Matching Items (30)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

BIOELECTRIC IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS AS A METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE HYDRATION MEASUREMENT

Description

Volume depletion can lead to migraines, dizziness, and significant decreases in a subject's ability to physically perform. A major cause of volume depletion is dehydration, or loss in fluids due to an imbalance in fluid intake to fluid excretion. Because

Volume depletion can lead to migraines, dizziness, and significant decreases in a subject's ability to physically perform. A major cause of volume depletion is dehydration, or loss in fluids due to an imbalance in fluid intake to fluid excretion. Because proper levels of hydration are necessary in order to maintain both short and long term health, the ability to monitor hydration levels is growing in clinical demand. Although devices capable of monitoring hydration level exist, these devices are expensive, invasive, or inaccurate and do not offer a continuous mode of measurement. The ideal hydration monitor for consumer use needs to be characterized by its portability, affordability, and accuracy. Also, this device would need to be noninvasive and offer continuous hydration monitoring in order to accurately assess fluctuations in hydration data throughout a specified time period. One particular method for hydration monitoring that fits the majority of these criteria is known as bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). Although current devices using BIA do not provide acceptable levels of accuracy, portability, or continuity in data collection, BIA could potentially be modified to fit many, if not all, desired customer specifications. The analysis presented here assesses the viability of using BIA as a new standard in hydration level measurement. The analysis uses data collected from 22 subjects using an existing device that employs BIA. A regression derived for estimating TBW based on the parameters of age, weight, height, sex, and impedance is presented. Using impedance data collected for each subject, a regression was also derived for estimating impedance based on the factors of age, weight, height, and sex. The derived regression was then used to calculate a new impedance value for each subject, and these new impedance values were used to estimate TBW. Through a paired-t test between the TBW values derived by using the direct measurements versus the calculated measurements of impedance, the two samples were found to be comparable. Considerations for BIA as a noninvasive measurement of hydration are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-05

152543-Thumbnail Image.png

Modeling of solid state transformer for the FREEDM system demonstration

Description

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

153057-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of the selection procedure of an insulating foam for its application in gas insulated transmission lines, demonstrated using syntactic foam

Description

Due to increasing integration of renewable resources in the power grid, an efficient high power transmission system is needed in the near future to transfer energy from remote locations to the load centers. Gas Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) is a

Due to increasing integration of renewable resources in the power grid, an efficient high power transmission system is needed in the near future to transfer energy from remote locations to the load centers. Gas Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) is a specialized high power transmission system, designed by Siemens, for applications requiring direct burial or vertical installation of the transmission line. GIL uses SF6 as an insulating medium. Due to unavoidable gas leakages and high global warming potential of SF6, there is a need to replace this insulating gas by some other possible alternative. Insulating foam materials are characterized by excellent dielectric properties as well as their reduced weight. These materials can find their application in GIL as high voltage insulators. Syntactic foam is a polymer based insulating foam. It consists of a large number of microspheres embedded in a polymer matrix.

The work in this thesis deals with the development of the selection proce-dure for an insulating foam for its application in GIL. All the steps in the process are demonstrated considering syntactic foam as an insulator. As the first step of the procedure, a small representative model of the insulating foam is built in COMSOL Multiphysics software with the help of AutoCAD and Excel VBA to analyze electric field distribution for the application of GIL. The effect of the presence of metal particles on the electric field distribution is also observed. The AC voltage withstand test is performed on the insulating foam samples according to the IEEE standards. The effect of the insulating foam on electrical parameters as well as transmission characteristics of the line is analyzed as the last part of the thesis. The results from all the simulations and AC voltage withstand test are ob-served to predict the suitability of the syntactic foam as an insulator in GIL.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

154405-Thumbnail Image.png

An online monitoring and fault location methodology for underground power cables

Description

With the growing importance of underground power systems and the need for greater reliability of the power supply, cable monitoring and accurate fault location detection has become an increasingly important issue. The presence of inherent random fluctuations in power system

With the growing importance of underground power systems and the need for greater reliability of the power supply, cable monitoring and accurate fault location detection has become an increasingly important issue. The presence of inherent random fluctuations in power system signals can be used to extract valuable information about the condition of system equipment. One such component is the power cable, which is the primary focus of this research.

This thesis investigates a unique methodology that allows online monitoring of an underground power cable. The methodology analyzes conventional power signals in the frequency domain to monitor the condition of a power cable.

