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A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) backplane technology for flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has been developed to create 4.1-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication of white organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Mixed oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) on flexible plastic substrates typically suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer enables significant improvements in both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment in the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible colorless plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors.
All-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber optic cables are used for data transfer by the utilities. They are installed along high voltage transmission lines. Dry band arcing, a phenomenon which is observed in outdoor insulators, is also observed in ADSS cables. The heat developed during dry band arcing damages the ADSS cables' outer sheath. A method is presented here to rate the cable sheath using the power developed during dry band arcing. Because of the small diameter of ADSS cables, mechanical vibration is induced in ADSS cable. In order to avoid damage, vibration dampers known as spiral vibration dampers (SVD) are used over these ADSS cables. These dampers are installed near the armor rods, where the presence of leakage current and dry band activity is more. The effect of dampers on dry band activity is investigated by conducting experiments on ADSS cable and dampers. Observations made from the experiments suggest that the hydrophobicity of the cable and damper play a key role in stabilizing dry band arcs. Hydrophobic-ity of the samples have been compared. The importance of hydrophobicity of the samples is further illustrated with the help of simulation results. The results indi-cate that the electric field increases at the edges of water strip. The dry band arc-ing phenomenon could thus be correlated to the hydrophobicity of the outer sur-face of cable and damper.
As existing solar cell technologies come closer to their theoretical efficiency, new concepts that overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit and exceed 50% efficiency need to be explored. New materials systems are often investigated to achieve this, but the use of existing solar cell materials in advanced concept approaches is compelling for multiple theoretical and practical reasons. In order to include advanced concept approaches into existing materials, nanostructures are used as they alter the physical properties of these materials. To explore advanced nanostructured concepts with existing materials such as III-V alloys, silicon and/or silicon/germanium and associated alloys, fundamental aspects of using these materials in advanced concept nanostructured solar cells must be understood. Chief among these is the determination and predication of optimum electronic band structures, including effects such as strain on the band structure, and the material's opto-electronic properties. Nanostructures have a large impact on band structure and electronic properties through quantum confinement. An additional large effect is the change in band structure due to elastic strain caused by lattice mismatch between the barrier and nanostructured (usually self-assembled QDs) materials. To develop a material model for advanced concept solar cells, the band structure is calculated for single as well as vertical array of quantum dots with the realistic effects such as strain, associated with the epitaxial growth of these materials. The results show significant effect of strain in band structure. More importantly, the band diagram of a vertical array of QDs with different spacer layer thickness show significant change in band offsets, especially for heavy and light hole valence bands when the spacer layer thickness is reduced. These results, ultimately, have significance to develop a material model for advance concept solar cells that use the QD nanostructures as absorbing medium. The band structure calculations serve as the basis for multiple other calculations. Chief among these is that the model allows the design of a practical QD advanced concept solar cell, which meets key design criteria such as a negligible valence band offset between the QD/barrier materials and close to optimum band gaps, resulting in the predication of optimum material combinations.
Redundant Binary (RBR) number representations have been extensively used in the past for high-throughput Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems. Data-path components based on this number system have smaller critical path delay but larger area compared to conventional two's complement systems. This work explores the use of RBR number representation for implementing high-throughput DSP systems that are also energy-efficient. Data-path components such as adders and multipliers are evaluated with respect to critical path delay, energy and Energy-Delay Product (EDP). A new design for a RBR adder with very good EDP performance has been proposed. The corresponding RBR parallel adder has a much lower critical path delay and EDP compared to two's complement carry select and carry look-ahead adder implementations. Next, several RBR multiplier architectures are investigated and their performance compared to two's complement systems. These include two new multiplier architectures: a purely RBR multiplier where both the operands are in RBR form, and a hybrid multiplier where the multiplicand is in RBR form and the other operand is represented in conventional two's complement form. Both the RBR and hybrid designs are demonstrated to have better EDP performance compared to conventional two's complement multipliers. The hybrid multiplier is also shown to have a superior EDP performance compared to the RBR multiplier, with much lower implementation area. Analysis on the effect of bit-precision is also performed, and it is shown that the performance gain of RBR systems improves for higher bit precision. Next, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the RBR representation at the system-level, the performance of RBR and hybrid implementations of some common DSP kernels such as Discrete Cosine Transform, edge detection using Sobel operator, complex multiplication, Lifting-based Discrete Wavelet Transform (9, 7) filter, and FIR filter, is compared with two's complement systems. It is shown that for relatively large computation modules, the RBR to two's complement conversion overhead gets amortized. In case of systems with high complexity, for iso-throughput, both the hybrid and RBR implementations are demonstrated to be superior with lower average energy consumption. For low complexity systems, the conversion overhead is significant, and overpowers the EDP performance gain obtained from the RBR computation operation.
