Matching Items (6)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

151246-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

Description

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

151846-Thumbnail Image.png

Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

Description

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

155974-Thumbnail Image.png

An Inductor Emulator Approach to Peak Current-mode Control in a 4-Phase Buck Regulator

Description

High-efficiency DC-DC converters make up one of the important blocks of state-of-the-art power supplies. The trend toward high level of transistor integration has caused load current demands to grow significantly. Supplying high output current and minimizing output current ripple has

High-efficiency DC-DC converters make up one of the important blocks of state-of-the-art power supplies. The trend toward high level of transistor integration has caused load current demands to grow significantly. Supplying high output current and minimizing output current ripple has been a driving force behind the evolution of Multi-phase topologies. Ability to supply large output current with improved efficiency, reduction in the size of filter components, improved transient response make multi-phase topologies a preferred choice for low voltage-high current applications.

Current sensing capability inside a system is much sought after for applications which include Peak-current mode control, Current limiting, Overload protection. Current sensing is extremely important for current sharing in Multi-phase topologies. Existing approaches such as Series resistor, SenseFET, inductor DCR based current sensing are simple but their drawbacks such low efficiency, low accuracy, limited bandwidth demand a novel current sensing scheme.

This research presents a systematic design procedure of a 5V - 1.8V, 8A 4-Phase Buck regulator with a novel current sensing scheme based on replication of the inductor current. The proposed solution consists of detailed system modeling in PLECS which includes modification of the peak current mode model to accommodate the new current sensing element, derivation of power-stage and Plant transfer functions, Controller design. The proposed model has been verified through PLECS simulations and compared with a transistor-level implementation of the system. The time-domain parameters such as overshoot and settling-time simulated through transistor-level

implementation is in close agreement with the results obtained from the PLECS model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

152924-Thumbnail Image.png

Design techniques for ultra-low noise and low power low dropout (LDO) regulators

Description

Modern day deep sub-micron SOC architectures often demand very low supply noise levels. As supply voltage decreases with decreasing deep sub-micron gate length, noise on the power supply starts playing a dominant role in noise-sensitive analog blocks, especially high precision

Modern day deep sub-micron SOC architectures often demand very low supply noise levels. As supply voltage decreases with decreasing deep sub-micron gate length, noise on the power supply starts playing a dominant role in noise-sensitive analog blocks, especially high precision ADC, PLL, and RF SOC's. Most handheld and portable applications and highly sensitive medical instrumentation circuits tend to use low noise regulators as on-chip or on board power supply. Nonlinearities associated with LNA's, mixers and oscillators up-convert low frequency noise with the signal band. Specifically, synthesizer and TCXO phase noise, LNA and mixer noise figure, and adjacent channel power ratios of the PA are heavily influenced by the supply noise and ripple. This poses a stringent requirement on a very low noise power supply with high accuracy and fast transient response. Low Dropout (LDO) regulators are preferred over switching regulators for these applications due to their attractive low noise and low ripple features. LDO's shield sensitive blocks from high frequency fluctuations on the power supply while providing high accuracy, fast response supply regulation.

This research focuses on developing innovative techniques to reduce the noise of any generic wideband LDO, stable with or without load capacitor. The proposed techniques include Switched RC Filtering to reduce the Bandgap Reference noise, Current Mode Chopping to reduce the Error Amplifier noise & MOS-R based RC filter to reduce the noise due to bias current. The residual chopping ripple was reduced using a Switched Capacitor notch filter. Using these techniques, the integrated noise of a wideband LDO was brought down to 15µV in the integration band of 10Hz to 100kHz. These techniques can be integrated into any generic LDO without any significant area overhead.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

155107-Thumbnail Image.png

Mixed-mode adaptive ripple canceller for switching regulators

Description

State of art modern System-On-Chip architectures often require very low noise supplies without overhead on high efficiencies. Low noise supplies are especially important in noise sensitive analog blocks such as high precision Analog-to-Digital Converters, Phase Locked Loops etc., and analog

State of art modern System-On-Chip architectures often require very low noise supplies without overhead on high efficiencies. Low noise supplies are especially important in noise sensitive analog blocks such as high precision Analog-to-Digital Converters, Phase Locked Loops etc., and analog signal processing blocks. Switching regulators, while providing high efficiency power conversion suffer from inherent ripple on their output. A typical solution for high efficiency low noise supply is to cascade switching regulators with Low Dropout linear regulators (LDO) which generate inherently quiet supplies. The switching frequencies of switching regulators keep scaling to higher values in order to reduce the sizes of the passive inductor and capacitors at the output of switching regulators. This poses a challenge for existing solutions of switching regulators followed by LDO since the Power Supply Rejection (PSR) of LDOs are band-limited. In order to achieve high PSR over a wideband, the penalty would be to increase the quiescent power consumed to increase the bandwidth of the LDO and increase in solution area of the LDO. Hence, an alternative to the existing approach is required which improves the ripple cancellation at the output of switching regulator while overcoming the deficiencies of the LDO.

This research focuses on developing an innovative technique to cancel the ripple at the output of switching regulator which is scalable across a wide range of switching frequencies. The proposed technique consists of a primary ripple canceller and an auxiliary ripple canceller, both of which facilitate in the generation of a quiet supply and help to attenuate the ripple at the output of buck converter by over 22dB. These techniques can be applied to any DC-DC converter and are scalable across frequency, load current, output voltage as compared to LDO without significant overhead on efficiency or area. The proposed technique also presents a fully integrated solution without the need of additional off-chip components which, considering the push for full-integration of Power Management Integrated Circuits, is a big advantage over using LDOs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

157674-Thumbnail Image.png

System modeling of next generation digitally modulated automotive radar (DMR)

Description

State-of-the-art automotive radars use multi-chip Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars to sense the environment around the car. FMCW radars are prone to interference as they operate over a narrow baseband bandwidth and use similar radio frequency (RF) chirps among

State-of-the-art automotive radars use multi-chip Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radars to sense the environment around the car. FMCW radars are prone to interference as they operate over a narrow baseband bandwidth and use similar radio frequency (RF) chirps among them. Phase Modulated Continuous Wave radars (PMCW) are robust and insensitive to interference as they transmit signals over a wider bandwidth using spread spectrum technique. As more and more cars are equipped with FMCW radars illuminate the same environment, interference would soon become a serious issue. PMCW radars can be an effective solution to interference in the noisy FMCW radar environment. PMCW radars can be implemented in silicon as System-on-a-chip (SoC), suitable for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) implementation and is highly programmable. PMCW radars do not require highly linear high frequency chirping oscillators thus reducing the size of the final solution.

This thesis aims to present a behavior model for this promising Digitally modulated radar (DMR) transceiver in Simulink/Matlab. The goal of this work is to create a model for the electronic system level framework that simulates the entire system with non-idealities. This model includes a Top Down Design methodology to understand the requirements of the individual modules’ performance and thus derive the specifications for implementing the real chip. Back annotation of the actual electrical modules’ performance to the model closes the design process loop. Using Simulink’s toolboxes, a passband and equivalent baseband model of the system is built for the transceiver with non-idealities of the components built in along with signal processing routines in Matlab. This model provides a platform for system evaluation and simulation for various system scenarios and use-cases of sensing using the environment around a moving car.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019