Matching Items (20)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

135725-Thumbnail Image.png

Estimation Theory on Random Graphs for Offset Detection in Sensor Networks

Description

A distributed sensor network (DSN) is a set of spatially scattered intelligent sensors designed to obtain data across an environment. DSNs are becoming a standard architecture for collecting data over a large area. We need registration of nodal data across

A distributed sensor network (DSN) is a set of spatially scattered intelligent sensors designed to obtain data across an environment. DSNs are becoming a standard architecture for collecting data over a large area. We need registration of nodal data across the network in order to properly exploit having multiple sensors. One major problem worth investigating is ensuring the integrity of the data received, such as time synchronization. Consider a group of match filter sensors. Each sensor is collecting the same data, and comparing the data collected to a known signal. In an ideal world, each sensor would be able to collect the data without offsets or noise in the system. Two models can be followed from this. First, each sensor could make a decision on its own, and then the decisions could be collected at a ``fusion center'' which could then decide if the signal is present or not. The fusion center can then decide if the signal is present or not based on the number true-or-false decisions that each sensor has made. Alternatively, each sensor could relay the data that it collects to the fusion center, and it could then make a decision based on all of the data that it then receives. Since the fusion center would have more information to base its decision on in the latter case--as opposed to the former case where it only receives a true or false from each sensor--one would expect the latter model to perform better. In fact, this would be the gold standard for detection across a DSN. However, there is random noise in the world that causes corruption of data collection, especially among sensors in a DSN. Each sensor does not collect the data in the exact same way or with the same precision. We classify these imperfections in data collections as offsets, specifically the offset present in the data collected by one sensor with respect to the rest of the sensors in the network. Therefore, reconsider the two models for a DSN described above. We can naively implement either of these models for data collection. Alternatively, we can attempt to estimate the offsets between the sensors and compensate. One could see how it would be expected that estimating the offsets within the DSN would provide better overall results than not finding estimators. This thesis will be structured as follows. First, there will be an extensive investigation into detection theory and the impact that different types of offsets have on sensor networks. Following the theory, an algorithm for estimating the data offsets will be proposed correct for the offsets. Next, we will look at Monte Carlo simulation results to see the impact on sensor performance of data offsets in comparison to a sensor network without offsets present. The algorithm is then implemented, and further experiments will demonstrate sensor performance with offset detection.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-05

149993-Thumbnail Image.png

The detection of reliability prediction cues in manufacturing data from statistically controlled processes

Description

Many products undergo several stages of testing ranging from tests on individual components to end-item tests. Additionally, these products may be further "tested" via customer or field use. The later failure of a delivered product may in some cases be

Many products undergo several stages of testing ranging from tests on individual components to end-item tests. Additionally, these products may be further "tested" via customer or field use. The later failure of a delivered product may in some cases be due to circumstances that have no correlation with the product's inherent quality. However, at times, there may be cues in the upstream test data that, if detected, could serve to predict the likelihood of downstream failure or performance degradation induced by product use or environmental stresses. This study explores the use of downstream factory test data or product field reliability data to infer data mining or pattern recognition criteria onto manufacturing process or upstream test data by means of support vector machines (SVM) in order to provide reliability prediction models. In concert with a risk/benefit analysis, these models can be utilized to drive improvement of the product or, at least, via screening to improve the reliability of the product delivered to the customer. Such models can be used to aid in reliability risk assessment based on detectable correlations between the product test performance and the sources of supply, test stands, or other factors related to product manufacture. As an enhancement to the usefulness of the SVM or hyperplane classifier within this context, L-moments and the Western Electric Company (WECO) Rules are used to augment or replace the native process or test data used as inputs to the classifier. As part of this research, a generalizable binary classification methodology was developed that can be used to design and implement predictors of end-item field failure or downstream product performance based on upstream test data that may be composed of single-parameter, time-series, or multivariate real-valued data. Additionally, the methodology provides input parameter weighting factors that have proved useful in failure analysis and root cause investigations as indicators of which of several upstream product parameters have the greater influence on the downstream failure outcomes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150439-Thumbnail Image.png

