Matching Items (24)

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The Combined Effects of Methamphetamine and Alcohol on Brain Reward Function as Assessed Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

Description

Polysubstance abuse is far more common than single substance abuse. One of the most widely abused, yet greatly understudied combination of drugs is the simultaneous use of methamphetamine (meth) and

Polysubstance abuse is far more common than single substance abuse. One of the most widely abused, yet greatly understudied combination of drugs is the simultaneous use of methamphetamine (meth) and alcohol. Because little research has been conducted on the co-abuse of meth and alcohol, it is important to study the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying the use of both to combat addiction and come closer to finding an effective treatment of this form of drug abuse. This study uses a rodent model to attempt to identify the mechanisms underlying this co-abuse through the stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and thus the activation of the mesocorticolimbic pathway, the brain's pleasure circuit. First, self-stimulation thresholds (the lowest electrical current the rats are willing to respond for) were determined using a process called Discrete Trials Training. This threshold was later used as a baseline measure to reference when the rats were administered the drugs of abuse: meth and alcohol, both alone and in combination. Our overall results did not show any significant effects of combining alcohol and meth relative to the effects of either drug alone, although subject attrition may have resulted in sample sizes that were statistically underpowered. The results of this and future studies will help provide a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the polyabuse of meth and alcohol and can potentially lead to more successfully combating and treating this addiction.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Effects of Parental Monitoring, Parental Autonomy-Giving, and Personal Autonomy on Drinking Behaviors during the Transition from High School to College

Description

This study addresses a gap in the literature by examining interactions between parental monitoring and parental autonomy giving/personal autonomy in predicting changes in drinking behavior from high school to college.

This study addresses a gap in the literature by examining interactions between parental monitoring and parental autonomy giving/personal autonomy in predicting changes in drinking behavior from high school to college. Using data from two unique studies (study 1 was 62.8% female, n = 425; study 2 was 59.9% female, n = 2245), we analyzed main effects of parental monitoring, parental autonomy-giving, and personal autonomy. We also analyzed interactions between parental monitoring and autonomy-giving, and between parental monitoring and personal autonomy. Analyses found significant main effects of parental monitoring on drinking, with high levels of parental monitoring protecting against heavy drinking. Personal autonomy was a protective factor in both high school and college, whereas parental autonomy-giving did not predict drinking behavior in either high school or during the transition to college. This calls into question the extent to which parental autonomy-giving is a primary influence on personal autonomy. Hypothesized interactions between parental monitoring and parental autonomy giving/personal autonomy were not statistically significant. In summary, parental monitoring seems to be protective in high school, and personal autonomy—but not parental autonomy-giving—is also protective. Whereas the latter finding is well established from previous studies, the protective effect of personal autonomy during the transition to college is a novel finding. This relationship suggests that efforts to identify sources of personal autonomy in early adulthood and methods for increasing autonomy may be warranted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Exploration of Depression as a Mediating Mechanism between Trauma and Alcohol Problems

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Introduction: Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses in the United States, and is characterized by feeling sad or empty most of the day, nearly every day (American

Introduction: Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses in the United States, and is characterized by feeling sad or empty most of the day, nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The experience of childhood trauma is one of many factors that may lead to depression, while trauma can also yield other adverse life outcomes, such as alcohol-related consequences (Felitti et al., 2001; Neumann, 2017). One of the specific aims of this investigation was to examine the direct influences of childhood trauma on depression. We also examined selected direct and indirect influences of childhood trauma on drinking outcomes through the potential mediating mechanism of depression. We examined three distinct drinking outcomes, 1) impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), 2) heavy episodic drinking (four or more drinks on one occasion for men, four or more for women), and 3) alcohol-related problems. Methods: A survey was administered to 940 (466 women, 474 men) university students. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the data. Potential two- and three-path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus (MacKinnon, 2008). Results: Emotional abuse was found to be positively associated with depression. In contrast, having an emotionally supportive family was found to be negatively associated with depression. Congruent with the Self-Medication Hypothesis, depression was found to be positively associated with impaired control over drinking. Physical neglect was found to be positively associated with impaired control. Lastly, emotional abuse was found to be indirectly linked to increased heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems through depression and impaired control.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Generational Changes in Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use

Description

Substance use during adolescence is a significant predictor of developing a later substance use disorder. An encouraging trend is that there have been recent declines in rates of adolescent substance