First, the proposed approach is analyzed theoretically with the help of mathematical computations. Frequency domain analysis techniques are then used to compute the power spectral density (PSD) of the system signals. The importance of inherent noise in the system, a key requirement of this methodology, is also explained. The behavior of resonant frequencies, which are unique to every system, are then analyzed under different system conditions with the help of mathematical expressions.

Another important aspect of this methodology is its ability to accurately estimate cable fault location. The process is online and hence does not require the system to be disconnected from the grid. A single line to ground fault case is considered and the trend followed by the resonant frequencies for different fault positions is observed.

The approach is initially explained using theoretical calculations followed by simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The validity of this technique is proved by comparing the results obtained from theory and simulation to actual measurement data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

150197-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of an automated validation environment for a radiation hardened MIPS microprocessor

Description

Ever reducing time to market, along with short product lifetimes, has created a need to shorten the microprocessor design time. Verification of the design and its analysis are two major components of this design cycle. Design validation techniques can be

Ever reducing time to market, along with short product lifetimes, has created a need to shorten the microprocessor design time. Verification of the design and its analysis are two major components of this design cycle. Design validation techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: simulation based approaches and formal techniques. Simulation based microprocessor validation involves running millions of cycles using random or pseudo random tests and allows verification of the register transfer level (RTL) model against an architectural model, i.e., that the processor executes instructions as required. The validation effort involves model checking to a high level description or simulation of the design against the RTL implementation. Formal techniques exhaustively analyze parts of the design but, do not verify RTL against the architecture specification. The focus of this work is to implement a fully automated validation environment for a MIPS based radiation hardened microprocessor using simulation based approaches. The basic framework uses the classical validation approach in which the design to be validated is described in a Hardware Definition Language (HDL) such as VHDL or Verilog. To implement a simulation based approach a number of random or pseudo random tests are generated. The output of the HDL based design is compared against the one obtained from a "perfect" model implementing similar functionality, a mismatch in the results would thus indicate a bug in the HDL based design. Effort is made to design the environment in such a manner that it can support validation during different stages of the design cycle. The validation environment includes appropriate changes so as to support architecture changes which are introduced because of radiation hardening. The manner in which the validation environment is build is highly dependent on the specifications of the perfect model used for comparisons. This work implements the validation environment for two MIPS simulators as the reference model. Two bugs have been discovered in the RTL model, using simulation based approaches through the validation environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150202-Thumbnail Image.png

Photovoltaic modules: effect of tilt angle on soiling

Description

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt anlges 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt anlge 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

149413-Thumbnail Image.png

Building applied and back insulated photovoltaic modules: thermal models

Description

Building applied photovoltaics (BAPV) is a major application sector for photovoltaics (PV). Due to the negative temperature coefficient of power output, the performance of a PV module decreases as the temperature of the module increases. In hot climatic conditions, such

Building applied photovoltaics (BAPV) is a major application sector for photovoltaics (PV). Due to the negative temperature coefficient of power output, the performance of a PV module decreases as the temperature of the module increases. In hot climatic conditions, such as the summer in Arizona, the operating temperature of a BAPV module can reach as high as 90°C. Considering a typical 0.5%/°C power drop for crystalline silicon (c-Si) modules, a performance decrease of approximately 30% would be expected during peak summer temperatures due to the difference between rated temperature (25°C) and operating temperature (~90°C) of the modules. Also, in a worst-case scenario, such as partial shading of the PV cells of air gap-free BAPV modules, some of the components could attain temperatures that would be high enough to compromise the safety and functionality requirements of the module and its components. Based on the temperature and weather data collected over a year in Arizona, a mathematical thermal model has been developed and presented in this paper to predict module temperature for five different air gaps (0", 1", 2", 3", and 4"). For comparison, modules with a thermally-insulated (R30) back were evaluated to determine the worst-case scenario. This thesis also provides key technical details related to the specially-built, simulated rooftop structure; the mounting configuration of the PV modules on the rooftop structure; the LabVIEW program that was developed for data acquisition and the MATLAB program for developing the thermal models. In order to address the safety issue, temperature test results (obtained in accordance with IEC 61730-2 and UL 1703 safety standards) are presented and analyzed for nine different components of a PV module, i.e., the front glass, substrate/backsheet (polymer), PV cell, j-box ambient, j-box surface, positive terminal, backsheet inside j-box, field wiring, and diode. The temperature test results obtained for about 140 crystalline silicon modules from a large number of manufacturers who tested modules between 2006 and 2009 at ASU/TÜV-PTL were analyzed and presented in this paper under three test conditions, i.e., short-circuit, open-circuit, and short-circuit and shaded. Also, the nominal operating cell temperatures (NOCTs) of the BAPV modules and insulated-back PV modules are presented in this paper for use by BAPV module designers and installers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

