Matching Items (1,482)
- All Subjects: Electrical Engineering
- All Subjects: Mechanical Engineering
- Member of: ASU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Ethernet switching is provided to interconnect multiple Ethernets for the exchange of Ethernet data frames. Most Ethernet switches require data buffering and Ethernet signal regeneration at the switch which incur the problems of substantial signal processing, power consumption, and transmission delay. To solve these problems, a cross bar architecture switching system for 10GBASE-T Ethernet is proposed in this thesis. The switching system is considered as the first step of implementing a multi-stage interconnection network to achieve Terabit or Petabit switching. By routing customized headers in capsulated Ethernet frames in an out-of-band control method, the proposed switching system would transmit the original Ethernet frames with little processing, thereby makes the system appear as a simple physical medium for different hosts. The switching system is designed and performed by using CMOS technology.
Impact of increased penetration of DFIG based wind turbine generators on rotor angle stability of power systems
An advantage of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) as compared to conventional fixed speed wind turbine generators is higher efficiency. This higher efficiency is achieved due to the ability of the DFIG to operate near its optimal turbine efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds through variable speed operation. This is achieved through the application of a back-to-back converter that tightly controls the rotor current and allows for asynchronous operation. In doing so, however, the power electronic converter effectively decouples the inertia of the turbine from the system. Hence, with the increase in penetration of DFIG based wind farms, the effective inertia of the system will be reduced. With this assertion, the present study is aimed at identifying the systematic approach to pinpoint the impact of increased penetration of DFIGs on a large realistic system. The techniques proposed in this work are tested on a large test system representing the Midwestern portion of the U.S. Interconnection. The electromechanical modes that are both detrimentally and beneficially affected by the change in inertia are identified. The combination of small-signal stability analysis coupled with the large disturbance analysis of exciting the mode identified is found to provide a detailed picture of the impact on the system. The work is extended to develop suitable control strategies to mitigate the impact of significant DFIG penetration on a large power system. Supplementary control is developed for the DFIG power converters such that the effective inertia contributed by these wind generators to the system is increased. Results obtained on the large realistic power system indicate that the frequency nadir following a large power impact is effectively improved with the proposed control strategy. The proposed control is also validated against sudden wind speed changes in the form of wind gusts and wind ramps. The beneficial impact in terms of damping power system oscillations is observed, which is validated by eigenvalue analysis. Another control mechanism is developed aiming at designing the power system stabilizer (PSS) for a DFIG similar to the PSS of synchronous machines. Although both the supplementary control strategies serve the purpose of improving the damping of the mode with detrimental impact, better damping performance is observed when the DFIG is equipped with both the controllers.
Market acceptability of distributed energy resource (DER) technologies and the gradual and consistent increase in their depth of penetration have generated significant interest over the past few years. In particular, in Arizona and several other states there has been a substantial in-crease in distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation interfaced to the power distribution systems, and is expected to continue to grow at a significant rate. This has made integration, control and optimal operation of DER units a main area of focus in the design and operation of distribution systems. Grid-connected, distributed PV covers a wide range of power levels ranging from small, single phase residential roof-top systems to large three-phase, multi-megawatt systems. The focus of this work is on analyzing large, three-phase systems, with the power distribution system of the Arizona State University (ASU) Tempe campus used as the test bed for analysis and simulation. The Tempe campus of ASU has presently 4.5 MW of installed PV capacity, with another 4.5 MW expected to be added by 2011, which will represent about 22% of PV penetration. The PV systems are interfaced to the grid invariably by a power electronic inverter. Many of the important characteristics of the PV generation are influenced by the design and performance of the inverter, and hence suitable models of the inverter are needed to analyze PV systems. Several models of distributed generation (DG), including switching and average models, suitable for different study objectives, and different control modes of the inverter have been described in this thesis. A critical function of the inverters is to quickly detect and eliminate unintentional islands during grid failure. In this thesis, many active anti-islanding techniques with voltage and frequency positive feedback have been studied. Effectiveness of these techniques in terms of the tripping times specified in IEEE Std. 1547 for interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems has been analyzed. The impact of distributed PV on the voltage profile of a distribution system has been ana-lyzed with ASU system as the test bed using power systems analysis tools namely PowerWorld and CYMDIST. The present inverters complying with IEEE 1547 do not regulate the system vol-tage. However, the future inverters especially at higher power levels are expected to perform sev-eral grid support functions including voltage regulation and reactive power support. Hence, the impact of inverters with the reactive power support capabilities is also analyzed. Various test sce-narios corresponding to different grid conditions are simulated and it is shown that distributed PV improves the voltage profile of the system. The improvements are more significant when the PV generators are capable of reactive power support. Detailed short circuit analyses are also per-formed on the system, and the impact of distributed PV on the fault current magnitude, with and without reactive power injection, have been studied.