Substance use during adolescence is a significant predictor of developing a later substance use disorder. An encouraging trend is that there have been recent declines in rates of adolescent substance use, including alcohol and marijuana. However, these two substances may be decreasing differently from one another as a result of age, period, and cohort effects. Therefore, the overall trend of decreased substance use in more recent generations of adolescents may be greater for one substance than the other. The current study tested declines in adolescent alcohol and marijuana use across two generations measured in 1988-1990 and 2006-2012. Methodological strengths include controls for demographic characteristics and for parental alcohol disorder (as a proxy for genetic risk). Moreover, we tested whether findings would replicate using two methods—first comparing all assessed members of one generational cohort with all assessed members of the other generational cohort, and then comparing only matched parent-child pairs. Testing this second matched sample removes some potential demographic and risk confounds that might occur across cohorts in typical epidemiological studies. Results demonstrated that the younger cohort of adolescents used both substances less than the older cohort, and this effect was stronger for alcohol than for marijuana. These results were replicated in both samples over and above demographic variables. The parent-child sample showed that children used less alcohol and marijuana than did their parent during the same age period, suggesting that these trends cannot simply be due to changes in the demographics of the adolescent population over time. Taken together with epidemiological studies, these findings suggest encouraging declines in adolescent substance use rates but also indicate less decline in marijuana use compared to alcohol use. This prompts further surveillance to determine if marijuana use rates may start increasing among adolescents in the future.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Relations among Religiosity, Age of Self-Identification as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual, and Alcohol Use among College Students

Description

Recent research on alcohol use among LGB young adults indicates that sexual minority youth are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. One possible contributing factor is that religiosity

Recent research on alcohol use among LGB young adults indicates that sexual minority youth are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. One possible contributing factor is that religiosity fails to provide the significant protection for LGB youth that it has been demonstrated to provide in general population samples. Although recent studies provide some support for this hypothesis, there is little research seeking to understand the reasons that religiosity may fail to protect against heavy drinking among LGB youth. The current study attempted to address this gap by examining relations among religiosity, age of self-identification, and alcohol use in a sample of 103 young adults self identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Using multiple regression, we found that religiosity had an indirect effect on alcohol use operating through age of identification as LGB. Higher religiosity was associated with a later age of self-identification, which in turn, predicted greater increases in alcohol use among LGB youth during the transition from high school through college. Exploratory analyses found that gender significantly moderated the influence of age of self-identification on alcohol use such that a later age of self-identification was a risk factor for increased drinking for women, but not for men. The findings have important implications for understanding complex relations between religiosity and alcohol use among LGB youth. In addition, the findings may inform the development of religious support groups for LGB youth that will allow them to experience the benefits of religious involvement that heterosexual youth experience.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Alcohol Use Disorders and Public Policy in South Korea

Description

Given the prominence of alcohol in the Korean adult's daily life, further investigation into the negative effects of harmful alcohol consumption and the treatment of and culture surrounding alcohol use

Given the prominence of alcohol in the Korean adult's daily life, further investigation into the negative effects of harmful alcohol consumption and the treatment of and culture surrounding alcohol use disorders is needed. An investigation into the status and treatment of alcohol use disorders in South Korea was chosen due to the significant cultural differences from the United States with regards to alcohol consumption, mental health, and healthcare. The investigation used academic and grey literature, news reports, and current healthcare and public health policy to evaluate South Korea's weak areas in addressing alcohol use disorders. Greater investment into mental health research and healthcare delivery, as well as further development of the continuum of care to help patients transition from treatment of the acute symptoms of an alcohol use disorder to lifetime management are needed. Lastly, increased alcohol regulatory policies are recommended.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Community Perspective on Alcohol Education

Description

This thesis, entitled "A Community Perspective on Alcohol Education," was conducted over a ten month period during the Spring 2014 and Fall 2014 semesters, composed by Christopher Stuller and Nicholas

This thesis, entitled "A Community Perspective on Alcohol Education," was conducted over a ten month period during the Spring 2014 and Fall 2014 semesters, composed by Christopher Stuller and Nicholas Schmitzer. The research involved interviewing twelve professionals from Arizona State University and the City of Tempe to gather a holistic view on alcohol education and alcohol safety as it involves the students at ASU. Upon completion of the interviews, recommendations were made regarding areas of improvement for alcohol education and alcohol safety at Arizona State University. These recommendations range from creating a mandatory alcohol education class to passing a Guardian Angel Law to creating a national network of alcohol education best practices. Through this thesis, the authors hope to prevent future alcohol related injuries, deaths, and tragedies. For the final display of this thesis a website was created. For the ease of reading, all information has been presented in text format.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope in Relation to Alcohol Use Outcomes Among European American and African American College Students

Description

Prior research suggests that African American adults are more likely than White adults to experience negative alcohol use outcomes such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) despite reporting lower rates of

