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Development of models for optical instrument transformers

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Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation of this study. Finding the answer for this question and

Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) have been developed as an alternative to traditional instrument transformers (IT). The question "Can optical instrument transformers substitute for the traditional transformers?" is the main motivation of this study. Finding the answer for this question and developing complete models are the contributions of this work. Dedicated test facilities are developed so that the steady state and transient performances of analog outputs of a magnetic current transformer (CT) and a magnetic voltage transformer (VT) are compared with that of an optical current transformer (OCT) and an optical voltage transformer (OVT) respectively. Frequency response characteristics of OIT outputs are obtained. Comparison results show that OITs have a specified accuracy of 0.3% in all cases. They are linear, and DC offset does not saturate the systems. The OIT output signal has a 40~60 μs time delay, but this is typically less than the equivalent phase difference permitted by the IEEE and IEC standards for protection applications. Analog outputs have significantly higher bandwidths (adjustable to 20 to 40 kHz) than the IT. The digital output signal bandwidth (2.4 kHz) of an OCT is significantly lower than the analog signal bandwidth (20 kHz) due to the sampling rates involved. The OIT analog outputs may have significant white noise of 6%, but the white noise does not affect accuracy or protection performance. Temperatures up to 50oC do not adversely affect the performance of the OITs. Three types of models are developed for analog outputs: analog, digital, and complete models. Well-known mathematical methods, such as network synthesis and Jones calculus methods are applied. The developed models are compared with experiment results and are verified with simulation programs. Results show less than 1.5% for OCT and 2% for OVT difference and that the developed models can be used for power system simulations and the method used for the development can be used to develop models for all other brands of optical systems. The communication and data transfer between the all-digital protection systems is investigated by developing a test facility for all digital protection systems. Test results show that different manufacturers' relays and transformers based on the IEC standard can serve the power system successfully.

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Date Created
2010

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Protection of Flash Memory in the Space Environment

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This is a test plan document for Team Aegis' capstone project that has the goal of mitigating single event upsets in NAND flash memory caused by space radiation.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Influence of grounded back electrode on AC creepage breakdown characteristics

Description

This thesis focuses on the influence of a grounded back electrode on the breakdown characteristics. The back electrode is an electrode which attaches at the back side of solid insulation. Insulation with grounded back electrode is a common type of

This thesis focuses on the influence of a grounded back electrode on the breakdown characteristics. The back electrode is an electrode which attaches at the back side of solid insulation. Insulation with grounded back electrode is a common type of insulation which is adopted in many high voltage power devices. While most of the power equipment work under AC voltage, most of the research on back electrode is focused on the DC voltage. Therefore, it is necessary to deeply investigate the influence of the back electrode under AC applied voltage. To investigate the influence of back electrode, the research is separated into two phases, which are the experiment phase and the electric field analysis phase. In the experiments, the breakdown voltages for both with and without back electrode are obtained. The experimental results indicate that the grounded back electrode does have impact on the breakdown characteristics. Then with the breakdown voltage, based on real experiment model, the electric field is analyzed using computer software. From the field simulation result, it is found that the back electrode also influences the electric field distribution. The inter relationship between the electric field and breakdown voltage is the key to explain all the results and phenomena observed during the experiment. Additionally, the influence of insulation barrier on breakdown is also investigated. Compared to the case without ground electrode, inserting a barrier into the gap can more significantly improve breakdown voltage.

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Date Created
2014

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Chip level implementation techniques for radiation hardened microprocessors

Description

Microprocessors are the processing heart of any digital system and are central to all the technological advancements of the age including space exploration and monitoring. The demands of space exploration require a special class of microprocessors called radiation hardened microprocessors

