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Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) of 7075 Aluminum Alloy to Induce a Protective Corrosion Resistant Layer

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This paper investigates Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and the influence of treatment temperature and initial sample surface finish on the corrosion resistance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Ambient SMAT was performed on AA7075 samples polished to 80-grit initial surface roughness.

This paper investigates Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and the influence of treatment temperature and initial sample surface finish on the corrosion resistance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Ambient SMAT was performed on AA7075 samples polished to 80-grit initial surface roughness. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were used to characterize the corrosion behavior of samples before and after SMAT. Electrochemical tests indicated an improved corrosion resistance after application of SMAT process. The observed improvements in corrosion properties are potentially due to microstructural changes in the material surface induced by SMAT which encouraged the formation of a passive oxide layer. Further testing and research are required to understand the corrosion related effects of cryogenic SMAT and initial-surface finish as the COVID-19 pandemic inhibited experimentation plans.

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2020-05

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Design of Pneumatically Actuated Torsional Loading for High Strain Rate Testing

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In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain

In real world applications, materials undergo a simultaneous combination of tension, compression, and torsion as a result of high velocity impact. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is an effective tool for analyzing stress-strain response of materials at high strain rates but currently little can be done to produce a synchronized combination of these varying impacts. This research focuses on fabricating a flange which will be mounted on the incident bar of a SHPB and struck perpendicularly by a pneumatically driven striker thus allowing for torsion without interfering with the simultaneous compression or tension. Analytical calculations are done to determine size specifications of the flange to protect against yielding or failure. Based on these results and other design considerations, the flange and a complementary incident bar are created. Timing can then be established such that the waves impact the specimen at the same time causing simultaneous loading of a specimen. This thesis allows research at Arizona State University to individually incorporate all uniaxial deformation modes (tension, compression, and torsion) at high strain rates as well as combining either of the first two modes with torsion. Introduction of torsion will expand the testing capabilities of the SHPB at ASU and allow for more in depth analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials under impact loading. Combining torsion with tension or compression will promote analysis of a material's adherence to the Von Mises failure criterion. This greater understanding of material behavior can be implemented into models and simulations thereby improving the accuracy with which engineers can design new structures.

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2016-05

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Understanding plasticity and fracture in aluminum alloys and their composites by 3D X-ray synchrotron tomography and microdiffraction

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Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in these materials is critical in assessing their fatigue resistance. Two distinct experimental studies were performed to further the understanding of fatigue damage mechanisms in aluminum alloys and their composites, specifically fracture and plasticity. Fatigue resistance of metal matrix composites (MMCs) depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work was to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R=0.1) and at high (R=0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution. During fatigue crack growth in ductile materials, a plastic zone is created in the region surrounding the crack tip. Knowledge of the plastic zone is important for the understanding of fatigue crack formation as well as subsequent growth behavior. The goal of this work was to quantify the 3D size and shape of the plastic zone in 7075 Al alloys. X-ray synchrotron tomography and Laue microdiffraction were used to non-destructively characterize the volume surrounding a fatigue crack tip. The precise 3D crack profile was segmented from the reconstructed tomography data. Depth-resolved Laue patterns were obtained using differential-aperture X-ray structural microscopy (DAXM), from which peak-broadening characteristics were quantified. Plasticity, as determined by the broadening of diffracted peaks, was mapped in 3D. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of plasticity were directly compared to the corresponding tomography slices. A 3D representation of the plastic zone surrounding the fatigue crack was generated by superimposing the mapped plasticity on the 3D crack profile.

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2014

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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

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Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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Date Created
2015

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Effects of dynamic material strength on hydrodynamic instability and damage evolution in shock loaded copper

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Characterization and modeling of deformation and failure in metallic materials under extreme conditions, such as the high loads and strain rates found under shock loading due to explosive detonation and high velocity-impacts, are extremely important for a wide variety of

Characterization and modeling of deformation and failure in metallic materials under extreme conditions, such as the high loads and strain rates found under shock loading due to explosive detonation and high velocity-impacts, are extremely important for a wide variety of military and industrial applications. When a shock wave causes stress in a material that exceeds the elastic limit, plasticity and eventually spallation occur in the material. The process of spall fracture, which in ductile materials stems from strain localization, void nucleation, growth and coalescence, can be caused by microstructural heterogeneity. The analysis of void nucleation performed from a microstructurally explicit simulation of a spall damage evolution in a multicrystalline copper indicated triple junctions as the preferred sites for incipient damage nucleation revealing 75% of them with at least two grain boundaries with misorientation angle between 20-55°. The analysis suggested the nature of the boundaries connecting at a triple junction is an indicator of their tendency to localize spall damage. The results also showed that damage propagated preferentially into one of the high angle boundaries after voids nucleate at triple junctions. Recently the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) have been used to deduce dynamic material strength at very high pressures and strain rates. The RMI is used in this work since it allows using precise diagnostics such as Transient Imaging Displacement Interferometry (TIDI) due to its slower linear growth rate. The Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) model is used to study the effects of dynamic strength on the behavior of samples with a fed-thru RMI, induced via direct laser drive on a perturbed surface, on stability of the shock front and the dynamic evolution of the amplitudes and velocities of the perturbation imprinted on the back (flat) surface by the perturbed shock front. Simulation results clearly showed that the amplitude of the hydrodynamic instability increases with a decrease in strength and vice versa and that the amplitude of the perturbed shock front produced by the fed-thru RMI is also affected by strength in the same way, which provides an alternative to amplitude measurements to study strength effects under dynamic conditions. Simulation results also indicate the presence of second harmonics in the surface perturbation after a certain time, which were also affected by the material strength.