The tracking of multiple targets becomes more challenging in complex environments due to the additional degrees of nonlinearity in the measurement model. In urban terrain, for example, there are multiple reflection path measurements that need to be exploited since line-of-sight observations are not always available. Multiple target tracking in urban terrain environments is traditionally implemented using sequential Monte Carlo filtering algorithms and data association techniques. However, data association techniques can be computationally intensive and require very strict conditions for efficient performance. This thesis investigates the probability hypothesis density (PHD) method for tracking multiple targets in urban environments. The PHD is based on the theory of random finite sets and it is implemented using the particle filter. Unlike data association methods, it can be used to estimate the number of targets as well as their corresponding tracks. A modified maximum-likelihood version of the PHD (MPHD) is proposed to automatically and adaptively estimate the measurement types available at each time step. Specifically, the MPHD allows measurement-to-nonlinearity associations such that the best matched measurement can be used at each time step, resulting in improved radar coverage and scene visibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the MPHD in improving tracking performance, both for tracking multiple targets and targets in clutter.
Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) is one of the most critical blocks in Phase Lock Loops (PLLs). LC-tank VCOs have a superior phase noise performance, however they require bulky passive resonators and often calibration architectures to overcome their limited tuning range. Ring oscillator (RO) based VCOs are attractive for digital technology applications owing to their ease of integration, small die area and scalability in deep submicron processes. However, due to their supply sensitivity and poor phase noise performance, they have limited use in applications demanding low phase noise floor, such as wireless or optical transceivers. Particularly, out-of-band phase noise of RO-based PLLs is dominated by RO performance, which cannot be suppressed by the loop gain, impairing RF receiver's sensitivity or BER of optical clock-data recovery circuits. Wide loop bandwidth PLLs can overcome RO noise penalty, however, they suffer from increased in-band noise due to reference clock, phase-detector and charge-pump. The RO phase noise is determined by the noise coming from active devices, supply, ground and substrate. The authors adopt an auxiliary circuit with inverse delay sensitivity to supply noise, which compensates for the delay variation of inverter cells. Feed-forward noise-cancelling architecture that improves phase noise characteristic of RO based PLLs is presented. The proposed circuit dynamically attenuates RO phase noise contribution outside the PLL bandwidth, or in a preferred band. The implemented noise-cancelling loop potentially enables application of RO based PLL for demanding frequency synthesizers applications, such as optical links or high-speed serial I/Os.
