Matching Items (9)

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3D Robotic Assessment of Proprioception for Up, Down, and Back Directions

Description

Background. Proprioception plays a large role in everyday functioning, involving both information of body position and movement (Johnson & Panayotis, 2010). Clinical assessments of proprioception are largely subjective and are

Background. Proprioception plays a large role in everyday functioning, involving both information of body position and movement (Johnson & Panayotis, 2010). Clinical assessments of proprioception are largely subjective and are not reliable measures for testing proprioception in impaired or unimpaired individuals. Recent advancements in technology and robotics have brought about new assessments that involve position matching and other paradigms. However, the results are confined to the horizontal plane and only look at a very small subset of human proprioceptive ability. Objective. The present study looks to overcome these limitations and examine differences in proprioceptive sensitivity across different directions in 3D space. Methods. Participants were recruited from Arizona State University to perform a "same-different" discrimination test using a robotic arm. Each participant was tested along two of the three directions, and within each direction, proprioception at four distances (1-4 cm) was tested. Performance was quantified using percent correct, d' analysis, and permutation testing on median and variance values. Results. Proprioceptive sensitivity was significantly greater in the up direction vs. down and back across all distances. The greatest difference in sensitivity occurred at 3 cm; permutation tests using median and variance values from percent correct and d' found statistical significance at this distance in the up vs. down and up vs. back comparisons. Conclusions. There is evidence that proprioceptive sensitivity is greater in an anti-gravity direction (up), in comparison to gravity-assisted or gravity-neutral (down and back) directions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The effects of square breathing as a vagal nerve stimulant on learning new motor strategies in unreliable proprioceptive conditions

Description

Lack of proprioceptive feedback is one cause for the high upper-limb prosthesis abandonment rate. The lack of environmental interaction normalcy from unreliable proprioception creates dissatisfaction among prosthesis users. The purpose

Lack of proprioceptive feedback is one cause for the high upper-limb prosthesis abandonment rate. The lack of environmental interaction normalcy from unreliable proprioception creates dissatisfaction among prosthesis users. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of square breathing on learning to navigate without reliable proprioception. Square breathing is thought to influence the vagus nerve which is linked to increased learning rates. In this experiment, participants were instructed to reach toward targets in a semi-immersive virtual reality environment. Directional error, peak velocity, and peak acceleration of the reaching hand were investigated before and after participants underwent square breathing training. As the results of<br/>this experiment are inconclusive, further investigation needs to be done with larger sample sizes and examining unperturbed data to fully understand the effects of square breathing on learning new motor strategies in unreliable proprioceptive conditions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Role of Retention and Forgetting in Context Dependent Sensorimotor Memory of Dexterous Manipulation

Description

The role of retention and forgetting of context dependent sensorimotor memory of dexterous manipulation was explored. Human subjects manipulated a U-shaped object by switching the handle to be grasped (context)

The role of retention and forgetting of context dependent sensorimotor memory of dexterous manipulation was explored. Human subjects manipulated a U-shaped object by switching the handle to be grasped (context) three times, and then came back two weeks later to lift the same object in the opposite context relative to that experience on the last block. On each context switch, an interference of the previous block of trials was found resulting in manipulation errors (object tilt). However, no significant re-learning was found two weeks later for the first block of trials (p = 0.826), indicating that the previously observed interference among contexts lasted a very short time. Interestingly, upon switching to the other context, sensorimotor memories again interfered with visually-based planning. This means that the memory of lifting in the first context somehow blocked the memory of lifting in the second context. In addition, the performance in the first trial two weeks later and the previous trial of the same context were not significantly different (p = 0.159). This means that subjects are able to retain long-term sensorimotor memories. Lastly, the last four trials in which subjects switched contexts were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.334). This means that the interference from sensorimotor memories of lifting in opposite contexts was weaker, thus eventually leading to the attainment of steady performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Role of Proprioceptive Feedback and Multisensory Integration for Object Weight Perception

Description

Tactile and proprioceptive sensory feedback are the two sensory modalities that make up haptic sensation. The degree which these two sensory modalities are integrated together is not very well known.