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Date Created
2016

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Effect of foreign object damage on fatigue of inconel 718 at elevated temperature (1050 °C)

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The use of solar energy to produce power has increased substantially in the past few decades. In an attempt to provide uninterrupted solar power, production plants may find themselves having to operate the systems at temperatures higher than the operational

The use of solar energy to produce power has increased substantially in the past few decades. In an attempt to provide uninterrupted solar power, production plants may find themselves having to operate the systems at temperatures higher than the operational capacity of the materials used in many of their components, which affects the microstructural and mechanical properties of those materials. Failures in components that have been exposed to these excessive temperatures have been observed during operations in the turbine used by AORA Solar Ltd. A particular component of interest was made of a material similar to the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718), which was observed to have damage that is believed to have been initiated by Foreign Object Damage (FOD) and worsened by the high temperatures in the turbine. The potential links among the observed failure, FOD and the high temperatures of operation are investigated in this study.

IN718 is a precipitation hardened nickel superalloy with resistance to oxidation and ability to withstand high stresses over a wide range of temperatures. Several studies have been conducted to understand IN 718 tensile and fatigue properties at elevated temperatures (600- 950°C). However, this study focuses on understanding the behavior of IN718 with FOD induced by a stream of 50 μm Alumina particles at a velocity of 200 m/s. under high cycle fatigue at an elevated temperature of 1050 °C. Tensile tests were conducted for both as-received and heat treated (1050 °C in air for 8hrs) samples at room and high temperature. Fatigue tests were performed at heat treated samples at 1050 °C for samples with and without ablation. The test conditions were as similar as possible to the conditions in the AORA turbine. The results of the study provide an insight into tensile properties, fatigue properties and FOD. The results indicated a reduction in fatigue life for the samples with ablation damage, where crack nucleation occurred either at the edge or inside the ablation region and multisite cracking was observed under far field stresses that were the same than for pristine samples, which showed single cracks. Fracture surfaces indicate intergranular fracture, with the presence of secondary cracks and a lack of typical fatigue features, e.g., beach marks which was attributed to environmental effects and creep.

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Date Created
2017

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Predicting structure-property relationships in polymers through the development of thermodynamically consistent coarse-grained molecular models

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Improved knowledge connecting the chemistry, structure, and properties of polymers is necessary to develop advanced materials in a materials-by-design approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide tremendous insight into how the fine details of chemistry, molecular architecture, and microstructure affect

Improved knowledge connecting the chemistry, structure, and properties of polymers is necessary to develop advanced materials in a materials-by-design approach. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide tremendous insight into how the fine details of chemistry, molecular architecture, and microstructure affect many physical properties; however, they face well-known restrictions in their applicable temporal and spatial scales. These limitations have motivated the development of computationally-efficient, coarse-grained methods to investigate how microstructural details affect thermophysical properties. In this dissertation, I summarize my research work in structure-based coarse-graining methods to establish the link between molecular-scale structure and macroscopic properties of two different polymers. Systematically coarse-grained models were developed to study the viscoelastic stress response of polyurea, a copolymer that segregates into rigid and viscous phases, at time scales characteristic of blast and impact loading. With the application of appropriate scaling parameters, the coarse-grained models can predict viscoelastic properties with a speed up of 5-6 orders of magnitude relative to the atomistic MD models. Coarse-grained models of polyethylene were also created to investigate the thermomechanical material response under shock loading. As structure-based coarse-grained methods are generally not transferable to states different from which they were calibrated at, their applicability for modeling non-equilibrium processes such as shock and impact is highly limited. To address this problem, a new model is developed that incorporates many-body interactions and is calibrated across a range of different thermodynamic states using a least square minimization scheme. The new model is validated by comparing shock Hugoniot properties with atomistic and experimental data for polyethylene. Lastly, a high fidelity coarse-grained model of polyethylene was constructed that reproduces the joint-probability distributions of structural variables such as the distributions of bond lengths and bond angles between sequential coarse-grained sites along polymer chains. This new model accurately represents the structure of both the amorphous and crystal phases of polyethylene and enabling investigation of how polymer processing such as cold-drawing and bulk crystallization affect material structure at significantly larger time and length scales than traditional molecular simulations.

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Date Created
2016

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Effects of foreign object damage on fatigue behavior of two metallic materials used in a concentrating solar power plant

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Structural stability and performance of structural materials is important for energy production, whether renewable or non renewable, to have uninterrupted energy supply, that is economically feasible and safe. High temperature metallic materials used in the turbines of AORA, an Israel-based

Structural stability and performance of structural materials is important for energy production, whether renewable or non renewable, to have uninterrupted energy supply, that is economically feasible and safe. High temperature metallic materials used in the turbines of AORA, an Israel-based clean energy producer, often experience high temperature, high stress and foreign object damage (FOD). In this study, efforts were made to study the effects of FOD on the fatigue life of these materials and to understand their failure mechanisms. The foreign objects/debris recovered by AORA were characterized using Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) to identify composition and phases. To perform foreign object damage experiment a gas gun was built and results of XRD and EDS were used to select particles to mimic FOD in lab experiments for two materials of interest to AORA: Hastelloy X and SS 347. Electron Backscattering Diffraction, hardness and tensile tests were also performed to characterize microstructure and mechanical properties. Fatigue tests using at high temperature were performed on dog bone samples with and without FOD and the fracture surfaces and well as the regions affected by FOD were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to understand the failure mechanism. The findings of these study indicate that FOD is causing multiple secondary cracks at and around the impact sites, which can potentially grow to coalesce and remove pieces of material, and the multisite damage could also lead to lower fatigue lives, despite the fact that the FOD site was not always the most favorable for initiation of the fatal fatigue crack. It was also seen by the effect of FOD on fatigue life that SS 347 is more susceptible to FOD than Hastelloy X.

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Date Created
2016