Micro-particle streak velocimetry: theory, simulation methods and applications

Description

This dissertation describes a novel, low cost strategy of using particle streak (track) images for accurate micro-channel velocity field mapping. It is shown that 2-dimensional, 2-component fields can be efficiently obtained using the spatial variation of particle track lengths in

This dissertation describes a novel, low cost strategy of using particle streak (track) images for accurate micro-channel velocity field mapping. It is shown that 2-dimensional, 2-component fields can be efficiently obtained using the spatial variation of particle track lengths in micro-channels. The velocity field is a critical performance feature of many microfluidic devices. Since it is often the case that un-modeled micro-scale physics frustrates principled design methodologies, particle based velocity field estimation is an essential design and validation tool. Current technologies that achieve this goal use particle constellation correlation strategies and rely heavily on costly, high-speed imaging hardware. The proposed image/ video processing based method achieves comparable accuracy for fraction of the cost. In the context of micro-channel velocimetry, the usability of particle streaks has been poorly studied so far. Their use has remained restricted mostly to bulk flow measurements and occasional ad-hoc uses in microfluidics. A second look at the usability of particle streak lengths in this work reveals that they can be efficiently used, after approximately 15 years from their first use for micro-channel velocimetry. Particle tracks in steady, smooth microfluidic flows is mathematically modeled and a framework for using experimentally observed particle track lengths for local velocity field estimation is introduced here, followed by algorithm implementation and quantitative verification. Further, experimental considerations and image processing techniques that can facilitate the proposed methods are also discussed in this dissertation. Unavailability of benchmarked particle track image data motivated the implementation of a simulation framework with the capability to generate exposure time controlled particle track image sequence for velocity vector fields. This dissertation also describes this work and shows that arbitrary velocity fields designed in computational fluid dynamics software tools can be used to obtain such images. Apart from aiding gold-standard data generation, such images would find use for quick microfluidic flow field visualization and help improve device designs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150319-Thumbnail Image.png

Non-linear system identification using compressed sensing

Description

This thesis describes an approach to system identification based on compressive sensing and demonstrates its efficacy on a challenging classical benchmark single-input, multiple output (SIMO) mechanical system consisting of an inverted pendulum on a cart. Due to its inherent non-linearity

This thesis describes an approach to system identification based on compressive sensing and demonstrates its efficacy on a challenging classical benchmark single-input, multiple output (SIMO) mechanical system consisting of an inverted pendulum on a cart. Due to its inherent non-linearity and unstable behavior, very few techniques currently exist that are capable of identifying this system. The challenge in identification also lies in the coupled behavior of the system and in the difficulty of obtaining the full-range dynamics. The differential equations describing the system dynamics are determined from measurements of the system's input-output behavior. These equations are assumed to consist of the superposition, with unknown weights, of a small number of terms drawn from a large library of nonlinear terms. Under this assumption, compressed sensing allows the constituent library elements and their corresponding weights to be identified by decomposing a time-series signal of the system's outputs into a sparse superposition of corresponding time-series signals produced by the library components. The most popular techniques for non-linear system identification entail the use of ANN's (Artificial Neural Networks), which require a large number of measurements of the input and output data at high sampling frequencies. The method developed in this project requires very few samples and the accuracy of reconstruction is extremely high. Furthermore, this method yields the Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) of the system explicitly. This is in contrast to some ANN approaches that produce only a trained network which might lose fidelity with change of initial conditions or if facing an input that wasn't used during its training. This technique is expected to be of value in system identification of complex dynamic systems encountered in diverse fields such as Biology, Computation, Statistics, Mechanics and Electrical Engineering.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

149544-Thumbnail Image.png

Opportunistic scheduling, cooperative relaying and multicast in wireless networks

Description

This dissertation builds a clear understanding of the role of information in wireless networks, and devises adaptive strategies to optimize the overall performance. The meaning of information ranges from channel
etwork states to the structure of the signal itself. Under

