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Enhancing the Profile of Chemical Engineers as Relevant to Society amongst Middle School and High School Students

Description

The objective of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of a poster-based messaging campaign and engineering-based activities for middle school and high school students to encourage students to explore and to pursue chemical engineering. Additionally, presentations are incorporated

The objective of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of a poster-based messaging campaign and engineering-based activities for middle school and high school students to encourage students to explore and to pursue chemical engineering. Additionally, presentations are incorporated into both methods to provide context and improve understanding of the presented poster material or activity. Pre-assessments and post-assessments are the quantitative method of measuring effectiveness. For the poster campaign, ASU juniors and seniors participated in the poster campaign by producing socially relevant messages about their research or aspirations to address relevant chemical engineering problems. For the engineering-based activity, high school students participated in an Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering program "Young Engineers Shape the World" in which the students participated in six-hour event learning about four engineering disciplines, and the chemical engineering presentation and activity was conducted in one of the sessions. Pre-assessments were given at the beginning of the event, and the post-assessments were provided towards the end of the event. This honors thesis project will analyze the collected data.

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2017-05

Fabrication of Alignment and Chemical Gradient Scaffold for Tendon-Bone Repair using Electrospinning

Description

Heterogeneous musculoskeletal tissues, such as the tendon-bone junction, is crucial for transferring mechanical loading during human physical activity. This region, also known as the enthesis, is composed of a complex extracellular matrix with gradient fiber orientations and chemistries. These different

Heterogeneous musculoskeletal tissues, such as the tendon-bone junction, is crucial for transferring mechanical loading during human physical activity. This region, also known as the enthesis, is composed of a complex extracellular matrix with gradient fiber orientations and chemistries. These different physical and chemical properties are crucial in providing the support that these junctions need in handling mechanical loading of everyday activities. Currently, surgical restorative procedures for a torn enthesis entail a very invasive technique of suturing the torn tendon onto the bone. This results in improper reinjury. To circumvent this issue, one common strategy within tissue engineering is to introduce a biomaterial scaffold which acts as a template for the local damaged tissue. Electrospinning can be utilized to fabricate a fibrous material to recapitulate the structure of the extracellular matrix. Currently electrospinning techniques only allow the creation of scaffold that consists of only one orientation and material. In this work, we investigated a multicomponent, magnetically assisted, electrospinning technique to fabricate a fiber alignment and chemical gradient scaffold for tendon-bone repair

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2018-05

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A Stability Study of the MOF-5 Membrane

Description

Within recent years, metal-organic frameworks, or MOF’s, have gained a lot of attention in the materials research community. These micro-porous materials are constructed of a metal oxide core and organic linkers, and have a wide-variety of applications due to their

Within recent years, metal-organic frameworks, or MOF’s, have gained a lot of attention in the materials research community. These micro-porous materials are constructed of a metal oxide core and organic linkers, and have a wide-variety of applications due to their extensive material characteristic possibilities. The focus of this study is the MOF-5 material, specifically its chemical stability in air. The MOF-5 material has a large pore size of 8 Å, and aperture sizes of 15 and 12 Å. The pore size, pore functionality, and physically stable structure makes MOF-5 a desirable material. MOF-5 holds applications in gas/liquid separation, catalysis, and gas storage. The main problem with the MOF-5 material, however, is its instability in atmospheric air. This inherent instability is due to the water in air binding to the zinc-oxide core, effectively changing the material and its structure. Because of this material weakness, the MOF-5 material is difficult to be utilized in industrial applications. Through the research efforts proposed by this study, the stability of the MOF-5 powder and membrane were studied. MOF-5 powder and a MOF-5 membrane were synthesized and characterized using XRD analysis. In an attempt to improve the stability of MOF-5 in air, methyl groups were added to the organic linker in order to hinder the interaction of water with the Zn4O core. This was done by replacing the terepthalic acid organic linker with 2,5-dimethyl terephthalic acid in the powder and membrane synthesis steps. The methyl-modified MOF-5 powder was found to be stable after several days of exposure to air while the MOF-5 powder exhibited significant crystalline change. The methyl-modified membrane was found to be unstable when synthesized using the same procedure as the MOF-5 membrane.

