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Ionic Wind Propulsion

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This paper describes the research done to attempt to scale up thrusts produced by ionic wind thrusters, or "lifters" to magnitudes needed to power a 2 kg hobbyist remote-control airplane. It includes background information on the Biefeld-Brown effect and the

This paper describes the research done to attempt to scale up thrusts produced by ionic wind thrusters, or "lifters" to magnitudes needed to power a 2 kg hobbyist remote-control airplane. It includes background information on the Biefeld-Brown effect and the thrust it produces, an experiment that attempted to prove that thrust can be scaled up from smaller ionic wind thrusters to larger scales, and two models predicting thruster geometries and power sources needed to reach these thrusts. An ionic wind thruster could not be created that would power the hobbyist remote as a high-voltage power source with voltage and power high enough could not be obtained. Thrusters were created for the experiment using balsa wood, aluminum foil, and thin copper wire, and were powered using a 30 kV transformer. The thrusters attempted to test for correlations between thrust, electrode length, and current; electric field strength, and thrust; and thrust optimization through opening up air flow through the collector electrode. The experiment was inconclusive as all the thrusters failed to produce measurable thrust. Further experimentation suggests the chief failure mode is likely conduction from the collector electrode to the nearby large conductive surface of the scale.

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Date Created
2017-12

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Design of a Gravity-Fed Hydrodynamic Testing Tunnel

Description

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of a water tunnel designed to meet certain constraints. The project goals are to tailor a design for a given location, and to produce a repeatable design sizing and shape

The purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of a water tunnel designed to meet certain constraints. The project goals are to tailor a design for a given location, and to produce a repeatable design sizing and shape process for specified constraints. The primary design goals include a 1 m/s flow velocity in a 30cm x 30cm test section for 300 seconds. Secondary parameters, such as system height, tank height, area contraction ratio, and roof loading limits, may change depending on preference, location, or environment. The final chosen configuration is a gravity fed design with six major components: the reservoir tank, the initial duct, the contraction nozzle, the test section, the exit duct, and the variable control exit nozzle. Important sizing results include a minimum water weight of 60,000 pounds, a system height of 7.65 meters, a system length of 6 meters (not including the reservoir tank), a large shallow reservoir tank width of 12.2 meters, and height of 0.22 meters, and a control nozzle exit radius range of 5.25 cm to 5.3 cm. Computational fluid dynamic simulation further supports adherence to the design constraints but points out some potential areas for improvement in dealing with flow irregularities. These areas include the bends in the ducts, and the contraction nozzle. Despite those areas recommended for improvement, it is reasonable to conclude that the design and process fulfill the project goals.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom for Mechanics of Materials

Description

The flipped classroom is a teaching method that flips the activities done in and out of class, i.e., concepts are learned out of class and problems are worked in class under the supervision of the instructor. Studies have indicated several

The flipped classroom is a teaching method that flips the activities done in and out of class, i.e., concepts are learned out of class and problems are worked in class under the supervision of the instructor. Studies have indicated several benefits of the FC, including improved performance and engagement. In the past years, further studies have investigated the benefits of FC in statics, dynamics, and mechanics of materials courses and indicate similar performance benefits. However, these studies address a need for additional studies to validate their results due to the short length of their research or small classroom size. In addition, many of these studies do not measure student attitudes, such as self-efficacy, or the difference in time spent out of class on coursework. The objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom system (FC) in comparison to the traditional classroom system (TC) in a large mechanics of materials course. Specifically, it aims to measure student performance, student self-efficacy, student attitudes on lecture quality, motivation, attendance, hours spent out of class, practice, and support, and difference in impact between high, middle, and low achieving students. In order to accomplish this, three undergraduate mechanics of materials courses were analyzed during the spring 2015 semester. One FC section served as the experimental group (92 students), while the two TC sections served as the control group (125 students). To analyze student self-efficacy and attitudes, a survey instrument was designed to measure 18 variables and was administered at the end of the semester. Standardized core outcomes were compared between groups to analyze performance. This paper presents the specific course framework used in this FC, detailed results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis, and discussion of strengths and weaknesses. Overall, an overwhelming majority of students were satisfied with FC and would like more of their classes taught using FC. Strengths of this teaching method include greater confidence, better focus, higher satisfaction with practice in class and assistance received from instructors and peers, more freedom to express ideas and questions in class, and less time required outside of class for coursework. Results also suggest that this method has a greater positive impact on high and low achieving students and leads to higher performance. The criticisms made by students focused on lecture videos to have more worked examples. Overall, results suggest that FC is more effective than TC in a large mechanics of materials course.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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Effective Student Understanding: Using Video Interventions to Increase Engineering Student Concept Comprehension

