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Assessing Practices and Perceptions of Supplements Among College Students

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With the new independence of adulthood, college students are a group susceptible to adopting unsupported, if not harmful, health practices. A survey of Arizona State University undergraduate students (N=200) was conducted to evaluate supplement use, trust in information sources, and

With the new independence of adulthood, college students are a group susceptible to adopting unsupported, if not harmful, health practices. A survey of Arizona State University undergraduate students (N=200) was conducted to evaluate supplement use, trust in information sources, and beliefs about supplement regulation. Of those who reported using supplements, college students most frequently received information from friends and family. STEM majors in fields unrelated to health who were taking a supplement were found to be less likely to receive information about the supplement from a medical practitioner than those in health fields or those in non-STEM majors (-26.9%, p=0.018). STEM majors in health-related fields were 15.0% more likely to treat colds and/or cold symptoms with research-supported methods identified from reliable sources, while non-health STEM and non-STEM majors were more likely to take unsupported cold treatments (p=0.010). Surveyed students, regardless of major, also stated they would trust a medical practitioner for supplement advice above other sources (88.0%), and the majority expressed a belief that dietary supplements are approved/regulated by the government (59.8%).

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2018-05

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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: A Disease of the 20th Century

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Spongiform Encephalopathies are a rare family of degenerative brain diseases characterized by the accumulation of plaques and formation of tiny holes in the brain tissue making it look "spongy". Spongiform Encephalopathies have a relatively short history but their origins date

Spongiform Encephalopathies are a rare family of degenerative brain diseases characterized by the accumulation of plaques and formation of tiny holes in the brain tissue making it look "spongy". Spongiform Encephalopathies have a relatively short history but their origins date back to a time long before they were recognized as a disease. It was not until the 1700s that the first record of their existence was made. In 1732 a shepherd in England noticed that some sheep in his flock had become itchy and were "scraping" themselves on nearby trees and fence posts; he reported it to the agricultural authorities of the time. As the symptoms seen in his sheep progressed they also developed problems walking and began to have seizures. Eventually their neurological symptoms progressed to an unmanageable level and they died. In 1794, over 50 years later, the Board of Agriculture in the UK termed this illness in sheep "the Rubbers". In the following years while coming in and out of mention in many flocks of sheep "the Rubbers" remained a disease of minimal consequence showing negligible ability to spread among sheep and having no precedence for jumping the species barrier and affecting humans. The first mention of "the Rubbers" as Scrapie was in 1853, and it is still the designation of the disease in sheep today.

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2012-12

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Apologia in German and Japanese Post-War Film: A Comparative Analysis of Exculpatory Discourses on the German and Japanese Military in World War II.

Description

In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies,

In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies, both emerged from the 20th Century as liberal, prosperous and free. Both made great strides well beyond the expectations of their occupiers, and rebounded from the overwhelming destruction of their national economies within a few short decades. While these changes have yielded dramatic results, the wartime period still looms large in their respective collective memories. Therefore, an ongoing and diverse dialectical process would engage the considerable popular, official, and intellectual energy of their post-war generations. In West Germany, the term Vergangenheitsbewältigung (VGB) emerged to describe a process of coming to terms with the past, while the Japanese chose kako no kokufuku to describe their similar historical sojourns. Although intellectuals of widely varying backgrounds in both nations made great strides toward making Japanese and German citizens cognizant of the roles that their militaries played in gruesome atrocities, popular cinematic productions served to reiterate older, discredited assertions of the fundamental honor and innocence of the average soldier, thereby nurturing a historically revisionist line of reasoning that continues to compete for public attention. All forms of media would play an important role in sustaining this “apologetic narrative,” and cinema, among the most popular and visible of these mediums, was not excluded from this. Indeed, films would play a unique recurring role, like rhetorical time capsules, in offering a sanitized historical image of Japanese and German soldiers that continues to endure in modern times. Nevertheless, even as West Germany and Japan regained their sovereignty and re-examined their pasts with ever greater resolution and insight, their respective film industries continued to “reset” the clock, and accentuated the visibility and relevancy of apologetic forces still in existence within both societies. However, it is important to note that, when speaking of “Germans” and “Japanese,” that they are not meant to be thought of as being uniformly of one mind or another. Rather, the use of these words is meant as convenient shorthand to refer to the dominant forces in Japanese and German civil society at any given time over the course of their respective post- war histories. Furthermore, references to “Germany” during the Cold War period are to be understood to mean the Federal Republic of Germany, rather than their socialist counterpart, the German Democratic Republic, a nation that undertook its own coming to terms with the past in an entirely distinct fashion.