Due to restructuring and open access to the transmission system, modern electric power systems are being operated closer to their operational limits. Additionally, the secure operational limits of modern power systems have become increasingly difficult to evaluate as the scale of the network and the number of transactions between utilities increase. To account for these challenges associated with the rapid expansion of electric power systems, dynamic equivalents have been widely applied for the purpose of reducing the computational effort of simulation-based transient security assessment. Dynamic equivalents are commonly developed using a coherency-based approach in which a retained area and an external area are first demarcated. Then the coherent generators in the external area are aggregated and replaced by equivalenced models, followed by network reduction and load aggregation. In this process, an improperly defined retained area can result in detrimental impacts on the effectiveness of the equivalents in preserving the dynamic characteristics of the original unreduced system. In this dissertation, a comprehensive approach has been proposed to determine an appropriate retained area boundary by including the critical generators in the external area that are tightly coupled with the initial retained area. Further-more, a systematic approach has also been investigated to efficiently predict the variation in generator slow coherency behavior when the system operating condition is subject to change. Based on this determination, the critical generators in the external area that are tightly coherent with the generators in the initial retained area are retained, resulting in a new retained area boundary. Finally, a novel hybrid dynamic equivalent, consisting of both a coherency-based equivalent and an artificial neural network (ANN)-based equivalent, has been proposed and analyzed. The ANN-based equivalent complements the coherency-based equivalent at all the retained area boundary buses, and it is designed to compensate for the discrepancy between the full system and the conventional coherency-based equivalent. The approaches developed have been validated on a large portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system and on a test case including a significant portion of the eastern interconnection.
Semiconductor devices are generally analyzed with relatively simple equations or with detailed computer simulations. Most text-books use these simple equations and show device diagrams that are frequently very simplified and occasionally incorrect. For example, the carrier densities near the pinch-off point in MOSFETs and JFETs and the minority carrier density in the base near the reverse-biased base-collector junction are frequently assumed to be zero or near zero. Also the channel thickness at the pinch-off point is often shown to approach zero. None of these assumptions can be correct. The research in thesis addresses these points. I simulated the carrier densities, potentials, electric fields etc. of MOSFETs, BJTs and JFETs at and near the pinch-off regions to determine exactly what happens there. I also simulated the behavior of the quasi-Fermi levels. For MOSFETs, the channel thickness expands slightly before the pinch-off point and then spreads out quickly in a triangular shape and the space-charge region under the channel actually shrinks as the potential increases from source to drain. For BJTs, with collector-base junction reverse biased, most minority carriers diffuse through the base from emitter to collector very fast, but the minority carrier concentration at the collector-base space-charge region is not zero. For JFETs, the boundaries of the space-charge region are difficult to determine, the channel does not disappear after pinch off, the shape of channel is always tapered, and the carrier concentration in the channel decreases progressively. After simulating traditional sized devices, I also simulated typical nano-scaled devices and show that they behave similarly to large devices. These simulation results provide a more complete understanding of device physics and device operation in those regions usually not addressed in semiconductor device physics books.
Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are a versatile category of controllers that are commonly used in the industry as control systems due to the ease of their implementation and low cost. One problem that continues to intrigue control designers is the matter of finding a good combination of the three parameters - P, I and D of these controllers so that system stability and optimum performance is achieved. Also, a certain amount of robustness to the process is expected from the PID controllers. In the past, many different methods for tuning PID parameters have been developed. Some notable techniques are the Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Astrom methods etc. For all these techniques, a simple limitation remained with the fact that for a particular system, there can be only one set of tuned parameters; i.e. there are no degrees of freedom involved to readjust the parameters for a given system to achieve, for instance, higher bandwidth. Another limitation in most cases is where a controller is designed in continuous time then converted into discrete-time for computer implementation. The drawback of this method is that some robustness due to phase and gain margin is lost in the process. In this work a method of tuning PID controllers using a loop-shaping approach has been developed where the bandwidth of the system can be chosen within an acceptable range. The loop-shaping is done against a Glover-McFarlane type ℋ∞ controller which is widely accepted as a robust control design method. The numerical computations are carried out entirely in discrete-time so there is no loss of robustness due to conversion and approximations near Nyquist frequencies. Some extra degrees of freedom owing to choice of bandwidth and capability of choosing loop-shapes are also involved and are discussed in detail. Finally, comparisons of this method against existing techniques for tuning PID controllers both in continuous and in discrete-time are shown. The results tell us that our design performs well for loop-shapes that are achievable through a PID controller.
This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.