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Clinically relevant classification and retrieval of diabetic retinopathy images

Description

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness occurring due to prolonged presence of diabetes. The risk of developing DR or having the disease progress is increasing over time. Despite advances in diabetes care over the years, DR remains

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness occurring due to prolonged presence of diabetes. The risk of developing DR or having the disease progress is increasing over time. Despite advances in diabetes care over the years, DR remains a vision-threatening complication and one of the leading causes of blindness among American adults. Recent studies have shown that diagnosis based on digital retinal imaging has potential benefits over traditional face-to-face evaluation. Yet there is a dearth of computer-based systems that can match the level of performance achieved by ophthalmologists. This thesis takes a fresh perspective in developing a computer-based system aimed at improving diagnosis of DR images. These images are categorized into three classes according to their severity level. The proposed approach explores effective methods to classify new images and retrieve clinically-relevant images from a database with prior diagnosis information associated with them. Retrieval provides a novel way to utilize the vast knowledge in the archives of previously-diagnosed DR images and thereby improve a clinician's performance while classification can safely reduce the burden on DR screening programs and possibly achieve higher detection accuracy than human experts. To solve the three-class retrieval and classification problem, the approach uses a multi-class multiple-instance medical image retrieval framework that makes use of spectrally tuned color correlogram and steerable Gaussian filter response features. The results show better retrieval and classification performances than prior-art methods and are also observed to be of clinical and visual relevance.

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Date Created
2012

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Designing m-health modules with sensor interfaces for DSP education

Description

Advancements in mobile technologies have significantly enhanced the capabilities of mobile devices to serve as powerful platforms for sensing, processing, and visualization. Surges in the sensing technology and the abundance of data have enabled the use of these portable devices

Advancements in mobile technologies have significantly enhanced the capabilities of mobile devices to serve as powerful platforms for sensing, processing, and visualization. Surges in the sensing technology and the abundance of data have enabled the use of these portable devices for real-time data analysis and decision-making in digital signal processing (DSP) applications. Most of the current efforts in DSP education focus on building tools to facilitate understanding of the mathematical principles. However, there is a disconnect between real-world data processing problems and the material presented in a DSP course. Sophisticated mobile interfaces and apps can potentially play a crucial role in providing a hands-on-experience with modern DSP applications to students. In this work, a new paradigm of DSP learning is explored by building an interactive easy-to-use health monitoring application for use in DSP courses. This is motivated by the increasing commercial interest in employing mobile phones for real-time health monitoring tasks. The idea is to exploit the computational abilities of the Android platform to build m-Health modules with sensor interfaces. In particular, appropriate sensing modalities have been identified, and a suite of software functionalities have been developed. Within the existing framework of the AJDSP app, a graphical programming environment, interfaces to on-board and external sensor hardware have also been developed to acquire and process physiological data. The set of sensor signals that can be monitored include electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), accelerometer signal, and galvanic skin response (GSR). The proposed m-Health modules can be used to estimate parameters such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, step count, and heart rate variability. A set of laboratory exercises have been designed to demonstrate the use of these modules in DSP courses. The app was evaluated through several workshops involving graduate and undergraduate students in signal processing majors at Arizona State University. The usefulness of the software modules in enhancing student understanding of signals, sensors and DSP systems were analyzed. Student opinions about the app and the proposed m-health modules evidenced the merits of integrating tools for mobile sensing and processing in a DSP curriculum, and familiarizing students with challenges in modern data-driven applications.

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2013

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Feature extraction from compressive cameras with application to activity recognition

Description

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of conventional cameras, which collect a large amount redundant data and

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of conventional cameras, which collect a large amount redundant data and power hungry embedded systems, which compress the collected data for further processing, compressive cameras offer the advantage of direct acquisition of data in compressed domain and hence readily promise to find applicability in computer vision, particularly in environments hampered by limited communication bandwidths. However, despite the significant progress in theory and methods of compressive sensing, little headway has been made in developing systems for such applications by exploiting the merits of compressive sensing. In such a setting, we consider the problem of activity recognition, which is an important inference problem in many security and surveillance applications. Since all successful activity recognition systems involve detection of human, followed by recognition, a potential fully functioning system motivated by compressive camera would involve the tracking of human, which requires the reconstruction of atleast the initial few frames to detect the human. Once the human is tracked, the recognition part of the system requires only the features to be extracted from the tracked sequences, which can be the reconstructed images or the compressed measurements of such sequences. However, it is desirable in resource constrained environments that these features be extracted from the compressive measurements without reconstruction. Motivated by this, in this thesis, we propose a framework for understanding activities as a non-linear dynamical system, and propose a robust, generalizable feature that can be extracted directly from the compressed measurements without reconstructing the original video frames. The proposed feature is termed recurrence texture and is motivated from recurrence analysis of non-linear dynamical systems. We show that it is possible to obtain discriminative features directly from the compressed stream and show its utility in recognition of activities at very low data rates.