Microprocessors are the processing heart of any digital system and are central to all the technological advancements of the age including space exploration and monitoring. The demands of space exploration require a special class of microprocessors called radiation hardened microprocessors which are less susceptible to radiation present outside the earth's atmosphere, in other words their functioning is not disrupted even in presence of disruptive radiation. The presence of these particles forces the designers to come up with design techniques at circuit and chip levels to alleviate the errors which can be encountered in the functioning of microprocessors. Microprocessor evolution has been very rapid in terms of performance but the same cannot be said about its rad-hard counterpart. With the total data processing capability overall increasing rapidly, the clear lack of performance of the processors manifests as a bottleneck in any processing system. To design high performance rad-hard microprocessors designers have to overcome difficult design problems at various design stages i.e. Architecture, Synthesis, Floorplanning, Optimization, routing and analysis all the while maintaining circuit radiation hardness. The reference design `HERMES' is targeted at 90nm IBM G process and is expected to reach 500Mhz which is twice as fast any processor currently available. Chapter 1 talks about the mechanisms of radiation effects which cause upsets and degradation to the functioning of digital circuits. Chapter 2 gives a brief description of the components which are used in the design and are part of the consistent efforts at ASUVLSI lab culminating in this chip level implementation of the design. Chapter 3 explains the basic digital design ASIC flow and the changes made to it leading to a rad-hard specific ASIC flow used in implementing this chip. Chapter 4 talks about the triple mode redundant (TMR) specific flow which is used in the block implementation, delineating the challenges faced and the solutions proposed to make the flow work. Chapter 5 explains the challenges faced and solutions arrived at while using the top-level flow described in chapter 3. Chapter 6 puts together the results and analyzes the design in terms of basic integrated circuit design constraints.

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Date Created
2013

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Thermal performance of 69 kV underground cables

Description

Underground cables have been widely used in big cities. This is because underground cables offer the benefits of reducing visual impact and the disturbance caused by bad weather (wind, ice, snow, and the lightning strikes). Additionally, when placing power lines

Underground cables have been widely used in big cities. This is because underground cables offer the benefits of reducing visual impact and the disturbance caused by bad weather (wind, ice, snow, and the lightning strikes). Additionally, when placing power lines underground, the maintenance costs can also be reduced as a result. The underground cable rating calculation is the most critical part of designing the cable construction and cable installation. In this thesis, three contributions regarding the cable ampacity study have been made. First, an analytical method for rating of underground cables has been presented. Second, this research also develops the steady state and transient ratings for Salt River Project (SRP) 69 kV underground system using the commercial software CYMCAP for several typical substations. Third, to find an alternative way to predict the cable ratings, three regression models have been built. The residual plot and mean square error for the three methods have been analyzed. The conclusion is dawn that the nonlinear regression model provides the sufficient accuracy of the cable rating prediction for SRP's typical installation.

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Date Created
2013

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Influence of embedded HVDC transmission on AC network performance

Description

An embedded HVDC system is a dc link with at least two ends being physically connected within a single synchronous ac network. The thesis reviews previous works on embedded HVDC, proposes a dynamic embedded HVDC model by PSCAD program, and

An embedded HVDC system is a dc link with at least two ends being physically connected within a single synchronous ac network. The thesis reviews previous works on embedded HVDC, proposes a dynamic embedded HVDC model by PSCAD program, and compares the transient stability performance among AC, DC and embedded HVDC. The test results indicate that by installing the embedded HVDC, AC network transient stability performance has been largely improved. Therefore the thesis designs a novel frequency control topology for embedded HVDC. According to the dynamic performance test results, when the embedded HVDC system equipped with a frequency control, the system transient stability will be improved further.

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Date Created
2013

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Total dose simulation for high reliability electronics

Description

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design

New technologies enable the exploration of space, high-fidelity defense systems, lighting fast intercontinental communication systems as well as medical technologies that extend and improve patient lives. The basis for these technologies is high reliability electronics devised to meet stringent design goals and to operate consistently for many years deployed in the field. An on-going concern for engineers is the consequences of ionizing radiation exposure, specifically total dose effects. For many of the different applications, there is a likelihood of exposure to radiation, which can result in device degradation and potentially failure. While the total dose effects and the resulting degradation are a well-studied field and methodologies to help mitigate degradation have been developed, there is still a need for simulation techniques to help designers understand total dose effects within their design. To that end, the work presented here details simulation techniques to analyze as well as predict the total dose response of a circuit. In this dissertation the total dose effects are broken into two sub-categories, intra-device and inter-device effects in CMOS technology. Intra-device effects degrade the performance of both n-channel and p-channel transistors, while inter-device effects result in loss of device isolation. In this work, multiple case studies are presented for which total dose degradation is of concern. Through the simulation techniques, the individual device and circuit responses are modeled post-irradiation. The use of these simulation techniques by circuit designers allow predictive simulation of total dose effects, allowing focused design changes to be implemented to increase radiation tolerance of high reliability electronics.

