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The cost and benefit of bulk energy storage in the Arizona power transmission system

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This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for energy storage in power systems. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load; store energy when it is inexpensive

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for energy storage in power systems. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load; store energy when it is inexpensive and discharge energy when it is expensive; potentially defer transmission and generation expansion; and provide for generation reserve margins. As renewable energy resource penetration increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar may be alleviated by bulk energy storage technologies. The quadratic programming function in MATLAB is used to simulate an economic dispatch that includes energy storage. A program is created that utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona transmission system, part of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The MATLAB program is used first to test the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization out-puts such as the system wide operating costs. Very high levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

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2013

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Engineering the implementation of pumped hydro energy storage in the Arizona power grid

Description

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies.

For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated.

The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

The thesis builds on the work of another recent researcher with the objectives of strengthening the assumptions used, checking the solutions obtained, utilizing higher level simulation languages to affirm results, and expanding the results and conclusions.

One important point not fully discussed in the present thesis is the impact of efficiency in the pumped hydro cycle. The efficiency of the cycle for modern units is estimated at higher than 90%. Inclusion of pumped hydro losses is relegated to future work.

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2014

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Impact of distributed photovoltaic generation and customer loads on power quality of a distribution system

Description

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits

There has been a considerable growth in distributed photovoltaic (PV) genera-tion and its integration in electric power distribution systems. This has led to a change in the distribution system infrastructure. Properly planned distributed gen-eration can offer a variety of benefits for system operations and enhance opera-tional performance of the distribution system. However, high penetration of PV resources can give rise to operating conditions which do not arise in traditional systems and one of the potential issues that needs to be addressed involves impact on power quality of the system with respect to the spectral distortion in voltages and currents.

The test bed feeder model representing a real operational distribution feeder is developed in OpenDSS and the feeder modeling takes into consideration the ob-jective of analysis and frequency of interest. Extensive metering infrastructure and measurements are utilized for validation of the model at harmonic frequencies. The harmonic study performed is divided into two sections: study of impact of non-linear loads on total harmonic voltage and current distortions and study of impact of PV resources on high frequency spectral distortion in voltages and cur-rents. The research work incorporates different harmonic study methodologies such as harmonic and high frequency power flow, and frequency scan study. The general conclusions are presented based on the simulation results and in addition, scope for future work is discussed.

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2014

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Harmonic resonance in power transmission systems due to the addition of shunt capacitors

Description

Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission

Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues.

For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy in-tended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC.

The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of ‘forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented.

Specific key results for the study indicated include:

• The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus.

• The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be should be considered carefully to avoid resonance condition from existing.

• The highest sensitivity of 0.0033 per unit for HVDC sources of harmonics was observed at bus 7 when all the HVDC sources were active at the same time.

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2015

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Applications and calculation of a distribution class locational marginal price

Description

This thesis presents an overview of the calculation and application of locational marginal prices in electric power systems particularly pertaining to the distribution system. The terminology proposed is a distribution locational marginal price or DLMP. The calculation of locational process

This thesis presents an overview of the calculation and application of locational marginal prices in electric power systems particularly pertaining to the distribution system. The terminology proposed is a distribution locational marginal price or DLMP. The calculation of locational process in distribution engineering is conjectured and discussed. The use of quadratic programming for this calculation is proposed and illustrated. A small four bus test bed exemplifies the concept and then the concept is expanded to the IEEE 34 bus distribution system. Alternatives for the calculation are presented, and approximations are reviewed. Active power losses in the system are modeled and incorporated by two different methods. These calculation methods are also applied to the 34 bus system. The results from each method are compared to results found using the PowerWorld simulator. The application of energy management using the DLMP to control load is analyzed as well. This analysis entails the use of the DLMP to cause certain controllable loads to decrease when the DLMP is high, and vice-versa. Tests are done to illustrate the impact of energy management using DLMPs for residential, commercial, and industrial controllable loads. Results showing the dynamics of the loads are shown. The use and characteristics of Matlab function FMINCON are presented in an appendix.

