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Automatic Recording of Children's Activity Within a Classroom: A Study of Levy Flights

Description

The diagnosis for an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is heavily based on teacher or parent opinion, and not on scientific evidence. This causes children to be wrongly diagnosed with a disorder and be prescribed medicine that they do

The diagnosis for an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is heavily based on teacher or parent opinion, and not on scientific evidence. This causes children to be wrongly diagnosed with a disorder and be prescribed medicine that they do not need to be taking. This paper discusses a project that was completed for the Child Study Lab (CSL) preschool at Arizona State University (ASU), in which children’s activity within a classroom was automatically recorded using ultra-wideband technology. This project’s goal was to gather location data on the children in the CSL and analyze and assess the collected data for any patterns of behavior. The hope was that if a child’s data displayed a pattern that strayed from the norm, that this analysis could pose as a more objective way to indicate that a child may have an attention deficit problem. Fractal Dimensions and Levy Flights were researched and applied to the data analysis portion of this project.

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2020-05

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LED Bike Wheel

Description

The apparent phenomenon of the human eye retaining images for fractions of a second after the light source has gone is known as Persistence of Vision. While its causes are not fully understood, it can be taken advantage of in

The apparent phenomenon of the human eye retaining images for fractions of a second after the light source has gone is known as Persistence of Vision. While its causes are not fully understood, it can be taken advantage of in order to create illusions which trick the mind into perceiving something which, in actuality, is very different from what the mind portrays. It has motivated many creative engineering technologies in the past and is the core for how we perceive motion in movies and animations. This project applies the persistence of vision concept to a lesser explored medium; the wheel of a moving bicycle. The motion of the wheel, along with intelligent control of discrete LEDs, create vibrant illusions of solid lines and shapes. These shapes make up the image to be displayed on the bike wheel. The rotation of the bike wheel can be compensated for in order to produce a standing image (or images) of the user's choosing. This thesis details how the mechanism for conducting the individual LEDs was created in order to produce a device which is capable of delivering colorful, standing images of the user's choosing.

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2016-05

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Protection of Flash Memory in the Space Environment

Description

This is a test plan document for Team Aegis' capstone project that has the goal of mitigating single event upsets in NAND flash memory caused by space radiation.

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2021-05

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Magneto-dielectric wire antennas theory and design

Description

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in airborne applications and reduce the visual and RF signatures of the communication node. This dissertation is concerned with a new class of antennas called Magneto-Dielectric wire antennas (MDWA) that provide an ideal solution to this ever-present and growing need. Magneto-dielectric structures (μr>1;εr>1) can partially guide electromagnetic waves and radiate them by leaking off the structure or by scattering from any discontinuities, much like a metal antenna of the same shape. They are attractive alternatives to conventional whip and blade antennas because they can be placed conformal to a metallic ground plane without any performance penalty. A two pronged approach is taken to analyze MDWAs. In the first, antenna circuit models are derived for the prototypical dipole and loop elements that include the effects of realistic dispersive magneto-dielectric materials of construction. A material selection law results, showing that: (a) The maximum attainable efficiency is determined by a single magnetic material parameter that we term the hesitivity: Closely related to Snoek's product, it measures the maximum magnetic conductivity of the material. (b) The maximum bandwidth is obtained by placing the highest amount of μ" loss in the frequency range of operation. As a result, high radiation efficiency antennas can be obtained not only from the conventional low loss (low μ") materials but also with highly lossy materials (tan(δm)>>1). The second approach used to analyze MDWAs is through solving the Green function problem of the infinite magneto-dielectric cylinder fed by a current loop. This solution sheds light on the leaky and guided waves supported by the magneto-dielectric structure and leads to useful design rules connecting the permeability of the material to the cross sectional area of the antenna in relation to the desired frequency of operation. The Green function problem of the permeable prolate spheroidal antenna is also solved as a good approximation to a finite cylinder.

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2013

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Characterization of high-resistivity silicon bulk and silicon-on-insulator wafers

Description

High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates are important for low-loss, high-performance microwave and millimeter wave devices in high-frequency telecommunication systems. The highest resistivity of up to ~10,000 ohm.cm is Float Zone (FZ) grown Si which is produced in small quantities and moderate