Prior research suggests that African American adults are more likely than White adults to experience negative alcohol use outcomes such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) despite reporting lower rates of alcohol consumption. Research also shows that African Americans experience higher rates of depression, which can increase risk for alcohol consumption and AUD through drinking to cope. The current study examined the role of depressive symptoms and drinking to cope in alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms among White and Black/African American college students. Participants completed an online survey during the fall (T1) and spring semester (T2) of their first year of college (N = 2,168, 62.8% female, 75.8% White). Path analyses were conducted to examine whether depressive symptoms and drinking to cope mediated the association between race/ethnicity and alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms, as well as whether race/ethnicity moderated the associations between depressive symptoms, drinking to cope, and alcohol use outcomes. Results indicated that White participants had higher levels of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption than African American participants. Drinking to cope at T1 was also associated with more depressive symptoms at T1, higher levels of alcohol consumption at T2, and higher levels of AUD symptoms at T2. Also, there was an indirect effect of depressive symptoms on AUD symptoms via drinking to cope. Results from multigroup path analyses suggested that depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with drinking to cope for White students than African American students. There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in the associations between depressive symptoms or drinking to cope and alcohol use outcomes. Future research should examine the roles of race, depression, and drinking to cope in alcohol use outcomes for college students.

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Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Identifying and Evaluating the Impact of Ecological Factors on the Patterns of Health Risk Behaviors Among Arizona State University Students: A Survey-Based Study

Description

Ecological modeling can be used to analyze health risk behaviors and their relationship to ecological factors, which is useful in determining how social environmental factors influence an individual’s decisions. Environmental

Ecological modeling can be used to analyze health risk behaviors and their relationship to ecological factors, which is useful in determining how social environmental factors influence an individual’s decisions. Environmental interactions shape the way that humans behave throughout the day, either through observation, action, or consequences. Specifically, health risk behaviors can be analyzed in relation to ecological factors. Alcohol drinking among college students has been a long concern and there are many risks associated with these behaviors in this population. Consistent engagement in health risk behaviors as a college student, such as drinking and smoking, can pose a much larger issues later in life and can lead to many different health problems. A research study was conducted in the form of a 27 question survey to determine and evaluate the impact of ecological factors on drinking and smoking behaviors among Arizona State University students. Ecological factors such as demographics, living conditions, contexts of social interactions, and places where students spend most of their time were used to evaluate the relationship between drinking and smoking behaviors and the ecological factors, both on- and off- campus. The sample size of this study is 541 students. Statistical tests were conducted using Excel and RStudio to find relationships between patterns of health risk behaviors and various ecological factors. The data from the survey was analyzed to address three main questions. The first question analyzed drinking behaviors in relation to demographics, specifically gender and race. The second question assessed drinking behaviors with participation in Greek life and clubs on campus. The third question evaluated the relationship between health risk behaviors and students’ living conditions, such as living on or off campus. The results show that while gender does not have a statistically significant influence on drinking behaviors, race does. White individuals are more likely to engage in drinking behaviors and are more at risk than non-whites. Participation in Greek life was shown to be statistically significant in determining health risk behaviors, while involvement in clubs was not. Finally, on campus students are less likely to engage in health risk behaviors than off-campus students.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Serotonin functioning and adolescents' alcohol use: a genetically informed study examining mechanisms of risk

Description

The current study utilized data from two longitudinal samples to test mechanisms in the relation between a polygenic risk score indexing serotonin functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, this

The current study utilized data from two longitudinal samples to test mechanisms in the relation between a polygenic risk score indexing serotonin functioning and alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, this study tested whether individuals with lower levels of serotonin functioning as indexed by a polygenic risk score were vulnerable to poorer self-regulation, and whether poorer self-regulation subsequently predicted the divergent outcomes of depressive symptoms and aggressive/antisocial behaviors. This study then examined whether depressive symptoms and aggressive/antisocial behaviors conferred risk for later alcohol use in adolescence, and whether polygenic risk and effortful control had direct effects on alcohol use that were not mediated through problem behaviors. Finally, the study examined the potential moderating role of gender in these pathways to alcohol use.

Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses. Results from an independent genome-wide association study of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid were used to create serotonin (5-HT) polygenic risk scores, wherein higher scores reflected lower levels of 5-HT functioning. Data from three time points were drawn from each sample, and all paths were prospective. Findings suggested that 5-HT polygenic risk did not predict self-regulatory constructs. However, 5-HT polygenic risk did predict the divergent outcomes of depression and aggression/antisociality, such that higher levels of 5-HT polygenic risk predicted greater levels of depression and aggression/antisociality. Results most clearly supported adolescents’ aggression/antisociality as a mechanism in the relation between 5-HT polygenic risk and later alcohol use. Deficits in self-regulation also predicted depression and aggression/antisociality, and indirectly predicted alcohol use through aggression/antisociality. These pathways to alcohol use might be the most salient for boys with low levels of socioeconomic status.

Results are novel contributions to the literature. The previously observed association between serotonin functioning and alcohol use might be due, in part, to the fact that individuals with lower levels of serotonin functioning are predisposed towards developing earlier aggression/antisociality. Results did not support the hypothesis that serotonin functioning predisposes individuals to deficits in self-regulatory abilities. Findings extend previous research by suggesting that serotonin functioning and self-regulation might be transdiagnostic risk factors for many types of psychopathology.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017