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Parenting in the Digital Age

Description

According to a 2016 National Cyber Security Alliance survey, "30 percent of teens say their parents are 'not aware at all' or 'not very aware' of their online activities while 57 percent of parents surveyed admit that they are similarly

According to a 2016 National Cyber Security Alliance survey, "30 percent of teens say their parents are 'not aware at all' or 'not very aware' of their online activities while 57 percent of parents surveyed admit that they are similarly in the dark about what their kids are doing online." The Parenting in the Digital Age project (parentingdigitalage.com) aims to provide parents of high schoolers with information about the effects of internet and social media use on their children, as well as information on specific websites and apps their children are using. The goal of the project is to combine cyberpsychology research with journalistic techniques to create an informative, user-friendly website. Parents deserve clear and concise resources to help navigate parenting in the digital age, and this website will serve as one.

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Created

Date Created
2016-12

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Relations of Empathy to Anger, Gender, and Intrusive Maternal Parenting in Toddlers

Description

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at approximately 18 (T1, N = 247), 30 (T2, N =

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at approximately 18 (T1, N = 247), 30 (T2, N = 216), and 42 (T3, N = 192) months of age. Toddlers' observed anger was measured during a toy removal task and maternal intrusiveness was observed during free play between mother and toddler. Reported empathy was measured using questionnaires completed by mothers and fathers. At 18 months, a positive relation between observed anger and reported empathy was found for boys, but not for girls. At 30 months, maternal intrusiveness positively predicted empathy in boys, but it negatively predicted empathy in girls. These findings provide insight about sex differences in the development of empathy and concern for others in early childhood.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-05

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Predicting the developmental trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors from parenting quality and children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia

Description

The current study delineated the developmental trajectories of early childhood externalizing and internalizing symptoms reported by mothers and fathers, and examined the role of the 18-month observed parenting quality × Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

(RSA) interaction in predicting these trajectories. Child

The current study delineated the developmental trajectories of early childhood externalizing and internalizing symptoms reported by mothers and fathers, and examined the role of the 18-month observed parenting quality × Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

(RSA) interaction in predicting these trajectories. Child sex was tested as a covariate and moderator. It was found that children's low baseline RSA or high RSA reactivity , in comparison to high baseline RSA or low RSA reactivity , was more reactive as a function

of early parenting quality when predicting the development of early childhood problem symptoms. Differential patterns of the interaction between parenting quality and RSA were detected for mothers' and fathers' reports. Mother-reported models showed a diathesis-stress pattern, whereas the father-reported model showed a vantage-sensitivity pattern, especially for internalizing symptoms. This may imply the potential benefit of fathers' active engagement in children's early development. In addition, the effect of the parenting quality × RSA interaction in predicting the mother-reported models was found

to be further moderated by child sex. Specifically, the parenting quality × baseline RSA interaction was significantly predictive of girls' 54-month internalizing, and the parenting quality × RSA reactivity interaction significantly predicted boys' internalizing slope. Girls with low baseline RSA or boys with high RSA reactivity were vulnerable to the less positive parenting, exhibiting high levels of 54-month internalizing symptoms or slow decline in internalizing over time, respectively. Future research directions were discussed in terms of integrating the measures of SNS and PNS in psychopathology study,

exploring the mechanisms underlying the sex difference in parenting quality × RSA interaction, and comparing the findings of children's typical and atypical development.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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Assessing a culturally informed transactional model of Latino children's temperament development

Description

The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of Mexican-American three- to five-year-old children’s effortful control (EC) and negative emotionality (NE) development by examining whether Mexican-American adolescent mothers’ parenting transacts with their three- to five-year-old children’s EC

