Ball Grid Array (BGA) using lead-free or lead-rich solder materials are widely used as Second Level Interconnects (SLI) in mounting packaged components to the printed circuit board (PCB). The reliability of these solder joints is of significant importance to the performance of microelectronics components and systems. Product design/form-factor, solder material, manufacturing process, use condition, as well as, the inherent variabilities present in the system, greatly influence product reliability. Accurate reliability analysis requires an integrated approach to concurrently account for all these factors and their synergistic effects. Such an integrated and robust methodology can be used in design and development of new and advanced microelectronics systems and can provide significant improvement in cycle-time, cost, and reliability. IMPRPK approach is based on a probabilistic methodology, focusing on three major tasks of (1) Characterization of BGA solder joints to identify failure mechanisms and obtain statistical data, (2) Finite Element analysis (FEM) to predict system response needed for life prediction, and (3) development of a probabilistic methodology to predict the reliability, as well as, the sensitivity of the system to various parameters and the variabilities. These tasks and the predictive capabilities of IMPRPK in microelectronic reliability analysis are discussed.
Soft magnetic alloys play a significant role for magnetic recording applications and highly sensitivity magnetic field sensors. In order to sustain the magnetic areal density growth, development of new synthesis techniques and materials is necessary. In this work, the effect of oxygen incorporation during electrodeposition of CoFe alloys on magnetic properties, magnetoresistance and structural properties has been studied. Understanding the magnetic properties often required knowledge of oxygen distribution and structural properties of the grown films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was a powerful tool in this study to correlate the oxygen-distribution nanostructure to the magnetic properties of deposited films. Off-axis electron holography in TEM was used to measure magnetic domain wall width in the deposited films. Elemental depth profiles of Fe, Co, O were investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Magnetic properties have been determined by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. Oxygen content in the CoFe deposited films was controlled by electrolyte composition. Films were deposited on Si 100 substrates and on other substrates such as Cu and Al. However, a good film quality was achieved on Si substrate. Electron energy loss and x-ray spectroscopies showed that the low oxygen films contained intragranular Fe2+ oxide (FeO) particles and that the high oxygen films contained intergranular Fe3+ (Fe2O3) along grain boundaries. The films with oxide present at the grain boundary had significantly increased coercivity, magnetoresistance and reduced saturation magnetization relative to the lower oxygen content films with intragranular oxide. The differences in magnetic properties between low oxygen and high oxygen concentration films were attributed to stronger mobile domain wall interactions with the grain boundary oxide layers. The very high magnetoresistance values were achieved for magnetic devices with nanocontact dimension < 100 nm and oxide incorporation in this nanoconfined geometry. The content of oxide phase in nanocontact was controlled by concentration of the Fe3+ ions in the electrodeposition solution. Magnetic device integrity was improved by varying amount of additive into plating solution. These results indicated that electrodeposited CoFe nanocontact is a novel class of materials with large application for magnetic field sensors.
For decades, microelectronics manufacturing has been concerned with failures related to electromigration phenomena in conductors experiencing high current densities. The influence of interconnect microstructure on device failures related to electromigration in BGA and flip chip solder interconnects has become a significant interest with reduced individual solder interconnect volumes. A survey indicates that x-ray computed micro-tomography (µXCT) is an emerging, novel means for characterizing the microstructures' role in governing electromigration failures. This work details the design and construction of a lab-scale µXCT system to characterize electromigration in the Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder system by leveraging in situ imaging.
In order to enhance the attenuation contrast observed in multi-phase material systems, a modeling approach has been developed to predict settings for the controllable imaging parameters which yield relatively high detection rates over the range of x-ray energies for which maximum attenuation contrast is expected in the polychromatic x-ray imaging system. In order to develop this predictive tool, a model has been constructed for the Bremsstrahlung spectrum of an x-ray tube, and calculations for the detector's efficiency over the relevant range of x-ray energies have been made, and the product of emitted and detected spectra has been used to calculate the effective x-ray imaging spectrum. An approach has also been established for filtering `zinger' noise in x-ray radiographs, which has proven problematic at high x-ray energies used for solder imaging. The performance of this filter has been compared with a known existing method and the results indicate a significant increase in the accuracy of zinger filtered radiographs.
The obtained results indicate the conception of a powerful means for the study of failure causing processes in solder systems used as interconnects in microelectronic packaging devices. These results include the volumetric quantification of parameters which are indicative of both electromigration tolerance of solders and the dominant mechanisms for atomic migration in response to current stressing. This work is aimed to further the community's understanding of failure-causing electromigration processes in industrially relevant material systems for microelectronic interconnect applications and to advance the capability of available characterization techniques for their interrogation.
In this thesis, a novel silica nanosphere (SNS) lithography technique has been developed to offer a fast, cost-effective, and large area applicable nano-lithography approach. The SNS can be easily deposited with a simple spin-coating process after introducing a N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) solvent which can produce a highly close packed SNS monolayer over large silicon (Si) surface area, since DMF offers greatly improved wetting, capillary and convective forces in addition to slow solvent evaporation rate. Since the period and dimension of the surface pattern can be conveniently changed and controlled by introducing a desired size of SNS, and additional SNS size reduction with dry etching process, using SNS for lithography provides a highly effective nano-lithography approach for periodically arrayed nano-/micro-scale surface patterns with a desired dimension and period. Various Si nanostructures (i.e., nanopillar, nanotip, inverted pyramid, nanohole) are successfully fabricated with the SNS nano-lithography technique by using different etching technique like anisotropic alkaline solution (i.e., KOH) etching, reactive-ion etching (RIE), and metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE).
