Matching Items (25)
- All Subjects: Health
- Creators: School of Life Sciences
- Member of: Barrett, The Honors College Thesis/Creative Project Collection
The NCAA recently declared sickle cell trait (SCT) to be a risk factor for sudden illness and death among student athletes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration in adults is negatively correlated with disease severity in sickle cell anemia, although its effect on SCT is not fully understood and the concentration is found to have high variability across populations. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the human beta globin gene cluster, rs7482144 and rs10128556, contribute to the heritable variation in HbF levels and are associated with increased HbF concentrations in adults. A sample population of NCAA football student athletes was genotyped for these two polymorphisms, and their allele frequencies were compared to those of other populations. The minor allele of both polymorphisms had allele frequencies of 0.091 in the sample population, which compared closely with other populations of recent African heritage but was significantly different from European populations. The results of this study will be included in a larger study to predict whether these among other polymorphisms can be used as markers to predict susceptibility to heat-related emergencies in NCAA student athletes with SCT, although the small sample size will delay this process until participation in the study increases. Since both rs7482144 and rs10128556 exhibit high levels of linkage disequilibrium, and as their contributions to the heritable variability of HbF concentrations tend to differ greatly between populations of different ancestry, further investigations should be aimed at distinguishing between the effects of each SNP in African American, European, and other populations represented in NCAA football before conclusions can be drawn as to their practical use as genetic markers of heat susceptibility in student athletes with SCT.
In 2004, the South Korean geneticist Woo-Suk Hwang published what was widely regarded as the most important research result in biotechnology of the year. In the prestigious American journal Science, he claimed that he had succeeded in cloning a human blastocyst, an embryo in its early stages (Hwang et al. 2004). A year later, in a second Science article, he made the earth-shattering announcement that he had derived eleven embryonic stem cell lines using his cloning technique (Hwang et al. 2005). The international scientific community was stunned. American scientists publicly fretted that President George W. Bush‘s 2001 executive order limiting federal funding for stem-cell research in the United States had put American bioscience behind the Koreans‘ (Paarlberg 2005). These breakthroughs offered potential solutions to immune system rejection of transplanted organs and possible cures for diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson‘s, Down‘s syndrome, and paralysis (Svenaeus 2007). However, within a year, Hwang was exposed as a fraud who had faked his results and pressured his female colleagues to donate eggs without informed consent. Despite protests against his methods from Korean religious and nongovernmental organizations, Hwang had used his prestige to ignore his ethical obligations. The Korean government, too, was slow to investigate Hwang and to subject his work to appropriate regulation.
Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but the practices by which protein sources are raised, grown, or harvested have environmental consequences, potentially reducing biodiversity, essential habitat, and crucial stocks of natural resources. Terrestrial cultivation encroaches on natural habitats and consumes resources inefficiently, while overfishing has greatly depleted wild fishery stocks. These environmental factors, along with concerns about nutrients, contaminants and the ethics of animal protein has led to confusion about weighing the risks and benefits associated with alternative sources of protein. Providing consumers \u2014 and policy makers \u2014 with a comprehensive account of major protein sources and their impacts in an understandable form is crucial to reducing environmental degradation and improving human health. Here I provide a general framework to compare the health and environmental impacts of livestock, seafood, and plant protein, and illustrate the application of this framework with case studies for each of these categories.
The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention
This project explores modern healthcare related disparities in Phoenix, Arizona, as well as the overarching historical structures that have influenced public health within the city. Historical and systemic racism, harmful housing policies, barriers preventing upwards economic mobility, and purposeful measures put in place by business leaders and city officials are all explored as factors impacting current disparities in access to care. In order to fully analyze the gaps in care, different areas, both high and low-income, are analyzed throughout history in order to understand shifting demographics and policies. The project concludes with an in-depth look at current public health efforts within Maricopa County, as well as with future policy recommendations.
This study uses a survey-based approach to study the perception of water quality and sanitation habits in Cusibamba and Totora, Peru. The survey covered important aspects such as how the water tastes, looks, smells, where it comes from, how it is purified (boiled or chlorinated), and if the respondent is satisfied with their water. Participants reported that the water is of good quality overall and usually available (although scarcity may be an issue). They also reported good hygiene practices overall, and that they boil the water prior to using it for cooking, cleaning, or drinking. Educational information about ensuring water quality and sanitation would have been distributed in addition to in-person lessons on how to purify water if the COVID pandemic did not occur. These activities could not have been performed without risk to the communities and risk to those traveling to Peru.
The purpose of this project was to garner a greater understanding of the form, function, and uses of school as well as community gardens. Worldwide, school and community gardens are used to promote health, nutrition, and some aspects of education. I wished to extend my knowledge of these gardens to greater lengths by building and incorporating a school garden in a community that was underderserving. Along the way I also sought to better my understanding of how to help communities through the knowledge and aid of experts and other community members. By doing this, I would hopefully both improve that community as well as understand the difficulties and problems that stand in the way of greater school garden incorporation.
The Founders lab is a year-long program that gives its students an opportunity to participate in a unique team-based, experiential Barrett honors thesis project to design and apply marketing and sales strategies, as well as business and financial models to create and launch a new business. Initially, our team focused on creating a product that would provide those who have received basic genetic testing from services such as 23andMe with nutrition, exercise, and health/wellness educational resources. Over time, we transitioned our focus to creating a community forum that would also provide those resources to people who had not received basic genetic testing, but were still interested in accessing educational resources about the specific conditions that basic genetic testing services provide reports for. To accomplish this, we have produced a website that allows users to post content and interact with each other.
Upon analyzing the literature that is available on refugee populations in conjunction with our personal experiences with these populations, we ultimately decided to develop a mobile app that targeted the source of the numerous disparities we saw. These disparities ranged from increased prevalence of chronic diseases to difficulty in going to doctor's appointments due to transportation challenges. We focused on the three areas of government assistance, clinical health, and general well-being through our mobile app, Refugee Aid Initiative. This mobile app is designed to provide refugee populations with the resources necessary to build healthier, happier, and more independent lives for themselves and their families. Here, we focus on not only highlighting resources that are available but also adding supplementary information that helps refugee populations fully take advantage of the resources that are available to them.