Description

The focus of education in the classroom traditionally is one of fact memorization and recall. The teaching process of linear knowledge progression is not always in tune with the way that the human brain actually processes, conceptualizes, and comprehends concepts

The focus of education in the classroom traditionally is one of fact memorization and recall. The teaching process of linear knowledge progression is not always in tune with the way that the human brain actually processes, conceptualizes, and comprehends concepts and information. In an introductory engineering class, focused on materials engineering and its related concepts, a system of lecture interventions has been put in place to increase concept comprehension by supplementing lecture units with various activities, from additional worksheets, explicit concept discussions, and most recently, YouTube videos showcasing specific concepts and situations. In an attempt to correct the lack of actual concept comprehension, these interventions seek to interact with the human mind in a way that capitalizes on its ability to process and interpret non-linear knowledge and information.

Using a concept test given prior to the lecture unit, and after, the difference in scores is used to recognize if the concepts presented have actually been comprehended. Used specifically in a lecture unit on solubility and solutions, the concept test tested student’s knowledge of supersaturated, saturated, and unsaturated solutions. With a visual identification and a written explanation, the student’s ability to identify and explain the three solutions was tested.

In order to determine the cause of the change in score from pre- to post-test, an analysis of the change in scores and the effects of question type and solution type was conducted. The significant results are as follows:
 The change in score from pre- to post-test was found to be significant, with the only difference between the two tests being the lecture unit and intervention
 From pre- to post-test, solution type had a significant effect on the score, with the unsaturated solution being the most easily recognized and explained solution type
 Students that felt that the YouTube videos greatly increased their concept comprehension, on average, performed better than their counterparts and also saw a greater increase their score from pre- to post-test

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Date Created
2014-05

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Method to Systematically Optimize the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering Race Car

Description

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new and improved design method for the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) team. There are five tasks that I accomplish in this paper: 1. I describe how the FSAE team

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new and improved design method for the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) team. There are five tasks that I accomplish in this paper: 1. I describe how the FSAE team is currently designing their car. This allows the reader to understand where the flaws might arise in their design method. 2. I then describe the key aspects of systems engineering design. This is the backbone of the method I am proposing, and it is important to understand the key concepts so that they can be applied to the FSAE design method. 3. I discuss what is available in the literature about race car design and optimization. I describe what other FSAE teams are doing and how that differs from systems engineering design. 4. I describe what the FSAE team at Arizona State University (ASU) should do to improve their approach to race car design. I go into detail about how the systems engineering method works and how it can and should be applied to the way they design their car. 5. I then describe how the team should implement this method because the method is useless if they do not implement it into their design process. I include an interview from their brakes team leader, Colin Twist, to give an example of their current method of design and show how it can be improved with the new method. This paper provides a framework for the FSAE team to develop their new method of design that will help them accomplish their overall goal of succeeding at the national competition.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Interactive-constructive-active-passive: the relative effectiveness of differentiated activities on students' learning

Description

From the instructional perspective, the scope of "active learning" in the literature is very broad and includes all sorts of classroom activities that engage students with the learning experience. However, classifying all classroom activities as a mode of "active learning"