High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates are important for low-loss, high-performance microwave and millimeter wave devices in high-frequency telecommunication systems. The highest resistivity of up to ~10,000 ohm.cm is Float Zone (FZ) grown Si which is produced in small quantities and moderate wafer diameter. The more common Czochralski (CZ) Si can achieve resistivities of around 1000 ohm.cm, but the wafers contain oxygen that can lead to thermal donor formation with donor concentration significantly higher (~1015 cm-3) than the dopant concentration (~1012-1013 cm-3) of such high-resistivity Si leading to resistivity changes and possible type conversion of high-resistivity p-type silicon. In this research capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization is employed to study the donor formation and type conversion of p-type High-resistivity Silicon-On-Insulator (HRSOI) wafers and the challenges involved in C-V characterization of HRSOI wafers using a Schottky contact are highlighted. The maximum capacitance of bulk or Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers is governed by the gate/contact area. During C-V characterization of high-resistivity SOI wafers with aluminum contacts directly on the Si film (Schottky contact); it was observed that the maximum capacitance is much higher than that due to the contact area, suggesting bias spreading due to the distributed transmission line of the film resistance and the buried oxide capacitance. In addition, an "S"-shape C-V plot was observed in the accumulation region. The effects of various factors, such as: frequency, contact and substrate sizes, gate oxide, SOI film thickness, film and substrate doping, carrier lifetime, contact work-function, temperature, light, annealing temperature and radiation on the C-V characteristics of HRSOI wafers are studied. HRSOI wafers have the best crosstalk prevention capability compared to other types of wafers, which plays a major role in system-on-chip configuration to prevent coupling between high frequency digital and sensitive analog circuits. Substrate crosstalk in HRSOI and various factors affecting the crosstalk, such as: substrate resistivity, separation between devices, buried oxide (BOX) thickness, radiation, temperature, annealing, light, and device types are discussed. Also various ways to minimize substrate crosstalk are studied and a new characterization method is proposed. Owing to their very low doping concentrations and the presence of oxygen in CZ wafers, HRS wafers pose a challenge in resistivity measurement using conventional techniques such as four-point probe and Hall measurement methods. In this research the challenges in accurate resistivity measurement using four-point probe, Hall method, and C-V profile are highlighted and a novel approach to extract resistivity of HRS wafers based on Impedance Spectroscopy measurements using polymer dielectrics such as Polystyrene and Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is proposed.

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2012

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Programmable analog device array (PANDA): transistor-level analog emulation

Description

The design and development of analog/mixed-signal (AMS) integrated circuits (ICs) is becoming increasingly expensive, complex, and lengthy. Rapid prototyping and emulation of analog ICs will be significant in the design and testing of complex analog systems. A new approach, Programmable

The design and development of analog/mixed-signal (AMS) integrated circuits (ICs) is becoming increasingly expensive, complex, and lengthy. Rapid prototyping and emulation of analog ICs will be significant in the design and testing of complex analog systems. A new approach, Programmable ANalog Device Array (PANDA) that maps any AMS design problem to a transistor-level programmable hardware, is proposed. This approach enables fast system level validation and a reduction in post-Silicon bugs, minimizing design risk and cost. The unique features of the approach include 1) transistor-level programmability that emulates each transistor behavior in an analog design, achieving very fine granularity of reconfiguration; 2) programmable switches that are treated as a design component during analog transistor emulating, and optimized with the reconfiguration matrix; 3) compensation of AC performance degradation through boosting the bias current. Based on these principles, a digitally controlled PANDA platform is designed at 45nm node that can map AMS modules across 22nm to 90nm technology nodes. A systematic emulation approach to map any analog transistor to 45nm PANDA cell is proposed, which achieves transistor level matching accuracy of less than 5% for ID and less than 10% for Rout and Gm. Circuit level analog metrics of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) emulated by PANDA, match to those of the original designs in 22nm and 90nm nodes with less than a 5% error. Several other 90nm and 22nm analog blocks are successfully emulated by the 45nm PANDA platform, including a folded-cascode operational amplifier and a sample-and-hold module (S/H). Further capabilities of PANDA are demonstrated by the first full-chip silicon of PANDA which is implemented on 65nm process This system consists of a 24×25 cell array, reconfigurable interconnect and configuration memory. The voltage and current reference circuits, op amps and a VCO with a phase interpolation circuit are emulated by PANDA.

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Date Created
2013

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Senior Design Final Report: NASA Psyche Mission Meteorite Imaging System

Description

The NASA Psyche Iron Meteorite Imaging System (IMIS) is a standalone system created to image metal meteorites from ASU’s Center for Meteorite Studies’ collection that have an etched surface. Meteorite scientists have difficulty obtaining true-to-life images of meteorites through traditional

The NASA Psyche Iron Meteorite Imaging System (IMIS) is a standalone system created to image metal meteorites from ASU’s Center for Meteorite Studies’ collection that have an etched surface. Meteorite scientists have difficulty obtaining true-to-life images of meteorites through traditional photography methods due to the meteorites’ shiny, irregular surfaces, which interferes with their ability to identify meteorites’ component materials through image analysis. Using the IMIS, scientists can easily and consistently obtain glare-free photographs of meteorite surface that are suitable for future use in an artificial intelligence-based meteorite component analysis system. The IMIS integrates a lighting system, a mounted camera, a sample positioning area, a meteorite leveling/positioning system, and a touch screen control panel featuring an interface that allows the user to see a preview of the image to be taken as well as an edge detection view, a glare detection view, a button that allows the user to remotely take the picture, and feedback if very high levels of glare are detected that may indicate a camera or positioning error. Initial research and design work were completed by the end of Fall semester, and Spring semester consisted of building and testing the system. The current system is fully functional, and photos taken by the current system have been approved by a meteorite expert and an AI expert. The funding for this project was tentatively capped at $1000 for miscellaneous expenses, not including a camera to be supplied by the School of Earth and Space Exploration. When SESE was unable to provide a camera, an additional $4000 were allotted for camera expenses. So far, $1935 of the total $5000 budget has been spent on the project, putting the project $3065 under budget. While this system is a functional prototype, future capstone projects may involve the help of industrial designers to improve the technician’s experience through automating the sample positioning process.