Tactile and proprioceptive sensory feedback are the two sensory modalities that make up haptic sensation. The degree which these two sensory modalities are integrated together is not very well known. To investigate this issue a set of experiments were set into motion separating these sensory modalities and testing what happens when a person’s proprioceptive system is perturbed. A virtual reality system with haptic feedback along with a weighted object were utilized in a reach, grasp, and lift task. The subjects would lift two objects sequentially and try to judge which one was heavier. This project was split into three different experiments to measure the subject’s perception in different situations. The first experiment utilized the virtual reality system to measure the perception when the subject only has proprioceptive inputs. The second experiment would include the virtual reality system and the weighted object to act as a comparison to the first experiment with the additional tactile input. The third experiment would then add perturbations to the proprioceptive inputs through the virtual reality system to investigate how perception will change. Results from experiment 1 and 2 showed that subjects are almost just as accurate with weight discrimination even if they only have proprioceptive inputs however, subjects are much more consistent in their weight discrimination with both sensory modalities. Results from experiment 3 showed that subjective perception does change when the proprioception is perturbed but the magnitude of that change in perception depends on the perturbation performed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Upper limb proprioceptive sensitivity in three-dimensional space: effects of direction, posture, and exogenous neuromodulation

Description

Proprioception is the sense of body position, movement, force, and effort. Loss of proprioception can affect planning and control of limb and body movements, negatively impacting activities of daily living

Proprioception is the sense of body position, movement, force, and effort. Loss of proprioception can affect planning and control of limb and body movements, negatively impacting activities of daily living and quality of life. Assessments employing planar robots have shown that proprioceptive sensitivity is directionally dependent within the horizontal plane however, few studies have looked at proprioceptive sensitivity in 3d space. In addition, the extent to which proprioceptive sensitivity is modifiable by factors such as exogenous neuromodulation is unclear. To investigate proprioceptive sensitivity in 3d we developed a novel experimental paradigm employing a 7-DoF robot arm, which enables reliable testing of arm proprioception along arbitrary paths in 3d space, including vertical motion which has previously been neglected. A participant’s right arm was coupled to a trough held by the robot that stabilized the wrist and forearm, allowing for changes in configuration only at the elbow and shoulder. Sensitivity to imposed displacements of the endpoint of the arm were evaluated using a “same/different” task, where participant’s hands were moved 1-4 cm from a previously visited reference position. A measure of sensitivity (d’) was compared across 6 movement directions and between 2 postures. For all directions, sensitivity increased monotonically as the distance from the reference location increased. Sensitivity was also shown to be anisotropic (directionally dependent) which has implications for our understanding of the planning and control of reaching movements in 3d space.

The effect of neuromodulation on proprioceptive sensitivity was assessed using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on human cognitive and sensorimotor performance in other contexts. In this pilot study the effects of two frequencies (30hz and 300hz) and three electrode configurations were examined. No effect of electrode configuration was found, however sensitivity with 30hz stimulation was significantly lower than with 300hz stimulation (which was similar to sensitivity without stimulation). Although TENS was shown to modulate proprioceptive sensitivity, additional experiments are required to determine if TENS can produce enhancement rather than depression of sensitivity which would have positive implications for rehabilitation of proprioceptive deficits arising from stroke and other disorders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The internal representation of arm position revealed through the spatial pattern of hand location estimation errors

Description

Our ability to estimate the position of our body parts in space, a fundamentally proprioceptive process, is crucial for interacting with the environment and movement control. For proprioception to support

Our ability to estimate the position of our body parts in space, a fundamentally proprioceptive process, is crucial for interacting with the environment and movement control. For proprioception to support these actions, the Central Nervous System has to rely on a stored internal representation of the body parts in space. However, relatively little is known about this internal representation of arm position. To this end, I developed a method to map proprioceptive estimates of hand location across a 2-d workspace. In this task, I moved each subject's hand to a target location while the subject's eyes were closed. After returning the hand, subjects opened their eyes to verbally report the location of where their fingertip had been. Then, I reconstructed and analyzed the spatial structure of the pattern of estimation errors. In the first couple of experiments I probed the structure and stability of the pattern of errors by manipulating the hand used and tactile feedback provided when the hand was at each target location. I found that the resulting pattern of errors was systematically stable across conditions for each subject, subject-specific, and not uniform across the workspace. These findings suggest that the observed structure of pattern of errors has been constructed through experience, which has resulted in a systematically stable internal representation of arm location. Moreover, this representation is continuously being calibrated across the workspace. In the next two experiments, I aimed to probe the calibration of this structure. To this end, I used two different perturbation paradigms: 1) a virtual reality visuomotor adaptation to induce a local perturbation, 2) and a standard prism adaptation paradigm to induce a global perturbation. I found that the magnitude of the errors significantly increased to a similar extent after each perturbation. This small effect indicates that proprioception is recalibrated to a similar extent regardless of how the perturbation is introduced, suggesting that sensory and motor changes may be two independent processes arising from the perturbation. Moreover, I propose that the internal representation of arm location might be constructed with a global solution and not capable of local changes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Effects of Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation on the ANS and Proprioception: High Frequency TNS Reduces Proprioceptive End-point Error