From the instructional perspective, the scope of "active learning" in the literature is very broad and includes all sorts of classroom activities that engage students with the learning experience. However, classifying all classroom activities as a mode of "active learning" simply ignores the unique cognitive processes associated with the type of activity. The lack of an extensive framework and taxonomy regarding the relative effectiveness of these "active" activities makes it difficult to compare and contrast the value of conditions in different studies in terms of student learning. Recently, Chi (2009) proposed a framework of differentiated overt learning activities (DOLA) as active, constructive, and interactive based on their underlying cognitive principles and their effectiveness on students' learning outcomes. The motivating question behind this framework is whether some types of engagement affect learning outcomes more than the others. This work evaluated the effectiveness and applicability of the DOLA framework to learning activities for STEM classes. After classification of overt learning activities as being active, constructive or interactive, I then tested the ICAP hypothesis, which states that student learning is more effective in interactive activities than constructive activities, which are more effective than active activities, which are more effective than passive activities. I conducted two studies (Study 1 and Study 2) to determine how and to what degree differentiated activities affected students' learning outcomes. For both studies, I measured students' knowledge of materials science and engineering concepts. Results for Study 1 showed that students scored higher on all post-class quiz questions after participating in interactive and constructive activities than after the active activities. However, student scores on more difficult, inference questions suggested that interactive activities provided significantly deeper learning than either constructive or active activities. Results for Study 2 showed that students' learning, in terms of gain scores, increased systematically from passive to active to constructive to interactive, as predicted by ICAP. All the increases, from condition to condition, were significant. Verbal analysis of the students' dialogue in interactive condition indicated a strong correlation between the co-construction of knowledge and learning gains. When the statements and responses of each student build upon those of the other, both students benefit from the collaboration. Also, the linear combination of discourse moves was significantly related to the adjusted gain scores with a very high correlation coefficient. Specifically, the elaborate type discourse moves were positively correlated with learning outcomes; whereas the accept type moves were negatively correlated with learning outcomes. Analyses of authentic activities in a STEM classroom showed that they fit within the taxonomy of the DOLA framework. The results of the two studies provided evidence to support the predictions of the ICAP hypothesis.

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Agent

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Date Created
2012

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Analyzing the Achievement and Attitude of Students Using Concept Mapping in an Active Learning Classroom

Description

Concept mapping is a tool used in order to visually represent a person's understanding of interrelated concepts. Generally the central concept is in the center or at the top and the related concepts branch off, becoming more detailed as it

Concept mapping is a tool used in order to visually represent a person's understanding of interrelated concepts. Generally the central concept is in the center or at the top and the related concepts branch off, becoming more detailed as it continues. Additionally, links between different branches show how those concepts are related to each other. Concept mapping can be implemented in many different types of classrooms because it can be easily adjusted for the needs of the teacher and class specifically. The goal of this project is to analyze both the attitude and achievement of students using concept mapping of college students in an active learning classroom. In order to evaluate the students' concept maps we will use the expert map scoring method, which compares the students concept maps to an expertly created concept map for similarities; the more similar the two maps are, the higher the score. We will collect and record students' scores on concept maps as they continue through the one semester class. Certain chapters correspond to specific exams due to the information contained in the lectures, chapters 1-4 correspond to exam 1 and so forth. We will use this information to correlate the average concept map score across these chapters to one exam score. There was no significant correlation found between the exam grades and the corresponding scores on the concept maps (Pearson's R values of 0.27, 0.26, and -0.082 for Exam 1, 2 and 3 respectively). According to Holm et all "it was found that 85% of students found interest or attainment in the concept mapping session, only 44% thought there was a cost, and 63% thought it would help them to be successful."

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-12

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Effects of Wildlife Deterrent Devices Affixed to Wind Turbines on Power Output

Description

Energy production is driven by economic needs, which sometimes results in the environment and wildlife being an afterthought. Unfortunately, many animals are killed as a result of flying too close to wind turbines, and the addition of animal deterrent devices

Energy production is driven by economic needs, which sometimes results in the environment and wildlife being an afterthought. Unfortunately, many animals are killed as a result of flying too close to wind turbines, and the addition of animal deterrent devices are a promising alternative. This thesis seeks to provide a solution as a part of post- construction considerations regarding wildlife and wind turbine interactions through the introduction of a blade mounted ecological device. After testing the hypothesis, the data revealed the device is effective for increasing power output when placed at the root, middle, and tip of the blade. The middle position yielded the lowest increase at all speeds tested. The device was designed and attached to blades along the estimated line of separation. The blades were then mounted on a tower and tested with wind speed as an input and power as an output. The data was analyzed by fixing speed as a parameter and then looking at the distribution of the power output data. A comparison of blades with and without the device demonstrates a potential for increasing power output by 144% when the device is attached at the blade’s root, 7.5% in the middle, and 21% near the tip. The analysis for this study was descoped due to the constraints of the system to be scaled up. As such, this analysis will hold for turbines with a blade length of no more than approximately eight feet. Blades of this type would be used in single building energy grid supplement turbines or turbines in areas with power requirements of equal or less than 1kW per turbine installed. Single building energy grid supplement turbines are most often mounted to the tops of buildings and take advantage of higher speeds of wind at those heights. As the ecological devices are designed to be similar to vortex generators, which have been tested on large blades, their addition to large blades could prove to have a similar effect.

Keywords: Wind turbine ecosystem, post-construction turbine considerations, wildlife deterrents

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Date Created
2018