The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of Mexican-American three- to five-year-old children’s effortful control (EC) and negative emotionality (NE) development by examining whether Mexican-American adolescent mothers’ parenting transacts with their three- to five-year-old children’s EC and NE and by exploring whether mothers’ familism acts as a protective factor. I hypothesized that mothers’ harshness and warmth would transact with EC and NE over time. I further hypothesized that mothers’ familism values would (a) positively predict mothers’ warmth and negatively predict mothers’ harshness, and (b) act as a buffer between low EC and high NE, and high harshness and low warmth. These hypotheses were tested within a sample of Mexican-American adolescent mother-child dyads (N = 204) and assessed longitudinally when children were 36, 48, and 60 months. Mothers were predominantly first generation (i.e., mothers’ parents were born in Mexico; 67%) and spoke English (65%). When children were 36 months, average family income (i.e., wages, public assistance, food stamps) was $24,715 (SD = $19,545) and mothers had started community college (13%) or completed high school/GED (30%), 11th grade (19%), 10th grade (8%), or less than 9th grade (14%). In this sample, transactions between harshness or warmth and EC or NE were not found, but a bidirectional association between NE and harshness was found. Familism marginally negatively predicted harshness, but not warmth. Familism moderated the relation between NE and harshness such that there was only a negative relation between NE and harshness when familism was high. However, familism did not moderate the relations between NE and warmth, or EC and harshness or warmth. The results of this study are discussed with respect to (a) current methodological limitations in the field, such as the need to test or develop parent-report measures of Mexican-American children’s temperament and value-driven socialization goals, (b) future avenues for research, such as person-centered studies of clusters of mothers’ values and how those relate to clusters of parenting behaviors, and (c) implications for interventions addressing parenting behavior of adolescent mothers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Transactional processes of parent-child interactions from early to middle childhood

Description

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time. The goals of this study were twofold: 1) determine whether

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time. The goals of this study were twofold: 1) determine whether there were reciprocal relations in maternal hostility and child negativity across early and middle childhood, and 2) investigate whether individual characteristics (i.e., child temperamental anger and frustration and maternal neuroticism) moderated relations found in goal one. Data were from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Empirical support was found for conceptualizing mother-child interactions as reciprocal. Maternal hostility was related to a decrease in the probability children would exhibit negative behaviors during mother-child interactions measured approximately two years later. Child negativity was also associated with a significant decrease in the probability mothers would display future hostility.

Child temperamental anger and frustration was found to moderate reciprocal relations across all three parent-to-child cross-lagged paths. Children scoring high on a dispositional proclivity to react with anger and frustration were more likely to avoid maternal hostility, via a significant decrease in negativity, across time. Moderation was also supported in two of three child-to-parent lagged paths. Finally, maternal neuroticism moderated the reciprocal effects during early childhood, such that more neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of hostility relative to mothers scoring lower on neuroticism. This affect was attenuated in middle childhood, with patterns becoming similar between mothers scoring high and low on neuroticism. Moreover, children of less neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of exhibiting negativity from 36 to 54 months compared to children of more neurotic mothers. This effect also attenuated with patterns becoming negative at the grade 1 to grade 3 lag. Overall, the results from this study supported a transactional model of parent-child relationships, were consistent with the motivation literature, did not support a coercive process of interaction when the sample and measurement paradigm were low-risk, and generally suggested parents and children have an equal influence on the relational processes investigated from early to middle childhood.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

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The Role of Early Parenting Practices, Home Environment, and Children’s Regulation in Predicting Language Development in Emerging Bilingual Children

Description

The goal of this study was to illuminate areas of strength within a sample of Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children (n = 446) from the early head start research and evaluation project, a multi method, multi reporter longitudinal study that involved children

The goal of this study was to illuminate areas of strength within a sample of Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children (n = 446) from the early head start research and evaluation project, a multi method, multi reporter longitudinal study that involved children starting at 14-months through pre-kindergarten, with a 5th grade follow up assessment. A longitudinal path model examined relations between external factors (i.e., parent warmth and responsivity, home cognitive and language environment, child-directed speech), and internal factors (i.e., child self-regulation), and Spanish language before kindergarten, and English language at 5th grade. In addition to direct paths, indirect paths were included from external factors to language outcomes through self-regulation and Spanish language. After controlling for important demographic variables, analyses indicated that parents’ warmth and responsivity was directly related to children’s self-regulation and children’s English language proficiency in 5th grade. Home environment and self-regulation were directly related to children’s Spanish language proficiency. Children’s Spanish language proficiency was directly related to English language proficiency. Significant indirect effects emerged between parent warmth and responsivity to both Spanish and English language via children’s self-regulation. Results additionally evidenced significant indirect paths from home environment and self-regulation to English language through Spanish language. Direct paths between parent warmth/responsivity and Spanish language, home environment and English language, and child-directed speech and child regulation, Spanish language, and English language were not significant. Implications include current and future interventions targeted at bolstering parent-child interactions and regulation skills and to promote early educational programs supportive of both heritage and second languages.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021