151827-Thumbnail Image.png

26+ year old photovoltaic power plant: degradation and reliability evaluation of crystalline silicon modules - north array

Description

The object of this study was a 26 year old residential Photovoltaic (PV) monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plant, called Solar One, built by developer John F. Long in Phoenix, Arizona (a hot-dry field condition). The task for Arizona State University

The object of this study was a 26 year old residential Photovoltaic (PV) monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plant, called Solar One, built by developer John F. Long in Phoenix, Arizona (a hot-dry field condition). The task for Arizona State University Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) graduate students was to evaluate the power plant through visual inspection, electrical performance, and infrared thermography. The purpose of this evaluation was to measure and understand the extent of degradation to the system along with the identification of the failure modes in this hot-dry climatic condition. This 4000 module bipolar system was originally installed with a 200 kW DC output of PV array (17 degree fixed tilt) and an AC output of 175 kVA. The system was shown to degrade approximately at a rate of 2.3% per year with no apparent potential induced degradation (PID) effect. The power plant is made of two arrays, the north array and the south array. Due to a limited time frame to execute this large project, this work was performed by two masters students (Jonathan Belmont and Kolapo Olakonu) and the test results are presented in two masters theses. This thesis presents the results obtained on the north array and the other thesis presents the results obtained on the south array. The resulting study showed that PV module design, array configuration, vandalism, installation methods and Arizona environmental conditions have had an effect on this system's longevity and reliability. Ultimately, encapsulation browning, higher series resistance (potentially due to solder bond fatigue) and non-cell interconnect ribbon breakages outside the modules were determined to be the primary causes for the power loss.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

153122-Thumbnail Image.png

A study of energy management systems and its failure modes in smart grid power distribution

Description

The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management

The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use.

In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique.

The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be the best method to detect bad data. An H-infinity robust control technique was applied for the first time to design discrete EMS controller for the FREEDM system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

151340-Thumbnail Image.png

Potential induced degradation (PID) of pre-stressed photovoltaic modules: effect of glass surface conductivity disruption

Description

Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of the following factors: system voltage, superstrate/glass surface conductivity, encapsulant conductivity,

Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of the following factors: system voltage, superstrate/glass surface conductivity, encapsulant conductivity, silicon nitride anti-reflection coating property and interface property (glass/encapsulant; encapsulant/cell; encapsulant/backsheet). Previous studies carried out at ASU's Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) showed that only negative voltage bias (positive grounded systems) adversely affects the performance of commonly available crystalline silicon modules. In previous studies, the surface conductivity of the glass surface was obtained using either conductive carbon layer extending from the glass surface to the frame or humidity inside an environmental chamber. This thesis investigates the influence of glass surface conductivity disruption on PV modules. In this study, conductive carbon was applied only on the module's glass surface without extending to the frame and the surface conductivity was disrupted (no carbon layer) at 2cm distance from the periphery of frame inner edges. This study was carried out under dry heat at two different temperatures (60 °C and 85 °C) and three different negative bias voltages (-300V, -400V, and -600V). To replicate closeness to the field conditions, half of the selected modules were pre-stressed under damp heat for 1000 hours (DH 1000) and the remaining half under 200 hours of thermal cycling (TC 200). When the surface continuity was disrupted by maintaining a 2 cm gap from the frame to the edge of the conductive layer, as demonstrated in this study, the degradation was found to be absent or negligibly small even after 35 hours of negative bias at elevated temperatures. This preliminary study appears to indicate that the modules could become immune to PID losses if the continuity of the glass surface conductivity is disrupted at the inside boundary of the frame. The surface conductivity of the glass, due to water layer formation in a humid condition, close to the frame could be disrupted just by applying a water repelling (hydrophobic) but high transmittance surface coating (such as Teflon) or modifying the frame/glass edges with water repellent properties.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012