This dissertation builds a clear understanding of the role of information in wireless networks, and devises adaptive strategies to optimize the overall performance. The meaning of information ranges from channel
etwork states to the structure of the signal itself. Under the common thread of characterizing the role of information, this dissertation investigates opportunistic scheduling, relaying and multicast in wireless networks. To assess the role of channel state information, the problem of opportunistic distributed opportunistic scheduling (DOS) with incomplete information is considered for ad-hoc networks in which many links contend for the same channel using random access. The objective is to maximize the system throughput. In practice, link state information is noisy, and may result in throughput degradation. Therefore, refining the state information by additional probing can improve the throughput, but at the cost of further probing. Capitalizing on optimal stopping theory, the optimal scheduling policy is shown to be threshold-based and is characterized by either one or two thresholds, depending on network settings. To understand the benefits of side information in cooperative relaying scenarios, a basic model is explored for two-hop transmissions of two information flows which interfere with each other. While the first hop is a classical interference channel, the second hop can be treated as an interference channel with transmitter side information. Various cooperative relaying strategies are developed to enhance the achievable rate. In another context, a simple sensor network is considered, where a sensor node acts as a relay, and aids fusion center in detecting an event. Two relaying schemes are considered: analog relaying and digital relaying. Sufficient conditions are provided for the optimality of analog relaying over digital relaying in this network. To illustrate the role of information about the signal structure in joint source-channel coding, multicast of compressible signals over lossy channels is studied. The focus is on the network outage from the perspective of signal distortion across all receivers. Based on extreme value theory, the network outage is characterized in terms of key parameters. A new method using subblock network coding is devised, which prioritizes resource allocation based on the signal information structure.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

153686-Thumbnail Image.png

Wireless network design and optimization: from social awareness to security

Description

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy in wireless networking. Under this common theme, this dissertation can

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy in wireless networking. Under this common theme, this dissertation can be broadly organized into three parts.

The first part studies socially-aware mobile networking and computing. First, it studies random access control and power control under a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework. The socially-aware Nash equilibria (SNEs) are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies mobile crowdsensing under an incentive mechanism that exploits social trust assisted reciprocity (STAR). The efficacy of the STAR mechanism is thoroughly investigated. Next, it studies mobile users' data usage behaviors under the impact of social services and the wireless operator's pricing. Based on a two-stage Stackelberg game formulation, the user demand equilibrium (UDE) is analyzed in Stage II and the optimal pricing strategy is developed in Stage I. Last, it studies opportunistic cooperative networking under an optimal stopping framework with two-level decision-making. For both cases with or without dedicated relays, the optimal relaying strategies are derived and analyzed.

The second part studies radar sensor network coverage for physical security. First, it studies placement of bistatic radar (BR) sensor networks for barrier coverage. The optimality of line-based placement is analyzed, and the optimal placement of BRs on a line segment is characterized. Then, it studies the coverage of radar sensor networks that exploits the Doppler effect. Based on a Doppler coverage model, an efficient method is devised to characterize Doppler-covered regions and an algorithm is developed to find the minimum radar density required for Doppler coverage.

The third part studies cyber security and privacy in socially-aware networking and computing. First, it studies random access control, cooperative jamming, and spectrum access under an extended SGUM framework that incorporates negative social ties. The SNEs are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies pseudonym change for personalized location privacy under the SGUM framework. The SNEs are analyzed and an efficient algorithm is developed to find an SNE with desirable properties.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

153629-Thumbnail Image.png

Impact of social structure on wireless networking: modeling and utility

Description

The explosive growth of data generated from different services has opened a new vein of research commonly called ``big data.'' The sheer volume of the information in this data has yielded new applications in a wide range of fields,

The explosive growth of data generated from different services has opened a new vein of research commonly called ``big data.'' The sheer volume of the information in this data has yielded new applications in a wide range of fields, but the difficulties inherent in processing the enormous amount of data, as well as the rate at which it is generated, also give rise to significant challenges. In particular, processing, modeling, and understanding the structure of online social networks is computationally difficult due to these challenges. The goal of this study is twofold: first to present a new networked data processing framework to model this social structure, and second to highlight the wireless networking gains possible by using this social structure.