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2012-12

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Modeling Brain Tumors: Simulating individual Patient Cases of Glioblastoma Multiforme

Description

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) is the most prevalent brain tumor type and causes approximately 40% of all non-metastic primary tumors in adult patients [1]. GBMs are malignant, grade-4 brain tumors, the most aggressive classication as established by the World Health Organization

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) is the most prevalent brain tumor type and causes approximately 40% of all non-metastic primary tumors in adult patients [1]. GBMs are malignant, grade-4 brain tumors, the most aggressive classication as established by the World Health Organization and are marked by their low survival rate; the median survival time is only twelve months from initial diagnosis: Patients who live more than three years are considered long-term survivors [2]. GBMs are highly invasive and their diffusive growth pattern makes it impossible to remove the tumors by surgery alone [3]. The purpose of this paper is to use individual patient data to parameterize a model of GBMs that allows for data on tumor growth and development to be captured on a clinically relevant time scale. Such an endeavor is the rst step to a clinically applicable predictions of GBMs. Previous research has yielded models that adequately represent the development of GBMs, but they have not attempted to follow specic patient cases through the entire tumor process. Using the model utilized by Kostelich et al. [4], I will attempt to redress this deciency. In doing so, I will improve upon a family of models that can be used to approximate the time of development and/or structure evolution in GBMs. The eventual goal is to incorporate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data into a parameterized model of GBMs in such a way that it can be used clinically to predict tumor growth and behavior. Furthermore, I hope to come to a denitive conclusion as to the accuracy of the Koteslich et al. model throughout the development of GBMs tumors.

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2012-12

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LATINO IMMIGRANTS IN SOUTH PHOENIX: PERCEPTIONS OF HEALTH IN COMMUNITIES OF ORIGIN VERSUS COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES

Description

Background: Latinos represent 40.8% of the population in Phoenix (U.S. Census Bureau Population Division, 2010). South Phoenix, also known as the South Mountain Village, defined in geographical terms as area zip codes 85040 and 85042; is a predominantly Latino community

Background: Latinos represent 40.8% of the population in Phoenix (U.S. Census Bureau Population Division, 2010). South Phoenix, also known as the South Mountain Village, defined in geographical terms as area zip codes 85040 and 85042; is a predominantly Latino community comprised of mixed citizenship status households. During the 2010 United States Census 60.3% of the population in South Phoenix identified as Latino, 25.75% of the total population was foreign born. Of the foreign born population, 88.95% were of Latin American origin (United States Census Bureau, 2007-2011 American Community Survey). Understanding how Latino immigrants perceive differences in health between their communities in country of origin and communities in the United States is largely unknown. Irrespective of political positions, understanding how Latino immigrants perceive personal health and the health of their communities is of interest to inform public policy and implement needed interventions in the
public health sphere.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were collected from 55 adults from the South Phoenix community between November 2009 and September 2010. Interviews were digitally recorded with participant permission and transcribed. Of those collected, 48 transcribed interviews were analyzed using a codebook designed by the researcher. Percent agreement evaluated inter-rater reliability.Results: Latino immigrants in South Phoenix largely agree that health quality is heavily dependent on personal responsibility and not an intrinsic attribute of a given place. Emotional contentedness and distress, both factors of mental health, are impacted by cross-cultural differences between Latino and U.S. culture systems.
Conclusions: As people’s personal perceptions of differences in health are complex concepts influenced by personal backgrounds, culture, and beliefs, attempting to demark a side of the border as ‘healthier’ than the other using personal perceptions is overly simplified and misses central concepts. Instead, exploration of individual variables impacting health allowed this study to gain a more nuanced understanding in how people determine quality of both personal and environmental health. While Latino migrants in South Phoenix largely agree that health is based on personal responsibility and choices, many nonetheless experience higher levels of contentedness and emotional health in their country of origin.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Identification of Tumor Associated Antigens using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Identifying disease biomarkers may aid in the early detection of breast cancer and improve patient outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that tumors are immunogenic and therefore patients may launch an autoantibody response to tumor associated antigens. Single-chain variable fragments of autoantibodies

Identifying disease biomarkers may aid in the early detection of breast cancer and improve patient outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that tumors are immunogenic and therefore patients may launch an autoantibody response to tumor associated antigens. Single-chain variable fragments of autoantibodies derived from regional lymph node B cells of breast cancer patients were used to discover these tumor associated biomarkers on protein microarrays. Six candidate biomarkers were discovered from 22 heavy chain-only variable region antibody fragments screened. Validation tests are necessary to confirm the tumorgenicity of these antigens. However, the use of single-chain variable autoantibody fragments presents a novel platform for diagnostics and cancer therapeutics.

