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Visual Surround Sound and its Applications

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The world of a hearing impaired person is much different than that of somebody capable of discerning different frequencies and magnitudes of sound waves via their ears. This is especially true when hearing impaired people play video games. In most

The world of a hearing impaired person is much different than that of somebody capable of discerning different frequencies and magnitudes of sound waves via their ears. This is especially true when hearing impaired people play video games. In most video games, surround sound is fed through some sort of digital output to headphones or speakers. Based on this information, the gamer can discern where a particular stimulus is coming from and whether or not that is a threat to their wellbeing within the virtual world. People with reliable hearing have a distinct advantage over hearing impaired people in the fact that they can gather information not just from what is in front of them, but from every angle relative to the way they're facing. The purpose of this project was to find a way to even the playing field, so that a person hard of hearing could also receive the sensory feedback that any other person would get while playing video games To do this, visual surround sound was created. This is a system that takes a surround sound input, and illuminates LEDs around the periphery of glasses based on the direction, frequency and amplitude of the audio wave. This provides the user with crucial information on the whereabouts of different elements within the game. In this paper, the research and development of Visual Surround Sound is discussed along with its viability in regards to a deaf person's ability to learn the technology, and decipher the visual cues.

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2015-05

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Audio Waveform Sample SVD Compression and Impact on Performance

Description

Lossy compression is a form of compression that slightly degrades a signal in ways that are ideally not detectable to the human ear. This is opposite to lossless compression, in which the sample is not degraded at all. While lossless

Lossy compression is a form of compression that slightly degrades a signal in ways that are ideally not detectable to the human ear. This is opposite to lossless compression, in which the sample is not degraded at all. While lossless compression may seem like the best option, lossy compression, which is used in most audio and video, reduces transmission time and results in much smaller file sizes. However, this compression can affect quality if it goes too far. The more compression there is on a waveform, the more degradation there is, and once a file is lossy compressed, this process is not reversible. This project will observe the degradation of an audio signal after the application of Singular Value Decomposition compression, a lossy compression that eliminates singular values from a signal’s matrix.

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2021-05

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On the ordering of communication channels

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This dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of instantaneous channel powers of fading channels as a general method to compare the performance of a communication system over two different channels, even when a closed-form expression for the metric may not be available.

This dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of instantaneous channel powers of fading channels as a general method to compare the performance of a communication system over two different channels, even when a closed-form expression for the metric may not be available. Such a comparison is with respect to a variety of performance metrics such as error rates, outage probability and ergodic capacity, which share common mathematical properties such as monotonicity, convexity or complete monotonicity. Complete monotonicity of a metric, such as the symbol error rate, in conjunction with the stochastic Laplace transform order between two fading channels implies the ordering of the two channels with respect to the metric. While it has been established previously that certain modulation schemes have convex symbol error rates, there is no study of the complete monotonicity of the same, which helps in establishing stronger channel ordering results. Toward this goal, the current research proves for the first time, that all 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional modulations have completely monotone symbol error rates. Furthermore, it is shown that the frequently used parametric fading distributions for modeling line of sight exhibit a monotonicity in the line of sight parameter with respect to the Laplace transform order. While the Laplace transform order can also be used to order fading distributions based on the ergodic capacity, there exist several distributions which are not Laplace transform ordered, although they have ordered ergodic capacities. To address this gap, a new stochastic order called the ergodic capacity order has been proposed herein, which can be used to compare channels based on the ergodic capacity. Using stochastic orders, average performance of systems involving multiple random variables are compared over two different channels. These systems include diversity combining schemes, relay networks, and signal detection over fading channels with non-Gaussian additive noise. This research also addresses the problem of unifying fading distributions. This unification is based on infinite divisibility, which subsumes almost all known fading distributions, and provides simplified expressions for performance metrics, in addition to enabling stochastic ordering.

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2014

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Joint radar-communications performance bounds: data versus estimation information rates

Description

The problem of cooperative radar and communications signaling is investigated. Each system typically considers the other system a source of interference. Consequently, the tradition is to have them operate in orthogonal frequency bands. By considering the radar and communications operations

The problem of cooperative radar and communications signaling is investigated. Each system typically considers the other system a source of interference. Consequently, the tradition is to have them operate in orthogonal frequency bands. By considering the radar and communications operations to be a single joint system, performance bounds on a receiver that observes communications and radar return in the same frequency allocation are derived. Bounds in performance of the joint system is measured in terms of data information rate for communications and radar estimation information rate for the radar. Inner bounds on performance are constructed.