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Date Created
2014

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Electric potential and field calculation of HVDC composite insulators by charge simulation method

Description

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is being considered for several long distance point-to-point overhead transmission lines, because of their lower losses and higher transmission capability, when compared to AC systems. Insulators are used to support and isolate the conductors

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is being considered for several long distance point-to-point overhead transmission lines, because of their lower losses and higher transmission capability, when compared to AC systems. Insulators are used to support and isolate the conductors mechanically and electrically. Composite insulators are gaining popularity for both AC and DC lines, for the reasons of light weight and good performance under contaminated conditions. This research illustrates the electric potential and field computation on HVDC composite insulators by using the charge simulation method. The electric field is calculated under both dry and wet conditions. Under dry conditions, the field distributions along the insulators whose voltage levels range from 500 kV to 1200 kV are calculated and compared. The results indicate that the HVDC insulator produces higher electric field, when compared to AC insulator. Under wet conditions, a 500 kV insulator is modeled with discrete water droplets on the surface. In this case, the field distribution is affected by surface resistivity and separations between droplets. The corona effects on insulators are analyzed for both dry and wet conditions. Corona discharge is created, when electric field strength exceeds the threshold value. Corona and grading rings are placed near the end-fittings of the insulators to reduce occurrence of corona. The dimensions of these rings, specifically their radius, tube thickness and projection from end fittings are optimized. This will help the utilities design proper corona and grading rings to reduce the corona phenomena.

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Date Created
2013

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Resistance switching in chalcogenide based programmable metallization cells (PMC) and sensors under gamma-rays

Description

Chalcogenide glass (ChG) materials have gained wide attention because of their applications in conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM), phase change memories (PC-RAM), optical rewritable disks (CD-RW and DVD-RW), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microfluidics, and optical communications. One of the significant

Chalcogenide glass (ChG) materials have gained wide attention because of their applications in conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM), phase change memories (PC-RAM), optical rewritable disks (CD-RW and DVD-RW), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microfluidics, and optical communications. One of the significant properties of ChG materials is the change in the resistivity of the material when a metal such as Ag or Cu is added to it by diffusion. This study demonstrates the potential radiation-sensing capabilities of two metal/chalcogenide glass device configurations. Lateral and vertical device configurations sense the radiation-induced migration of Ag+ ions in germanium selenide glasses via changes in electrical resistance between electrodes on the ChG. Before irradiation, these devices exhibit a high-resistance `OFF-state' (in the order of 10E12) but following irradiation, with either 60-Co gamma-rays or UV light, their resistance drops to a low-resistance `ON-state' (around 10E3). Lateral devices have exhibited cyclical recovery with room temperature annealing of the Ag doped ChG, which suggests potential uses in reusable radiation sensor applications. The feasibility of producing inexpensive flexible radiation sensors has been demonstrated by studying the effects of mechanical strain and temperature stress on sensors formed on flexible polymer substrate. The mechanisms of radiation-induced Ag/Ag+ transport and reactions in ChG have been modeled using a finite element device simulator, ATLAS. The essential reactions captured by the simulator are radiation-induced carrier generation, combined with reduction/oxidation for Ag species in the chalcogenide film. Metal-doped ChGs are solid electrolytes that have both ionic and electronic conductivity. The ChG based Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a technology platform that offers electric field dependent resistance switching mechanisms by formation and dissolution of nano sized conductive filaments in a ChG solid electrolyte between oxidizable and inert electrodes. This study identifies silver anode agglomeration in PMC devices following large radiation dose exposure and considers device failure mechanisms via electrical and material characterization. The results demonstrate that by changing device structural parameters, silver agglomeration in PMC devices can be suppressed and reliable resistance switching may be maintained for extremely high doses ranging from 4 Mrad(GeSe) to more than 10 Mrad (ChG).

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Date Created
2013

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Modeling of solid state transformer for the FREEDM system demonstration

Description

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

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Date Created
2014