The first part of the dissertation considers a new method for modeling social networks via probabilistic graphical models. Specifically, this new method employs the t-cherry junction tree, a recent advancement in probabilistic graphical models, to develop a compact representation and good approximation of an otherwise intractable probabilistic model. There are a number of advantages in this approach: 1) the best approximation possible via junction trees belongs to the class of t-cherry junction trees; 2) constructing a t-cherry junction tree can be largely parallelized; and 3) inference can be performed using distributed computation. To improve the quality of approximation, an algorithm to build a higher order tree gracefully from an existing one, without constructing it from scratch, is developed. this approach is applied to Twitter data containing 100,000 nodes to study the problem of recommending connections to new users.

Next, the t-cherry junction tree framework is extended by considering the impact of estimating the distributions involved from a training data set. Understanding this impact is vital to real-world applications as distributions are not known perfectly, but rather generated from training data. First, the fidelity of the t-cherry junction tree approximation due to this estimation is quantified. Then the scaling behavior, in terms of the size of the t-cherry junction tree, is approximated to show that higher-order t-cherry junction trees, which with perfect information are higher fidelity approximations, may actually result in decreased fidelity due to the difficulties in accurately estimating higher-dimensional distributions. Finally, this part concludes by demonstrating these findings by considering a distributed detection situation in which the sensors' measurements are correlated.

Having developed a framework to model social structure in online social networks, the study then highlights two approaches for utilizing this social network data in existing wireless communication networks. The first approach is a novel application: using social networks to enhance device-to-device wireless communication. It is well known that wireless communication can be significantly improved by utilizing relays to aid in transmission. Rather than deploying dedicated relays, a system is designed in which users can relay traffic for other users if there is a shared social trust between them, e.g., they are ``friends'' on Facebook, and for users that do not share social trust, implements a coalitional game framework to motivate users to relay traffic for each other. This framework guarantees that all users improve their throughput via relaying while ensuring that each user will function as a relay only if there is a social trust relationship or, if there is no social trust, a cycle of reciprocity is established in which a set of users will agree to relay for each other. This new system shows significant throughput gain in simulated networks that utilize real-world social network traces.

The second application of social structure to wireless communication is an approach to reduce the congestion in cellular networks during peak times. This is achieved by two means: preloading and offloading. Preloading refers to the process of using social network data to predict user demand and serve some users early, before the cellular network traffic peaks. Offloading allows users that have already obtained a copy of the content to opportunistically serve other users using device-to-device communication, thus eliminating the need for some cellular traffic. These two methods work especially well in tandem, as preloading creates a base of users that can serve later users via offloading. These two processes can greatly reduce the peak cellular traffic under ideal conditions, and in a more realistic situation, the impact of uncertainty in human mobility and the social network structure is analyzed. Even with the randomness inherent in these processes, both preloading and offloading offer substantial improvement. Finally, potential difficulties in preloading multiple pieces of content simultaneously are highlighted, and a heuristic method to solve these challenges is developed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

151436-Thumbnail Image.png

Statistical signal processing of ESI-TOF-MS for biomarker discovery

Description

Signal processing techniques have been used extensively in many engineering problems and in recent years its application has extended to non-traditional research fields such as biological systems. Many of these applications require extraction of a signal or parameter of interest

Signal processing techniques have been used extensively in many engineering problems and in recent years its application has extended to non-traditional research fields such as biological systems. Many of these applications require extraction of a signal or parameter of interest from degraded measurements. One such application is mass spectrometry immunoassay (MSIA) which has been one of the primary methods of biomarker discovery techniques. MSIA analyzes protein molecules as potential biomarkers using time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Peak detection in TOF-MS is important for biomarker analysis and many other MS related application. Though many peak detection algorithms exist, most of them are based on heuristics models. One of the ways of detecting signal peaks is by deploying stochastic models of the signal and noise observations. Likelihood ratio test (LRT) detector, based on the Neyman-Pearson (NP) lemma, is an uniformly most powerful test to decision making in the form of a hypothesis test. The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop signal and noise models for the electrospray ionization (ESI) TOF-MS data. A new method is proposed for developing the signal model by employing first principles calculations based on device physics and molecular properties. The noise model is developed by analyzing MS data from careful experiments in the ESI mass spectrometer. A non-flat baseline in MS data is common. The reasons behind the formation of this baseline has not been fully comprehended. A new signal model explaining the presence of baseline is proposed, though detailed experiments are needed to further substantiate the model assumptions. Signal detection schemes based on these signal and noise models are proposed. A maximum likelihood (ML) method is introduced for estimating the signal peak amplitudes. The performance of the detection methods and ML estimation are evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation which shows promising results. An application of these methods is proposed for fractional abundance calculation for biomarker analysis, which is mathematically robust and fundamentally different than the current algorithms. Biomarker panels for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are analyzed using existing MS analysis algorithms. Finally, a support vector machine based multi-classification algorithm is developed for evaluating the biomarkers' effectiveness in discriminating type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and is shown to perform better than a linear discriminant analysis based classifier.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