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2016-05

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Bi-phase Synthesis of the Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework, UiO-66

Description

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward specific applications. Zirconium MOFs in particular are known for their high stability under standard temperature and pressure due to the strength of the Zirconium-Oxygen coordination bond. However, the acid modulator needed to ensure long range order of the product also prevents complete linker deprotonation. This leads to a powder product that cannot easily be incorporated into continuous MOF membranes. This study therefore implemented a new bi-phase synthesis technique with a deprotonating agent to achieve intergrowth in UiO-66 membranes. Crystal intergrowth will allow for effective gas separations and future permeation testing. During experimentation, successful intergrown UiO-66 membranes were synthesized and characterized. The degree of intergrowth and crystal orientations varied with changing deprotonating agent concentration, modulator concentration, and ligand:modulator ratios. Further studies will focus on achieving the same results on porous substrates.

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2016-12

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In-vitro validation of a novel miniaturized hydrogel wafer check valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus

Description

Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is estimated that 1-2 of every 1000 babies in the United States is born with congenital hydrocephalus, with many individuals acquiring hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is estimated that 1-2 of every 1000 babies in the United States is born with congenital hydrocephalus, with many individuals acquiring hydrocephalus later in life through brain injury. Despite these alarming statistics, current shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus display operational failure rates as high as 40-50% within two years following implantation. Failure of current shunts is attributed to complexity of design, external implantation, and the requirement of multiple catheters. The presented hydrogel wafer check valve avoids all the debilitating features of current shunts, relying only on the swelling of hydrogel for operation, and is designed to directly replace failed arachnoid granulations- the brain’s natural cerebrospinal fluid drainage valves. The valve was validated via bench-top (1) hydrodynamic pressure-flow response characterizations, (2) transient response analysis, and (3) overtime performance response in brain-analogous conditions. In-vitro measurements display operation in range of natural CSF draining (cracking pressure, PT ~ 1–110 mmH2O and outflow hydraulic resistance, Rh ~ 24 – 152 mmH2O/mL/min), negligible reverse flow leakages (flow, QO > -10 µL/min), and demonstrate the valve’s operational reproducibility of this new valve as an implantable treatment.

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2016-05

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Incorporating Exosomes into an Electrospun Scaffold

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This thesis aims to incorporate exosomes into an electrospun scaffold for tissue engineering applications. The motivation for this work is to develop an implant to regenerate tissue for patients with laryngeal defects. It was determined that it is feasible to

This thesis aims to incorporate exosomes into an electrospun scaffold for tissue engineering applications. The motivation for this work is to develop an implant to regenerate tissue for patients with laryngeal defects. It was determined that it is feasible to incorporate exosomes into an electrospun scaffold. This addition of exosomes does alter the scaffold properties, by decreasing the average fiber diameter by roughly a factor of three and increasing the average modulus by roughly a factor of two. Cells were cultured on a scaffold with exosomes incorporated and were found to proliferate more than on a scaffold alone. This research lays the groundwork for further developing and optimizing an electrospun scaffold with exosomes incorporated to elicit a tissue regenerative response.

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2020-05

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Narcotics Consumption Trends at a Southwestern U.S. University Campus in 2017-2018 Tracked By Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

Description

Current methods measuring the consumption of prescription and illicit drugs are often hampered by innate limitations, the data is slow and often restricted, which can impact the relevance and robustness of the associated data. Here, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was applied

Current methods measuring the consumption of prescription and illicit drugs are often hampered by innate limitations, the data is slow and often restricted, which can impact the relevance and robustness of the associated data. Here, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was applied as an alternative metric to measure trends in the consumption of twelve narcotics within a collegiate setting from January 2018 to May 2018 at a Southwestern U.S. university. The present follow-up study was designed to identify potential changes in the consumption patterns of prescription and illicit drugs as the academic year progressed. Samples were collected from two sites that capture nearly 100% of campus-generated wastewater. Seven consecutive 24-hour composite raw wastewater samples were collected each month (n = 68) from both locations. The study identified the average consumption of select narcotics, in units of mg/day/1000 persons in the following order: cocaine (528 ± 266), heroin (404 ± 315), methylphenidate (343 ± 396), amphetamine (308 ±105), ecstasy (MDMA; 114 ± 198), oxycodone (57 ± 28), methadone (58 ± 73), and codeine (84 ± 40). The consumption of oxycodone, methadone, heroin, and cocaine were identified as statistically lower in the Spring 2018 semester compared to the Fall 2017. Universities may need to increase drug education for the fall semester to lower the consumption of drugs in that semester. Data from this research encompasses both human health and the built environment by evaluating public health through collection of municipal wastewater, allowing public health officials rapid and robust narcotic consumption data while maintaining the anonymity of the students, faculty, and staff.