Description

Previously accomplished research examined sensory integration between upper limb proprioception and tactile sensation. The active proprioceptive-tactile relationship points towards an opportunity to examine neuromodulation effects on sensory integration with respect

Previously accomplished research examined sensory integration between upper limb proprioception and tactile sensation. The active proprioceptive-tactile relationship points towards an opportunity to examine neuromodulation effects on sensory integration with respect to proprioceptive error magnitude and direction. Efforts to improve focus and attention during upper limb proprioceptive tasks results in a decrease of proprioceptive error magnitudes and greater endpoint accuracy. Increased focus and attention can also be correlated to neurophysiological activity in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) during a variety of mental tasks. Through non-invasive trigeminal nerve stimulation, it may be possible to affect the activity of the LC and induce improvements in arousal and attention that would assist in proprioceptive estimation. The trigeminal nerve projects to the LC through the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal complex, providing a pathway similar to the effects seen from vagus nerve stimulation. In this experiment, the effect of trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) on proprioceptive ability is evaluated by the proprioceptive estimation error magnitude and direction, while LC activation via autonomic pathways is indirectly measured using pupil diameter, pupil recovery time, and pupil velocity. TNS decreases proprioceptive error magnitude in 59% of subjects, while having no measurable impact on proprioceptive strategy. Autonomic nervous system changes were observed in 88% of subjects, with mostly parasympathetic activation and a mixed sympathetic effect.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Proprioceptive Activities to Lower Stress (PALS)

Description

A history of trauma can affect a child’s capacity to express emotions due to the neurological footprints left from neglect and abuse. Oftentimes, children do not have a caregiver as

A history of trauma can affect a child’s capacity to express emotions due to the neurological footprints left from neglect and abuse. Oftentimes, children do not have a caregiver as a protector which leaves them vulnerable to harm. In response, children use emotional survival strategies of either flight or fight to adapt to their stressful environment. Occupational Therapy Practitioners (OTP) are positioned to address social and emotional development; however, they often feel ill equipped to address the complexity of trauma and its impact on emotions. OTPs need to look at each sensory system from a nurturing/grounding perspective using movement-based strategies as inroads to address the child’s emotional capacity. A sensory integration intervention, Proprioceptive Activities to Lower Stress (PALS), was developed to study the effect on a six-year-old boy’s expressions of emotions using a single subject design. Three emotions were measured using a facial analysis system, Noldus FaceReader™. The emotions were happiness, sadness, and neutral. Neutral is defined as the level of emotional detachment. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in the expressions of happiness and sad post the PALS program.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Influence of sensorimotor noise on the planning and control of reaching in 3-dimensional space

Description

The ability to plan, execute, and control goal oriented reaching and grasping movements is among the most essential functions of the brain. Yet, these movements are inherently variable; a result

The ability to plan, execute, and control goal oriented reaching and grasping movements is among the most essential functions of the brain. Yet, these movements are inherently variable; a result of the noise pervading the neural signals underlying sensorimotor processing. The specific influences and interactions of these noise processes remain unclear. Thus several studies have been performed to elucidate the role and influence of sensorimotor noise on movement variability. The first study focuses on sensory integration and movement planning across the reaching workspace. An experiment was designed to examine the relative contributions of vision and proprioception to movement planning by measuring the rotation of the initial movement direction induced by a perturbation of the visual feedback prior to movement onset. The results suggest that contribution of vision was relatively consistent across the evaluated workspace depths; however, the influence of vision differed between the vertical and later axes indicate that additional factors beyond vision and proprioception influence movement planning of 3-dimensional movements. If the first study investigated the role of noise in sensorimotor integration, the second and third studies investigate relative influence of sensorimotor noise on reaching performance. Specifically, they evaluate how the characteristics of neural processing that underlie movement planning and execution manifest in movement variability during natural reaching. Subjects performed reaching movements with and without visual feedback throughout the movement and the patterns of endpoint variability were compared across movement directions. The results of these studies suggest a primary role of visual feedback noise in shaping patterns of variability and in determining the relative influence of planning and execution related noise sources. The final work considers a computational approach to characterizing how sensorimotor processes interact to shape movement variability. A model of multi-modal feedback control was developed to simulate the interaction of planning and execution noise on reaching variability. The model predictions suggest that anisotropic properties of feedback noise significantly affect the relative influence of planning and execution noise on patterns of reaching variability.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012