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Date Created
2012

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Augmented image classification using image registration techniques

Description

Advancements in computer vision and machine learning have added a new dimension to remote sensing applications with the aid of imagery analysis techniques. Applications such as autonomous navigation and terrain classification which make use of image classification techniques are challenging

Advancements in computer vision and machine learning have added a new dimension to remote sensing applications with the aid of imagery analysis techniques. Applications such as autonomous navigation and terrain classification which make use of image classification techniques are challenging problems and research is still being carried out to find better solutions. In this thesis, a novel method is proposed which uses image registration techniques to provide better image classification. This method reduces the error rate of classification by performing image registration of the images with the previously obtained images before performing classification. The motivation behind this is the fact that images that are obtained in the same region which need to be classified will not differ significantly in characteristics. Hence, registration will provide an image that matches closer to the previously obtained image, thus providing better classification. To illustrate that the proposed method works, naïve Bayes and iterative closest point (ICP) algorithms are used for the image classification and registration stages respectively. This implementation was tested extensively in simulation using synthetic images and using a real life data set called the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) dataset. The results show that the ICP algorithm does help in better classification with Naïve Bayes by reducing the error rate by an average of about 10% in the synthetic data and by about 7% on the actual datasets used.

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Date Created
2011

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Low complexity differential geometric computations with applications to human activity analysis

Description

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with complex features that often do not live in Euclidean spaces.

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with complex features that often do not live in Euclidean spaces. However, computing standard notions of geodesic distance, mean etc. can get very involved due to the underlying non-linearity associated with the space. As a result a complex task such as manifold sequence matching would require very large number of computations making it hard to use in practice. We believe that one can device smart approximation algorithms for several classes of such problems which take into account the geometry of the manifold and maintain the favorable properties of the exact approach. This problem has several applications in areas of human activity discovery and recognition, where several features and representations are naturally studied in a non-Euclidean setting. We propose a novel solution to the problem of indexing manifold-valued sequences by proposing an intrinsic approach to map sequences to a symbolic representation. This is shown to enable the deployment of fast and accurate algorithms for activity recognition, motif discovery, and anomaly detection. Toward this end, we present generalizations of key concepts of piece-wise aggregation and symbolic approximation for the case of non-Euclidean manifolds. Experiments show that one can replace expensive geodesic computations with much faster symbolic computations with little loss of accuracy in activity recognition and discovery applications. The proposed methods are ideally suited for real-time systems and resource constrained scenarios.

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Date Created
2012

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Signal processing and robust statistics for fault detection in photovoltaic arrays

Description

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of PV arrays. In this paper a monitoring system which provides real-time measurements of each PV module's voltage and current is considered. A fault detection algorithm formulated as a clustering problem and addressed using the robust minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimator is described; its performance on simulated instances of arc and ground faults is evaluated. The algorithm is found to perform well on many types of faults commonly occurring in PV arrays. Among several types of detection algorithms considered, only the MCD shows high performance on both types of faults.

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2012

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Exploring video denoising using matrix completion

Description

Video denoising has been an important task in many multimedia and computer vision applications. Recent developments in the matrix completion theory and emergence of new numerical methods which can efficiently solve the matrix completion problem have paved the way for