The RADiation sensitive Field Effect Transistor (RADFET) has been conventionally used to measure radiation dose levels. These dose sensors are calibrated in such a way that a shift in threshold voltage, due to a build-up of oxide-trapped charge, can be used to estimate the radiation dose. In order to estimate the radiation dose level using RADFET, a wired readout circuit is necessary. Using the same principle of oxide-trapped charge build-up, but by monitoring the change in capacitance instead of threshold voltage, a wireless dose sensor can be developed. This RADiation sensitive CAPacitor (RADCAP) mounted on a resonant patch antenna can then become a wireless dose sensor. From the resonant frequency, the capacitance can be extracted which can be mapped back to estimate the radiation dose level. The capacitor acts as both radiation dose sensor and resonator element in the passive antenna loop. Since the MOS capacitor is used in passive state, characterizing various parameters that affect the radiation sensitivity is essential. Oxide processing technique, choice of insulator material, and thickness of the insulator, critically affect the dose response of the sensor. A thicker oxide improves the radiation sensitivity but reduces the dynamic range of dose levels for which the sensor can be used. The oxide processing scheme primarily determines the interface trap charge and oxide-trapped charge development; controlling this parameter is critical to building a better dose sensor.
Photovoltaic (PV) modules appear to have three classifications of failure: Infant mortality, normal-life failure, and end-of-life failure. Little is known of the end-of-life failures experienced by PV modules due to their inherent longevity. Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) has been at the crux of this lifespan prediction; however, without naturally failing modules an accurate acceleration factor cannot be determined for use in ALT. By observing modules that have been aged in the field, a comparison can be made with modules undergoing accelerated testing. In this study an investigation on about 1900 aged (10-17 years) grid-tied PV modules installed in the desert climatic condition of Arizona was undertaken. The investigation was comprised of a check sheet that documented any visual defects and their severity, infrared (IR) scanning, and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements. After data was collected on modules, an analysis was performed to classify the failure modes and to determine the annual performance degradation rates.
The use of voltage compliant silicon on insulator MESFETs for high power and high temperature pulse width modulated drive circuits
Silicon Carbide (SiC) junction field effect transistors (JFETs) are ideal for switching high current, high voltage loads in high temperature environments. These devices require external drive circuits to generate pulse width modulated (PWM) signals switching from 0V to approximately 10V. Advanced CMOS microcontrollers are ideal for generating the PWM signals but are limited in output voltage due to their low breakdown voltage within the CMOS drive circuits. As a result, an intermediate buffer stage is required between the CMOS circuitry and the JFET. In this thesis, a discrete silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) was used to drive the gate of a SiC power JFET switching a 120V RMS AC supply into a 30Ω load. The wide operating temperature range and high breakdown voltage of up to 50V make the SOI MESFET ideal for power electronics in extreme environments. Characteristic curves for the MESFET were measured up to 250°C.; To drive the JFET, the MESFET was DC biased and then driven by a 1.2V square wave PWM signal to switch the JFET gate from 0 to 10V at frequencies up to 20kHz. For simplicity, the 1.2V PWM square wave signal was provided by a 555 timer. The JFET gate drive circuit was measured at high temperatures up to 235°C.; The circuit operated well at the high temperatures without any damage to the SOI MESFET or SiC JFET. The drive current of the JFET was limited by the duty cycle range of the 555 timer used. The SiC JFET drain current decreased with increased temperature. Due to the easy integration of MESFETs into SOI CMOS processes, MESFETs can be fabricated alongside MOSFETs without any changes in the process flow. This thesis demonstrates the feasibility of integrating a MESFET with CMOS PWM circuitry for a completely integrated SiC driver thus eliminating the need for the intermediate buffer stage.
Adaptive signal to noise ratio scalable analog front-end continuous time sigma delta converter for digital hearing aids
A dual-channel directional digital hearing aid (DHA) front end using Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) microphones and an adaptive-power analog processing signal chain is presented. The analog front end consists of a double differential amplifier (DDA) based capacitance to voltage conversion circuit, 40dB variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a continuous time sigma delta analog to digital converter (CT - &SIGMA;&DELTA; ADC). Adaptive power scaling of the 4th order CT - &SIGMA;&DELTA; achieves 68dB SNR at 120μW, which can be scaled down to 61dB SNR at 67μW. This power saving will increse the battery life of the DHA.