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2020-05

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Improving the Engineering Retention Rate: A tool to match students to their ideal field of study

Description

Engineering is a multidisciplinary field with a variety of applications. However, since there are so many disciplines of engineering, it is often challenging to find the discipline that best suits an individual interested in engineering. Not knowing which area of

Engineering is a multidisciplinary field with a variety of applications. However, since there are so many disciplines of engineering, it is often challenging to find the discipline that best suits an individual interested in engineering. Not knowing which area of engineering most aligns to one’s interests is challenging when deciding on a major and a career. With the development of the Engineering Interest Quiz (EIQ), the goal was to help individuals find the field of engineering that is most similar to their interests. Initially, an Engineering Faculty Survey (EFS) was created to gather information from engineering faculty at Arizona State University (ASU) and to determine keywords that describe each field of engineering. With this list of keywords, the EIQ was developed. Data from the EIQ compared the engineering students’ top three results for the best engineering discipline for them with their current engineering major of study. The data analysis showed that 70% of the respondents had their major listed as one of the top three results they were given and 30% of the respondents did not have their major listed. Of that 70%, 64% had their current major listed as the highest or tied for the highest percentage and 36% had their major listed as the second or third highest percentage. Furthermore, the EIQ data was compared between genders. Only 33% of the male students had their current major listed as their highest percentage, but 55% had their major as one of their top three results. Women had higher percentages with 63% listing their current major as their highest percentage and 81% listing it in the top three of their final results.

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2020-05

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Expanding Science Experiments to Incorporate Engineering Curriculum for College Ready Students from Nontraditional Backgrounds

Description

Engineering has historically been dominated by White men. However, in modern history, engineering is becoming more diverse as the opportunity to pursue engineering has become accessible to people of all races and genders. Yet, college ready high school students from

Engineering has historically been dominated by White men. However, in modern history, engineering is becoming more diverse as the opportunity to pursue engineering has become accessible to people of all races and genders. Yet, college ready high school students from nontraditional backgrounds—women, ethnic minorities, first-generation-to-college students, and those with financial need—often lack exposure to engineering, thus reducing their likelihood to pursue a career in this field. To create engineering learning experiences that can be expanded to a traditional high school science classroom, the Young Engineers Shape the World program at Arizona State University was consulted. The Young Engineers Shape the World program encourages women, notably the most underrepresented group in the engineering field, as well as other students of diverse backgrounds, to pursue engineering. The goal of this effort was to create a 3-contact hour chemical engineering based learning experience to help students in grades 10-11 learn about an application of chemical engineering. Using knowledge of chemical engineering, a soil pH testing activity was created, simulating a typical high school chemistry science experiment. In addition to measuring pH, students were asked to build a modern garden that contained a physical barrier that could protect the garden from acid rain while still allowing sunlight to reach the plant. Student feedback was collected in the form of an experience evaluation survey after each experience. Students found that the soil-moisture quality testing and design of a protective barrier was engaging. However, an iterative curriculum redesign-implement-evaluate effort is needed to arrive at a robust chemical engineering based design learning experience.

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2019-05

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Chemical Engineering of Pasta

Description

Pasta is a staple food for many people and understanding how the process of making it at a homemade level and industrial level should be examined. Pasta is a large and growing market due to growing populations and new products,

Pasta is a staple food for many people and understanding how the process of making it at a homemade level and industrial level should be examined. Pasta is a large and growing market due to growing populations and new products, therefore, researching the pasta has many benefits. The goal of the research is to determine a consistent way to make homemade pasta and compare it to the industrial method. The comparisons that will be examined are the costs and the process to make the pasta. From there it can be determined where homemade pasta can fit in the market. Through experimentation, an optimal ratio of 1.65 grams of flour to 1 gram of egg was found to create pasta dough that would consistently make pasta easy to work with. Different methods of storage were tested to find a viable method to store fresh pasta. It was found that storing the pasta in an enclosed bag with a condensed shape in the freezer was the best method because it created the most durable pasta out of all the trials and it could be cooked. The industrial method for making pasta differed in some aspects to the homemade pasta method. The biggest changes were the use of an extruder and a drying machine which makes it easier to mass produce uniform pasta. The cost per kilogram based off ingredient prices to make homemade pasta was 0.92 dollars while the industrial pasta cost 0.89 dollars per kilogram. The biggest changes in cost comes from the method of storage of homemade pasta. It was determined that following the drying process of the industrial method would be best because then the price difference is dependent on the price of ingredients. This led to multiple possibilities where homemade pasta could enter the market, for example, as a part of premade meals. Overall, it is possible to create a better quality pasta that can be supplied to a wide arrange of demographics.

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2019-12