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2019-05

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On the Communication Barrier Between Engineers and Clinicians Through Clinical Footwear Development

Description

There is a demonstrable issue in how new medical technologies are developed. The consumer market is always overflowing with the newest possible technologies; however, this is often not the case in the medical field. The consumer market refers to a

There is a demonstrable issue in how new medical technologies are developed. The consumer market is always overflowing with the newest possible technologies; however, this is often not the case in the medical field. The consumer market refers to a product that any individual can buy in a retail store, whereas a product for the medical field is prescribed by a clinician for use by a patient. The development of devices usually targets the consumer market rather than the medical field. This trend leads to the development of devices that may have consumer and clinical benefits not receiving consideration in the clinical market because they are not designed with a strictly medical purpose in mind. This is an issue that needs rectification, as injured patients deserve the best possible care with the best technologies available. The development of these technologies should not be limited by a lack of communication between clinicians and engineers. This thesis will explore why product development in the medical field lags behind that of the consumer market. It will also offer practical solutions, as well as having an engineering team develop a device specifically for use in the medical field. The development of this product will show that the lack of communication between clinicians and engineers is possible to overcome. From this development process, recommendations will be made to offer specific solutions to overcome the communication barrier and aid future product development.

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2020-05

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Solar Powered Intrusion Detector

Description

The project described here is a solar powered intrusion detection system consisting of three modules: a battery recharging circuit, a laser emitter and photodetector pair, and a Wi- Fi connectivity board. Over the preceding seven months, great care has been

The project described here is a solar powered intrusion detection system consisting of three modules: a battery recharging circuit, a laser emitter and photodetector pair, and a Wi- Fi connectivity board. Over the preceding seven months, great care has been taken for the design and construction of this system. The first three months were spent researching and selecting suitable IC's and external components (e.g. solar panel, batteries, etc.). Then, the next couple of months were spent ordering specific materials and equipment for the construction of our prototype. Finally, the last two months were used to build a working prototype, with a substantial amount of time used for perfecting our system's packaging and operation. This report will consist of a detailed discussion of our team's research, design activities, prototype implementation, final budget, and final schedule. Technical discussion of the concepts behind our design will assist with understanding the design activities and prototype implementation sections that will follow. Due to the generous funding of the group from the Barrett Honors College, our overall budget available for the project was $1600. Of that amount, only $334.51 was spent on the actual system components, with $829.42 being spent on the equipment and materials needed for the testing and construction of the prototype. As far as the schedule goes, we are essentially done with the project. The only tasks left to finish are a successful defense of the project at the oral presentation on Friday, 29 March 2013, followed by a successful demo on 26 April 2013.

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2013-05

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Substrate-independent nanomaterial deposition via hypersonic impaction

Description

In the nano-regime many materials exhibit properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. These nano-properties have been shown to be useful in a wide range of applications with nanomaterials being used for catalysts, in energy production, as protective

In the nano-regime many materials exhibit properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. These nano-properties have been shown to be useful in a wide range of applications with nanomaterials being used for catalysts, in energy production, as protective coatings, and in medical treatment. While there is no shortage of exciting and novel applications, the world of nanomaterials suffers from a lack of large scale manufacturing techniques. The current methods and equipment used for manufacturing nanomaterials are generally slow, expensive, potentially dangerous, and material specific. The research and widespread use of nanomaterials has undoubtedly been hindered by this lack of appropriate tooling. This work details the effort to create a novel nanomaterial synthesis and deposition platform capable of operating at industrial level rates and reliability.

The tool, referred to as Deppy, deposits material via hypersonic impaction, a two chamber process that takes advantage of compressible fluids operating in the choked flow regime to accelerate particles to up several thousand meters per second before they impact and stick to the substrate. This allows for the energetic separation of the synthesis and deposition processes while still behaving as a continuous flow reactor giving Deppy the unique ability to independently control the particle properties and the deposited film properties. While the ultimate goal is to design a tool capable of producing a broad range of nanomaterial films, this work will showcase Deppy's ability to produce silicon nano-particle films as a proof of concept.

By adjusting parameters in the upstream chamber the particle composition was varied from completely amorphous to highly crystalline as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. By adjusting parameters in the downstream chamber significant variation of the film's density was achieved. Further it was shown that the system is capable of making these adjustments in each chamber without affecting the operation of the other.

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Date Created
2015