Breakdown voltage of compressed sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at very low frequency / low frequency (30 kHz)
The U.S. Navy is interested in evaluating the dielectric performance of SF6 at 30 kHz in order to develop optimal bushing designs and to ensure reliable operation for the Very Low Frequency/ Low Frequency (VLF/LF) transmitting stations. The breakdown experiments of compressed SF6 at 30 kHz in the pressure range of 1-5 atm were conducted in both the uniform field (plane-plane gap) and the non-uniform field (rod-plane gap). To understand the impact of pressure on the breakdown voltage of SF6 at VLF/LF, empirical models of the dielectric strength of SF6 were derived based on the experimental data and regression analysis. The pressure correction factors that present the correlation between the breakdown voltage of SF6 at VLF/LF and that of air at 50/60 Hz were calculated. These empirical models provide an effective way to use the extensively documented breakdown voltage data of air at 60 Hz to evaluate the dielectric performance of SF6 for the design of VLF/LF high voltage equipment. In addition, several breakdown experiments and similar regression analysis of air at 30 kHz were conducted as well. A ratio of the breakdown voltage of SF6 to that of air at VLF/LF was calculated, from which a significant difference between the uniform gap and the non-uniform gap was observed. All the models and values provide useful information to evaluate and predict the performance of the bushings in practice.
After a power system blackout, system restoration is the most important task for the operators. Most power systems rely on an off&ndashline; restoration plan and the experience of operators to select scenarios for the black start path. Using an off&ndashline; designed restoration plan based on past experience may not be the most reliable approach under changing network configurations and loading levels. Hence, an objective restoration path selection procedure, including the option to check constraints, may be more responsive in providing directed guidance to the operators to identify the optimal transmission path to deliver power to other power plants or to pick up load as needed. After the system is subjected to a blackout, parallel restoration is an efficient way to speed up the restoration process. For a large scale power system, this system sectionalizing problem is quite complicated when considering black&ndashstart; constraints, generation/load balance constraints and voltage constraints. This dissertation presents an ordered binary decision diagram (OBDD) &ndashbased; system sectionalizing method, by which the splitting points can be quickly found. The simulation results on the IEEE 39 and 118&ndashbus; system show that the method can successfully split the system into subsystems satisfying black&ndashstart; constraints, generation/load balance constraints and voltage constraints. A power transfer distribution factor (PTDF)&ndashbased; approach will be described in this dissertation to check constraints while restoring the system. Two types of restoration performance indices are utilized considering all possible restoration paths, which are then ranked according to their expected performance characteristics as reflected by the restoration performance index. PTDFs and weighting factors are used to determine the ordered list of restoration paths, which can enable the load to be picked up by lightly loaded lines or relieve stress on heavily loaded lines. A transmission path agent can then be formulated by performing the automatic path selection under different system operating conditions. The proposed restoration strategy is tested on the IEEE&ndash39; bus system and on the Western region of the Entergy system. The testing results reveal that the proposed strategy can be used in real time.
There is a growing interest in the creation of three-dimensional (3D) images and videos due to the growing demand for 3D visual media in commercial markets. A possible solution to produce 3D media files is to convert existing 2D images and videos to 3D. The 2D to 3D conversion methods that estimate the depth map from 2D scenes for 3D reconstruction present an efficient approach to save on the cost of the coding, transmission and storage of 3D visual media in practical applications. Various 2D to 3D conversion methods based on depth maps have been developed using existing image and video processing techniques. The depth maps can be estimated either from a single 2D view or from multiple 2D views. This thesis presents a MATLAB-based 2D to 3D conversion system from multiple views based on the computation of a sparse depth map. The 2D to 3D conversion system is able to deal with the multiple views obtained from uncalibrated hand-held cameras without knowledge of the prior camera parameters or scene geometry. The implemented system consists of techniques for image feature detection and registration, two-view geometry estimation, projective 3D scene reconstruction and metric upgrade to reconstruct the 3D structures by means of a metric transformation. The implemented 2D to 3D conversion system is tested using different multi-view image sets. The obtained experimental results of reconstructed sparse depth maps of feature points in 3D scenes provide relative depth information of the objects. Sample ground-truth depth data points are used to calculate a scale factor in order to estimate the true depth by scaling the obtained relative depth information using the estimated scale factor. It was found out that the obtained reconstructed depth map is consistent with the ground-truth depth data.