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2013

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Managing solar uncertainty in neighboring systems with stochastic unit commitment

Description

As renewable energy becomes more prevalent in transmission and distribution systems, it is vital to understand the uncertainty and variability that accompany these resources. Microgrids have the potential to mitigate the effects of resource uncertainty. With the ability to exist

As renewable energy becomes more prevalent in transmission and distribution systems, it is vital to understand the uncertainty and variability that accompany these resources. Microgrids have the potential to mitigate the effects of resource uncertainty. With the ability to exist in either an islanded mode or maintain connections with the main-grid, a microgrid can increase reliability, defer T&D; infrastructure and effectively utilize demand response. This study presents a co-optimization framework for a microgrid with solar photovoltaic generation, emergency generation, and transmission switching. Today unit commitment models ensure reliability with deterministic criteria, which are either insufficient to ensure reliability or can degrade economic efficiency for a microgrid that uses a large penetration of variable renewable resources. A stochastic mixed integer linear program for day-ahead unit commitment is proposed to account for uncertainty inherent in PV generation. The model incorporates the ability to trade energy and ancillary services with the main-grid, including the designation of firm and non-firm imports, which captures the ability to allow for reserve sharing between the two systems. In order to manage the computational complexities, a Benders' decomposition approach is utilized. The commitment schedule was validated with solar scenario analysis, i.e., Monte-Carlo simulations are conducted to test the proposed dispatch solution. For this test case, there were few deviations to power imports, 0.007% of solar was curtailed, no load shedding occurred in the main-grid, and 1.70% load shedding occurred in the microgrid.

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2013

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A power system reliability evaluation technique and education tool for wind energy integration

Description

This thesis is focused on the study of wind energy integration and is divided into two segments. The first part of the thesis deals with developing a reliability evaluation technique for a wind integrated power system. A multiple-partial outage model

This thesis is focused on the study of wind energy integration and is divided into two segments. The first part of the thesis deals with developing a reliability evaluation technique for a wind integrated power system. A multiple-partial outage model is utilized to accurately calculate the wind generation availability. A methodology is presented to estimate the outage probability of wind generators while incorporating their reduced power output levels at low wind speeds. Subsequently, power system reliability is assessed by calculating the loss of load probability (LOLP) and the effect of wind integration on the overall system is analyzed. Actual generation and load data of the Texas power system in 2008 are used to construct a test case. To demonstrate the robustness of the method, relia-bility studies have been conducted for a fairly constant as well as for a largely varying wind generation profile. Further, the case of increased wind generation penetration level has been simulated and comments made about the usability of the proposed method to aid in power system planning in scenarios of future expansion of wind energy infrastructure. The second part of this thesis explains the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) to demonstrate the operation of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). The theory of DFIG and its back-to-back power converter is described. The GUI illustrates the power flow, behavior of the electrical circuit and the maximum power point tracking of the machine for a variable wind speed input provided by the user. The tool, although developed on MATLAB software platform, has been constructed to work as a standalone application on Windows operating system based computer and enables even the non-engineering students to access it. Results of both the segments of the thesis are discussed. Remarks are presented about the validity of the reliability technique and GUI interface for variable wind speed conditions. Improvements have been suggested to enable the use of the reliability technique for a more elaborate system. Recommendations have been made about expanding the features of the GUI tool and to use it to promote educational interest about renewable power engineering.

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Date Created
2012

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Dispatch of bulk energy storage in power systems with wind generation

Description

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.

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2012

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A study of evaluation methods centered on reliability for renewal of aging hydropower plants

Description

Hydropower generation is one of the clean renewable energies which has received great attention in the power industry. Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more than 86% of all electricity generated by renewable sources worldwide.