Video denoising has been an important task in many multimedia and computer vision applications. Recent developments in the matrix completion theory and emergence of new numerical methods which can efficiently solve the matrix completion problem have paved the way for exploration of new techniques for some classical image processing tasks. Recent literature shows that many computer vision and image processing problems can be solved by using the matrix completion theory. This thesis explores the application of matrix completion in video denoising. A state-of-the-art video denoising algorithm in which the denoising task is modeled as a matrix completion problem is chosen for detailed study. The contribution of this thesis lies in both providing extensive analysis to bridge the gap in existing literature on matrix completion frame work for video denoising and also in proposing some novel techniques to improve the performance of the chosen denoising algorithm. The chosen algorithm is implemented for thorough analysis. Experiments and discussions are presented to enable better understanding of the problem. Instability shown by the algorithm at some parameter values in a particular case of low levels of pure Gaussian noise is identified. Artifacts introduced in such cases are analyzed. A novel way of grouping structurally-relevant patches is proposed to improve the algorithm. Experiments show that this technique is useful, especially in videos containing high amounts of motion. Based on the observation that matrix completion is not suitable for denoising patches containing relatively low amount of image details, a framework is designed to separate patches corresponding to low structured regions from a noisy image. Experiments are conducted by not subjecting such patches to matrix completion, instead denoising such patches in a different way. The resulting improvement in performance suggests that denoising low structured patches does not require a complex method like matrix completion and in fact it is counter-productive to subject such patches to matrix completion. These results also indicate the inherent limitation of matrix completion to deal with cases in which noise dominates the structural properties of an image. A novel method for introducing priorities to the ranked patches in matrix completion is also presented. Results showed that this method yields improved performance in general. It is observed that the artifacts in presence of low levels of pure Gaussian noise appear differently after introducing priorities to the patches and the artifacts occur at a wider range of parameter values. Results and discussion suggesting future ways to explore this problem are also presented.

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Date Created
2013

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Fisheye camera calibration and applications

Description

Fisheye cameras are special cameras that have a much larger field of view compared to

conventional cameras. The large field of view comes at a price of non-linear distortions

introduced near the boundaries of the images captured by such cameras. Despite this

drawback,

Fisheye cameras are special cameras that have a much larger field of view compared to

conventional cameras. The large field of view comes at a price of non-linear distortions

introduced near the boundaries of the images captured by such cameras. Despite this

drawback, they are being used increasingly in many applications of computer vision,

robotics, reconnaissance, astrophotography, surveillance and automotive applications.

The images captured from such cameras can be corrected for their distortion if the

cameras are calibrated and the distortion function is determined. Calibration also allows

fisheye cameras to be used in tasks involving metric scene measurement, metric

scene reconstruction and other simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms.

This thesis presents a calibration toolbox (FisheyeCDC Toolbox) that implements a collection of some of the most widely used techniques for calibration of fisheye cameras under one package. This enables an inexperienced user to calibrate his/her own camera without the need for a theoretical understanding about computer vision and camera calibration. This thesis also explores some of the applications of calibration such as distortion correction and 3D reconstruction.

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Date Created
2014

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Grassmannian learning for facial expression recognition from video

Description

In this thesis we consider the problem of facial expression recognition (FER) from video sequences. Our method is based on subspace representations and Grassmann manifold based learning. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) at the frame level for representing the

In this thesis we consider the problem of facial expression recognition (FER) from video sequences. Our method is based on subspace representations and Grassmann manifold based learning. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) at the frame level for representing the facial features. Next we develop a model to represent the video sequence in a lower dimensional expression subspace and also as a linear dynamical system using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. As these subspaces lie on Grassmann space, we use Grassmann manifold based learning techniques such as kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis with Grassmann kernels for classification. We consider six expressions namely, Angry (AN), Disgust (Di), Fear (Fe), Happy (Ha), Sadness (Sa) and Surprise (Su) for classification. We perform experiments on extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression database to evaluate the expression recognition performance. Our method demonstrates good expression recognition performance outperforming other state of the art FER algorithms. We achieve an average recognition accuracy of 97.41% using a method based on expression subspace, kernel-FDA and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier. By using a simpler classifier, 1-Nearest Neighbor (1-NN) along with kernel-FDA, we achieve a recognition accuracy of 97.09%. We find that to process a group of 19 frames in a video sequence, LBP feature extraction requires majority of computation time (97 %) which is about 1.662 seconds on the Intel Core i3, dual core platform. However when only 3 frames (onset, middle and peak) of a video sequence are used, the computational complexity is reduced by about 83.75 % to 260 milliseconds at the expense of drop in the recognition accuracy to 92.88 %.

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Date Created
2014

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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

Description

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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Date Created
2012