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2012-12

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The Supermarket Game: An Internet Teaching Tool Designed to Enhance Understanding of Economically Important Food Plants

Description

Plants are essential to human life. They release oxygen into the atmosphere for us to breathe. They also provide shelter, medicine, clothing, tools, and food. For many people, the food that is on their tables and in their supermarkets isn't

Plants are essential to human life. They release oxygen into the atmosphere for us to breathe. They also provide shelter, medicine, clothing, tools, and food. For many people, the food that is on their tables and in their supermarkets isn't given much thought. Where did it come from? What part of the plant is it? How does it relate to others in the plant kingdom? How do other cultures use this plant? The most many of us know about them is that they are at the supermarket when we need them for dinner (Nabhan, 2009) (Vileisis, 2008).

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Date Created
2012-12

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Love Your Body [A Non-Profit Prevention Approach to Eating Disorders]

Description

Based on previous research and findings it is proven that a non-profit class to create awareness will be beneficial in the prevention of eating disorders. This analysis will provide significant research to defend the proposed class.

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2012-12

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The Biological Misunderstandings of HIV/AIDS Make It a Public Health Threat

Description

Affecting over 34 million people worldwide, (0.5% of the world population) HIV/AIDS is a pandemic that is not receding its control anytime soon (Sidibe 2011). Thirty years since the chaotic emergence of fear and misunderstanding, our knowledge of the virus

Affecting over 34 million people worldwide, (0.5% of the world population) HIV/AIDS is a pandemic that is not receding its control anytime soon (Sidibe 2011). Thirty years since the chaotic emergence of fear and misunderstanding, our knowledge of the virus and its subsequent syndrome has grown exponentially, but how much of this information is really getting to the people that need it? In the corners of the Earth, where scientific knowledge rarely reaches, what can we do to stop the deadly spread of this virus? And what of the countries with a large amount of knowledge, but still a ravaging problem present in their countries? When this information is disseminated- sometimes a matter of ‘if’ in certain countries, it is primarily through unreliable sources, most of the countries examined through the media, which has a tendency to skew and misinterpret information-specially scientific. This is the information that enters the lives of people in several different countries, for example, the United States, France, China, Brazil, Uganda, and South Africa: Misunderstandings of how to protect themselves from the virus, and its effects on the body. These misunderstandings have led to millions of lives lost as myths such as showering to cure AIDS and that AIDS only infect the ‘sinners’ continue to surface throughout the globe. The Public Health threat is due to knowledge deficits, and incorrect perceived ‘knowledge’ and ‘awareness of the problem’. Here, in a six-country analysis of common misconceptions and the subsequent policies and prevalence rate, it has begun to be clear that the hardest hit areas are those with the most stigma, the most misguided policies, the most uninformed leadership, and because of this, the most mislead citizens. The biological misunderstandings of HIV/AIDS are at the root of the public health threat continuing to keep its hold in the modern world, 30 years after its documented outbreak.

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2012-12

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Adaptation of Bacterial Comet Assays to Detect Antimicrobial-mediated DNA Strand Breaks in Escherichia coli

Description

This study was conducted as part of an underlying initiative to elucidate the mechanism of action of natural antibacterial clay minerals for application as therapeutic agents for difficult-to-treat infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-derived skin lesions and Buruli ulcer.

This study was conducted as part of an underlying initiative to elucidate the mechanism of action of natural antibacterial clay minerals for application as therapeutic agents for difficult-to-treat infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-derived skin lesions and Buruli ulcer. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether exposure to the leachate of an antibacterial clay mineral, designated as CB, produced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Escherichia coli. A neutral comet assay for bacterial cells was adapted to assess DSB levels upon exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds. Challenges involved with the adaptation process included comet visualization and data collection. To appropriately account for antimicrobial-mediated strand fragmentation, suitable control reactions comprised of exposures to water, ethanol, kanamycin, and bleomycin were developed and optimized for the assay. Bacterial exposure to CB resulted in significantly longer comet lengths compared to negative control exposures, suggesting that CB killing activity involves the induction of DNA DSBs. The results of this investigation further characterize the antimicrobial mechanisms associated with a particular clay mineral mixture. The adapted comet assay protocol described herein functions as an effective tool to assess double-strand fragmentation resulting from exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds and to visually compare results from experimental and control reactions.

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2012-12