Hydropower generation is one of the clean renewable energies which has received great attention in the power industry. Hydropower has been the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more than 86% of all electricity generated by renewable sources worldwide. Generally, the life span of a hydropower plant is considered as 30 to 50 years. Power plants over 30 years old usually conduct a feasibility study of rehabilitation on their entire facilities including infrastructure. By age 35, the forced outage rate increases by 10 percentage points compared to the previous year. Much longer outages occur in power plants older than 20 years. Consequently, the forced outage rate increases exponentially due to these longer outages. Although these long forced outages are not frequent, their impact is immense. If reasonable timing of rehabilitation is missed, an abrupt long-term outage could occur and additional unnecessary repairs and inefficiencies would follow. On the contrary, too early replacement might cause the waste of revenue. The hydropower plants of Korea Water Resources Corporation (hereafter K-water) are utilized for this study. Twenty-four K-water generators comprise the population for quantifying the reliability of each equipment. A facility in a hydropower plant is a repairable system because most failures can be fixed without replacing the entire facility. The fault data of each power plant are collected, within which only forced outage faults are considered as raw data for reliability analyses. The mean cumulative repair functions (MCF) of each facility are determined with the failure data tables, using Nelson's graph method. The power law model, a popular model for a repairable system, can also be obtained to represent representative equipment and system availability. The criterion-based analysis of HydroAmp is used to provide more accurate reliability of each power plant. Two case studies are presented to enhance the understanding of the availability of each power plant and represent economic evaluations for modernization. Also, equipment in a hydropower plant is categorized into two groups based on their reliability for determining modernization timing and their suitable replacement periods are obtained using simulation.

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2011

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Modeling and analysis of three-phase grid-tied photovoltaic systems

Description

Market acceptability of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies and the gradual and consistent increase in their depth of penetration have generated significant interest over the past few years. In particular, in Arizona and several other states there has been a

Market acceptability of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies and the gradual and consistent increase in their depth of penetration have generated significant interest over the past few years. In particular, in Arizona and several other states there has been a substantial in-crease in distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation interfaced to the power distribution systems, and is expected to continue to grow at a significant rate. This has made integration, control and optimal operation of DER units a main area of focus in the design and operation of distribution systems. Grid-connected, distributed PV covers a wide range of power levels ranging from small, single phase residential roof-top systems to large three-phase, multi-megawatt systems. The focus of this work is on analyzing large, three-phase systems, with the power distribution system of the Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe campus used as the test bed for analysis and simulation. The Tempe campus of ASU has presently 4.5 MW of installed PV capacity, with another 4.5 MW expected to be added by 2011, which will represent about 22% of PV penetration. The PV systems are interfaced to the grid invariably by a power electronic inverter. Many of the important characteristics of the PV generation are influenced by the design and performance of the inverter, and hence suitable models of the inverter are needed to analyze PV systems. Several models of distributed generation (DG), including switching and average models, suitable for different study objectives, and different control modes of the inverter have been described in this thesis. A critical function of the inverters is to quickly detect and eliminate unintentional islands during grid failure. In this thesis, many active anti-islanding techniques with voltage and frequency positive feedback have been studied. Effectiveness of these techniques in terms of the tripping times specified in IEEE Std. 1547 for interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems has been analyzed. The impact of distributed PV on the voltage profile of a distribution system has been ana-lyzed with ASU system as the test bed using power systems analysis tools namely PowerWorld and CYMDIST. The present inverters complying with IEEE 1547 do not regulate the system vol-tage. However, the future inverters especially at higher power levels are expected to perform sev-eral grid support functions including voltage regulation and reactive power support. Hence, the impact of inverters with the reactive power support capabilities is also analyzed. Various test sce-narios corresponding to different grid conditions are simulated and it is shown that distributed PV improves the voltage profile of the system. The improvements are more significant when the PV generators are capable of reactive power support. Detailed short circuit analyses are also per-formed on the system, and the impact of distributed PV on the fault current magnitude, with and without reactive power injection, have been studied.

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2010