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2014

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Consequences of false data injection on power system state estimation

Description

The electric power system is one of the largest, most complicated, and most important cyber-physical systems in the world. The link between the cyber and physical level is the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Energy Management

The electric power system is one of the largest, most complicated, and most important cyber-physical systems in the world. The link between the cyber and physical level is the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Energy Management Systems (EMS). Their functions include monitoring the real-time system operation through state estimation (SE), controlling the system to operate reliably, and optimizing the system operation efficiency. The SCADA acquires the noisy measurements, such as voltage angle and magnitude, line power flows, and line current magnitude, from the remote terminal units (RTUs). These raw data are firstly sent to the SE, which filters all the noisy data and derives the best estimate of the system state. Then the estimated states are used for other EMS functions, such as contingency analysis, optimal power flow, etc.

In the existing state estimation process, there is no defense mechanism for any malicious attacks. Once the communication channel between the SCADA and RTUs is hijacked by the attacker, the attacker can perform a man-in-middle attack and send data of its choice. The only step that can possibly detect the attack during the state estimation process is the bad data detector. Unfortunately, even the bad data detector is unable to detect a certain type of attack, known as the false data injection (FDI) attacks.

Diagnosing the physical consequences of such attacks, therefore, is very important to understand system stability. In this thesis, theoretical general attack models for AC and DC attacks are given and an optimization problem for the worst-case overload attack is formulated. Furthermore, physical consequences of FDI attacks, based on both DC and AC model, are addressed. Various scenarios with different attack targets and system configurations are simulated. The details of the research, results obtained and conclusions drawn are presented in this document.

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2015

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Large-scale wireless networks: stochastic geometry and ordering

Description

Recently, the location of the nodes in wireless networks has been modeled as point processes. In this dissertation, various scenarios of wireless communications in large-scale networks modeled as point processes are considered. The first part of the dissertation considers signal

Recently, the location of the nodes in wireless networks has been modeled as point processes. In this dissertation, various scenarios of wireless communications in large-scale networks modeled as point processes are considered. The first part of the dissertation considers signal reception and detection problems with symmetric alpha stable noise which is from an interfering network modeled as a Poisson point process. For the signal reception problem, the performance of space-time coding (STC) over fading channels with alpha stable noise is studied. We derive pairwise error probability (PEP) of orthogonal STCs. For general STCs, we propose a maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver, and its approximation. The resulting asymptotically optimal receiver (AOR) does not depend on noise parameters and is computationally simple, and close to the ML performance. Then, signal detection in coexisting wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is considered. We define a binary hypothesis testing problem for the signal detection in coexisting WSNs. For the problem, we introduce the ML detector and simpler alternatives. The proposed mixed-fractional lower order moment (FLOM) detector is computationally simple and close to the ML performance. Stochastic orders are binary relations defined on probability. The second part of the dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of interferences in large-scale networks modeled as point processes. Since closed-form results for the interference distributions for such networks are only available in limited cases, it is of interest to compare network interferences using stochastic. In this dissertation, conditions on the fading distribution and path-loss model are given to establish stochastic ordering between interferences. Moreover, Laplace functional (LF) ordering is defined between point processes and applied for comparing interference. Then, the LF orderings of general classes of point processes are introduced. It is also shown that the LF ordering is preserved when independent operations such as marking, thinning, random translation, and superposition are applied. The LF ordering of point processes is a useful tool for comparing spatial deployments of wireless networks and can be used to establish comparisons of several performance metrics such as coverage probability, achievable rate, and resource allocation even when closed form expressions for such metrics are unavailable.

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2014

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RF Convergence of Radar and Communications: Metrics, Bounds, and Systems

Description

RF convergence of radar and communications users is rapidly becoming an issue for a multitude of stakeholders. To hedge against growing spectral congestion, research into cooperative radar and communications systems has been identified as a critical necessity for the United

RF convergence of radar and communications users is rapidly becoming an issue for a multitude of stakeholders. To hedge against growing spectral congestion, research into cooperative radar and communications systems has been identified as a critical necessity for the United States and other countries. Further, the joint sensing-communicating paradigm appears imminent in several technological domains. In the pursuit of co-designing radar and communications systems that work cooperatively and benefit from each other's existence, joint radar-communications metrics are defined and bounded as a measure of performance. Estimation rate is introduced, a novel measure of radar estimation information as a function of time. Complementary to communications data rate, the two systems can now be compared on the same scale. An information-centric approach has a number of advantages, defining precisely what is gained through radar illumination and serves as a measure of spectral efficiency. Bounding radar estimation rate and communications data rate jointly, systems can be designed as a joint optimization problem.

