block for the group of subjects wearing the glove, while the ΔCoP of the control subjects was not significantly different; (3) lastly, the control subjects demonstrated a greater increase in lift force than the group of subjects wearing the glove (though results were not significant). Combined together, these results suggest different force modulation strategies are used depending on the amount of tactile feedback that is available to the subject. Therefore, reduction of tactile sensibility has important effects on subjects' ability to transfer learned manipulation across different DoF contexts.

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Date Created
2014

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Role of Proprioceptive Feedback and Multisensory Integration for Object Weight Perception

Description

Tactile and proprioceptive sensory feedback are the two sensory modalities that make up haptic sensation. The degree which these two sensory modalities are integrated together is not very well known. To investigate this issue a set of experiments were set

Tactile and proprioceptive sensory feedback are the two sensory modalities that make up haptic sensation. The degree which these two sensory modalities are integrated together is not very well known. To investigate this issue a set of experiments were set into motion separating these sensory modalities and testing what happens when a person’s proprioceptive system is perturbed. A virtual reality system with haptic feedback along with a weighted object were utilized in a reach, grasp, and lift task. The subjects would lift two objects sequentially and try to judge which one was heavier. This project was split into three different experiments to measure the subject’s perception in different situations. The first experiment utilized the virtual reality system to measure the perception when the subject only has proprioceptive inputs. The second experiment would include the virtual reality system and the weighted object to act as a comparison to the first experiment with the additional tactile input. The third experiment would then add perturbations to the proprioceptive inputs through the virtual reality system to investigate how perception will change. Results from experiment 1 and 2 showed that subjects are almost just as accurate with weight discrimination even if they only have proprioceptive inputs however, subjects are much more consistent in their weight discrimination with both sensory modalities. Results from experiment 3 showed that subjective perception does change when the proprioception is perturbed but the magnitude of that change in perception depends on the perturbation performed.

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Created

Date Created
2020-12

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Development and analysis of new 3D tactile materials for the enhancement of STEM education for the blind and visually impaired

Description

Blind and visually impaired individuals have historically demonstrated a low participation in the fields of science, engineering, mathematics, and technology (STEM). This low participation is reflected in both their education and career choices. Despite the establishment of the Americans with

Blind and visually impaired individuals have historically demonstrated a low participation in the fields of science, engineering, mathematics, and technology (STEM). This low participation is reflected in both their education and career choices. Despite the establishment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), blind and visually impaired (BVI) students continue to academically fall below the level of their sighted peers in the areas of science and math. Although this deficit is created by many factors, this study focuses on the lack of adequate accessible image based materials. Traditional methods for creating accessible image materials for the vision impaired have included detailed verbal descriptions accompanying an image or conversion into a simplified tactile graphic. It is very common that no substitute materials will be provided to students within STEM courses because they are image rich disciplines and often include a large number images, diagrams and charts. Additionally, images that are translated into text or simplified into basic line drawings are frequently inadequate because they rely on the interpretations of resource personnel who do not have expertise in STEM. Within this study, a method to create a new type of tactile 3D image was developed using High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Computer Numeric Control (CNC) milling. These tactile image boards preserve high levels of detail when compared to the original print image. To determine the discernibility and effectiveness of tactile images, these customizable boards were tested in various

university classrooms as well as in participation studies which included BVI and sighted students. Results from these studies indicate that tactile images are discernable and were found to improve performance in lab exercises as much as 60% for those with visual impairment. Incorporating tactile HDPE 3D images into a classroom setting was shown to increase the interest, participation and performance of BVI students suggesting that this type of 3D tactile image should be incorporated into STEM classes to increase the participation of these students and improve the level of training they receive in science and math.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015