151475-Thumbnail Image.png

Network interdependence and information dynamics in cyber-physical systems

Description

The cyber-physical systems (CPS) are emerging as the underpinning technology for major industries in the 21-th century. This dissertation is focused on two fundamental issues in cyber-physical systems: network interdependence and information dynamics. It consists of the following two main

The cyber-physical systems (CPS) are emerging as the underpinning technology for major industries in the 21-th century. This dissertation is focused on two fundamental issues in cyber-physical systems: network interdependence and information dynamics. It consists of the following two main thrusts. The first thrust is targeted at understanding the impact of network interdependence. It is shown that a cyber-physical system built upon multiple interdependent networks are more vulnerable to attacks since node failures in one network may result in failures in the other network, causing a cascade of failures that would potentially lead to the collapse of the entire infrastructure. There is thus a need to develop a new network science for modeling and quantifying cascading failures in multiple interdependent networks, and to develop network management algorithms that improve network robustness and ensure overall network reliability against cascading failures. To enhance the system robustness, a "regular" allocation strategy is proposed that yields better resistance against cascading failures compared to all possible existing strategies. Furthermore, in view of the load redistribution feature in many physical infrastructure networks, e.g., power grids, a CPS model is developed where the threshold model and the giant connected component model are used to capture the node failures in the physical infrastructure network and the cyber network, respectively. The second thrust is centered around the information dynamics in the CPS. One speculation is that the interconnections over multiple networks can facilitate information diffusion since information propagation in one network can trigger further spread in the other network. With this insight, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze information epidemic across multiple interconnecting networks. It is shown that the conjoining among networks can dramatically speed up message diffusion. Along a different avenue, many cyber-physical systems rely on wireless networks which offer platforms for information exchanges. To optimize the QoS of wireless networks, there is a need to develop a high-throughput and low-complexity scheduling algorithm to control link dynamics. To that end, distributed link scheduling algorithms are explored for multi-hop MIMO networks and two CSMA algorithms under the continuous-time model and the discrete-time model are devised, respectively.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

150929-Thumbnail Image.png

Bayesian networks and gaussian mixture models in multi-dimensional data analysis with application to religion-conflict data

Description

This thesis examines the application of statistical signal processing approaches to data arising from surveys intended to measure psychological and sociological phenomena underpinning human social dynamics. The use of signal processing methods for analysis of signals arising from measurement of

This thesis examines the application of statistical signal processing approaches to data arising from surveys intended to measure psychological and sociological phenomena underpinning human social dynamics. The use of signal processing methods for analysis of signals arising from measurement of social, biological, and other non-traditional phenomena has been an important and growing area of signal processing research over the past decade. Here, we explore the application of statistical modeling and signal processing concepts to data obtained from the Global Group Relations Project, specifically to understand and quantify the effects and interactions of social psychological factors related to intergroup conflicts. We use Bayesian networks to specify prospective models of conditional dependence. Bayesian networks are determined between social psychological factors and conflict variables, and modeled by directed acyclic graphs, while the significant interactions are modeled as conditional probabilities. Since the data are sparse and multi-dimensional, we regress Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) against the data to estimate the conditional probabilities of interest. The parameters of GMMs are estimated using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. However, the EM algorithm may suffer from over-fitting problem due to the high dimensionality and limited observations entailed in this data set. Therefore, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are used for GMM order estimation. To assist intuitive understanding of the interactions of social variables and the intergroup conflicts, we introduce a color-based visualization scheme. In this scheme, the intensities of colors are proportional to the conditional probabilities observed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012