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2017

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Fundamental Limits of Gaussian Communication Networks in the Presence of Intelligent Jammers

Description

The open nature of the wireless communication medium makes it inherently vulnerable to an active attack, wherein a malicious adversary (or jammer) transmits into the medium to disrupt the operation of the legitimate users. Therefore, developing techniques to manage the

The open nature of the wireless communication medium makes it inherently vulnerable to an active attack, wherein a malicious adversary (or jammer) transmits into the medium to disrupt the operation of the legitimate users. Therefore, developing techniques to manage the presence of a jammer and to characterize the effect of an attacker on the fundamental limits of wireless communication networks is important. This dissertation studies various Gaussian communication networks in the presence of such an adversarial jammer.

First of all, a standard Gaussian channel is considered in the presence of a jammer, known as a Gaussian arbitrarily-varying channel, but with list-decoding at the receiver. The receiver decodes a list of messages, instead of only one message, with the goal of the correct message being an element of the list. The capacity is characterized, and it is shown that under some transmitter's power constraints the adversary is able to suspend the communication between the legitimate users and make the capacity zero.

Next, generalized packing lemmas are introduced for Gaussian adversarial channels to achieve the capacity bounds for three Gaussian multi-user channels in the presence of adversarial jammers. Inner and outer bounds on the capacity regions of Gaussian multiple-access channels, Gaussian broadcast channels, and Gaussian interference channels are derived in the presence of malicious jammers. For the Gaussian multiple-access channels with jammer, the capacity bounds coincide. In this dissertation, the adversaries can send any arbitrary signals to the channel while none of the transmitter and the receiver knows the adversarial signals' distribution.

Finally, the capacity of the standard point-to-point Gaussian fading channel in the presence of one jammer is investigated under multiple scenarios of channel state information availability, which is the knowledge of exact fading coefficients. The channel state information is always partially or fully known at the receiver to decode the message while the transmitter or the adversary may or may not have access to this information. Here, the adversary model is the same as the previous cases with no knowledge about the user's transmitted signal except possibly the knowledge of the fading path.

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2019

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Distributed Reception in the Presence of Gaussian Interference

Description

An analysis is presented of a network of distributed receivers encumbered by strong in-band interference. The structure of information present across such receivers and how they might collaborate to recover a signal of interest is studied. Unstructured (random coding) and

An analysis is presented of a network of distributed receivers encumbered by strong in-band interference. The structure of information present across such receivers and how they might collaborate to recover a signal of interest is studied. Unstructured (random coding) and structured (lattice coding) strategies are studied towards this purpose for a certain adaptable system model. Asymptotic performances of these strategies and algorithms to compute them are developed. A jointly-compressed lattice code with proper configuration performs best of all strategies investigated.

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2019

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Machine Learning for the Analysis of Power System Loads: Cyber-Attack Detection and Generation of Synthetic Datasets

Description

As the field of machine learning increasingly provides real value to power system operations, the availability of rich measurement datasets has become crucial for the development of new applications and technologies. This dissertation focuses on the use of time-series load

As the field of machine learning increasingly provides real value to power system operations, the availability of rich measurement datasets has become crucial for the development of new applications and technologies. This dissertation focuses on the use of time-series load data for the design of novel data-driven algorithms. Loads are one of the main factors driving the behavior of a power system and they depend on external phenomena which are not captured by traditional simulation tools. Thus, accurate models that capture the fundamental characteristics of time-series load dataare necessary.
In the first part of this dissertation, an example of successful application of machine learning algorithms that leverage load data is presented. Prior work has shown that power systems energy management systems are vulnerable to false data injection attacks against state estimation. Here, a data-driven approach for the detection and localization of such attacks is proposed. The detector uses historical data to learn the normal behavior of the loads in a system and subsequently identify if any of the real-time observed measurements are being manipulated by an attacker.
The second part of this work focuses on the design of generative models for time-series load data. Two separate techniques are used to learn load behaviors from real datasets and exploiting them to generate realistic synthetic data. The first approach is based on principal component analysis (PCA), which is used to extract common temporal patterns from real data. The second method leverages conditional generative adversarial networks (cGANs) and it overcomes the limitations of the PCA-based model while providing greater and more nuanced control on the generation of specific
types of load profiles. Finally, these two classes of models are combined in a multi-resolution generative scheme which is capable of producing any amount of time-series load data at any sampling resolution, for lengths ranging from a few seconds to years.

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2021