In this research, computational optical modeling is also introduced to design the Si nanostructure, specifically nanopillars (NPs) with a desired period and dimension. The optical properties of Si NP are calculated with two different optical modeling techniques, which are the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods. By using these two different optical modeling techniques, the optical properties of Si NPs with different periods and dimensions have been investigated to design ideal Si NP which can be potentially used for thin c-Si solar cell applications. From the results of the computational and experimental work, it was observed that low aspect ratio Si NPs fabricated in a periodic hexagonal array can provide highly enhanced light absorption for the target spectral range (600 ~ 1100nm), which is attributed to (1) the effective confinement of resonant scattering within the Si NP and (2) increased high order diffraction of transmitted light providing an extended absorption length. From the research, therefore, it is successfully demonstrated that the nano-fabrication process with SNS lithography can offer enhanced lithographical accuracy to fabricate desired Si nanostructures which can realize enhanced light absorption for thin Si solar cell.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases.
In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated.
Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a microcavity organic light emitting diode (MOLED), significant enhancement in the external quantum efficiency was achieved. The optimized MOLED structure achieved a light out-coupling enhancement of 1.35 compared to the non-cavity structure with a peak EQE of 34.2%. In addition to demonstrating a high light out-coupling enhancement, the microcavity effect of a narrow band emitter in a MOLED was elucidated.
Total dose sensing systems (or radiation detection systems) have many applications,
ranging from survey monitors used to supervise the generated radioactive waste at
nuclear power plants to personal dosimeters which measure the radiation dose
accumulated in individuals. This dissertation work will present two different types of
novel devices developed at Arizona State University for total dose sensing applications.
The first detector technology is a mechanically flexible metal-chalcogenide glass (ChG)
based system which is fabricated on low cost substrates and are intended as disposable
total dose sensors. Compared to existing commercial technologies, these thin film
radiation sensors are simpler in form and function, and cheaper to produce and operate.
The sensors measure dose through resistance change and are suitable for applications
such as reactor dosimetry, radiation chemistry, and clinical dosimetry. They are ideal for
wearable devices due to the lightweight construction, inherent robustness to resist
breaking when mechanically stressed, and ability to attach to non-flat objects. Moreover,
their performance can be easily controlled by tuning design variables and changing
incorporated materials. The second detector technology is a wireless dosimeter intended
for remote total dose sensing. They are based on a capacitively loaded folded patch
antenna resonating in the range of 3 GHz to 8 GHz for which the load capacitance varies
as a function of total dose. The dosimeter does not need power to operate thus enabling
its use and implementation in the field without requiring a battery for its read-out. As a
result, the dosimeter is suitable for applications such as unattended detection systems
destined for covert monitoring of merchandise crossing borders, where nuclear material
tracking is a concern. The sensitive element can be any device exhibiting a known
variation of capacitance with total ionizing dose. The sensitivity of the dosimeter is
related to the capacitance variation of the radiation sensitive device as well as the high
frequency system used for reading. Both technologies come with the advantage that they
are easy to manufacture with reasonably low cost and sensing can be readily read-out.
Organic materials have emerged as an attractive component of electronics over the past few decades, particularly in the development of efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic neuromorphic devices. The electrical, chemical, physical, and optical studies of organic materials and their corresponding devices have been conducted for efficient and stable electronics. The development of efficient and stable deep blue OLED devices remains a challenge that has obstructed the progress of large-scale OLED commercialization. One approach was taken to achieve a deep blue emitter through a color tuning strategy. A new complex, PtNONS56-dtb, was designed and synthesized by controlling the energy gap between T1 and T2 energy states to achieve narrowed and blueshifted emission spectra. This emitter material showed an emission spectrum at 460 nm with a FWHM of 59 nm at room temperature in PMMA, and the PtNONS56-dtb-based device exhibited a peak EQE of 8.5% with CIE coordinates of (0.14, 0.27).
A newly developed host and electron blocking materials were demonstrated to achieve efficient and stable OLED devices. The indolocarbazole-based materials were designed to have good hole mobility and high triplet energy. BCN34 as an electron blocking material achieved the estimated LT80 of 12509 h at 1000 cd m-2 with a peak EQE of 30.3% in devices employing Pd3O3 emitter. Additionally, a device with bi-layer emissive layer structure, using BCN34 and CBP as host materials doped with PtN3N emitter, achieved a peak EQE of 16.5% with the LT97 of 351 h at 1000 cd m-2. A new neuromorphic device using Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2 as an active layer was designed to emulate the short-term characteristics of a biological synapse. This memristive device showed a similar operational mechanism with biological synapse through the movement of ions and electronic charges. Furthermore, the performance of the device showed tunability by adding salt. Ultimately, the device with 2% LiClO4 salt shows similar timescales to short-term plasticity characteristics of biological synapses.
In this project, current-voltage (I-V) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to (a) characterize the electrical properties of Nb/p-type Si Schottky barriers, (b) identify the concentration and physical character of the electrically active defects present in the depletion region, and (c) use thermal processing to reduce the concentration or eliminate the defects. Barrier height determinations using temperature-dependent I-V measurements indicate that the barrier height decreases from 0.50 eV to 0.48 eV for anneals above 200 C. The electrically-active defect concentration measured using DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) drops markedly after anneals at 250 C.
A significant increase in leakage currents is almost always observed in near-ideal devices upon annealing. In contrast, non-ideal devices dominated by leakage currents annealed at 150 C to 250 C exhibit a significant decrease in such currents.