Matching Items (6)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

156394-Thumbnail Image.png

Accelerated UV Testing and Characterization of PV Modules with UV-cut and UV-pass EVA Encapsulants

Description

Encapsulant is a key packaging component of photovoltaic (PV) modules, which protects the solar cell from physical, environmental and electrical damages. Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) is one of the major encapsulant materials used in the PV industry. This work focuses on

Encapsulant is a key packaging component of photovoltaic (PV) modules, which protects the solar cell from physical, environmental and electrical damages. Ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) is one of the major encapsulant materials used in the PV industry. This work focuses on indoor accelerated ultraviolet (UV) stress testing and characterization to investigate the EVA discoloration and delamination in PV modules by using various non-destructive characterization techniques, including current-voltage (IV) measurements, UV fluorescence (UVf) and colorimetry measurements. Mini-modules with glass/EVA/cell/EVA/backsheet construction were fabricated in the laboratory with two types of EVA, UV-cut EVA (UVC) and UV-pass EVA (UVP).

The accelerated UV testing was performed in a UV chamber equipped with UV lights at an ambient temperature of 50°C, little or no humidity and total UV dosage of 400 kWh/m2. The mini-modules were maintained at three different temperatures through UV light heating by placing different thickness of thermal insulation sheets over the backsheet. Also, prior to thermal insulation sheet placement, the backsheet and laminate edges were fully covered with aluminum tape to prevent oxygen diffusion into the module and hence the photobleaching reaction.

The characterization results showed that mini-modules with UV-cut EVA suffered from discoloration while the modules with UV-pass EVA suffered from delamination. UVf imaging technique has the capability to identify the discoloration region in the UVC modules in the very early stage when the discoloration is not visible to the naked eyes, whereas Isc measurement is unable to measure the performance loss until the color becomes visibly darker. YI also provides the direct evidence of yellowing in the encapsulant. As expected, the extent of degradation due to discoloration increases with the increase in module temperature. The Isc loss is dictated by both the regions – discolored area at the center and non-discolored area at the cell edges, whereas the YI is only determined at the discolored region due to low probe area. This led to the limited correlation between Isc and YI in UVC modules.

In case of UVP modules, UV radiation has caused an adverse impact on the interfacial adhesion between the EVA and solar cell, which was detected from UVf images and severe Isc loss. No change in YI confirms that the reason for Isc loss is not due to yellowing but the delamination.

Further, the activation energy of encapsulant discoloration was estimated by using Arrhenius model on two types of data, %Isc drop and ΔYI. The Ea determined from the change in YI data for the EVA encapsulant discoloration reaction without the influence of oxygen and humidity is 0.61 eV. Based on the activation energy determined in this work and hourly weather data of any site, the degradation rate for the encaspulant browning mode can be estimated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

156760-Thumbnail Image.png

Novel Growth Routes and Fundamental Understanding of Pseudo-One-Dimensional Materials

Description

Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as a new class of materials with highly attractive electronic, optical, magnetic, and thermal properties. However, there exists a sub-category of 2D layers wherein constituent metal atoms are arranged in a way that they

Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as a new class of materials with highly attractive electronic, optical, magnetic, and thermal properties. However, there exists a sub-category of 2D layers wherein constituent metal atoms are arranged in a way that they form weakly coupled chains confined in the 2D landscape. These weakly coupled chains extend along particular lattice directions and host highly attractive properties including high thermal conduction pathways, high-mobility carriers, and polarized excitons. In a sense, these materials offer a bridge between traditional one-dimensional (1D) materials (nanowires and nanotubes) and 2D layered systems. Therefore, they are often referred as pseudo-1D materials, and are anticipated to impact photonics and optoelectronics fields.

This dissertation focuses on the novel growth routes and fundamental investigation of the physical properties of pseudo-1D materials. Example systems are based on transition metal chalcogenide such as rhenium disulfide (ReS2), titanium trisulfide (TiS3), tantalum trisulfide (TaS3), and titanium-niobium trisulfide (Nb(1-x)TixS3) ternary alloys. Advanced growth, spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques with density functional theory (DFT) calculations have offered the opportunity to understand the properties of these materials both experimentally and theoretically. The first controllable growth of ReS2 flakes with well-defined domain architectures has been established by a state-of-art chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. High-resolution electron microscopy has offered the very first investigation into the structural pseudo-1D nature of these materials at an atomic level such as the chain-like features, grain boundaries, and local defects.

Pressure-dependent Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations have investigated the origin of the Raman vibrational modes in TiS3 and TaS3, and discovered the unusual pressure response and its effect on Raman anisotropy. Interestingly, the structural and vibrational anisotropy can be retained in the Nb(1-x)TixS3 alloy system with the presence of phase transition at a nominal Ti alloying limit. Results have offered valuable experimental and theoretical insights into the growth routes as well as the structural, optical, and vibrational properties of typical pseudo-1D layered systems. The overall findings hope to shield lights to the understanding of this entire class of materials and benefit the design of 2D electronics and optoelectronics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

157184-Thumbnail Image.png

Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Capture Applications: Approaches for Adsorptive Separation of CO2/N2 and O2/N2 Mixtures

Description

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be developed. Carbon capture and storage in fossil-fuel power plants is one way to avoid our current gigaton-scale emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, for this to be possible, separation techniques are necessary to remove the nitrogen from air before combustion or from the flue gas after combustion. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous material that show great promise for adsorptive separation processes. Here, potential mechanisms of O2/N2 separation and CO2/N2 separation are explored.

First, a logical categorization of potential adsorptive separation mechanisms in MOFs is outlined by comparing existing data with previously studied materials. Size-selective adsorptive separation is investigated for both gas systems using molecular simulations. A correlation between size-selective equilibrium adsorptive separation capabilities and pore diameter is established in materials with complex pore distributions. A method of generating mobile extra-framework cations which drastically increase adsorptive selectivity toward nitrogen over oxygen via electrostatic interactions is explored through experiments and simulations. Finally, deposition of redox-active ferrocene molecules into systematically generated defects is shown to be an effective method of increasing selectivity towards oxygen.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

156151-Thumbnail Image.png

Alloying of 2D Anisotropic Materials and Studying Their Vibrational and Optical Properties

Description

Alloying in semiconductors has enabled many civilian technologies in optoelectronic, photonic fields and more. While the phenomenon of alloying is well established in traditional bulk semiconductors, owing to vastly available ternary phase diagrams, the ability to alloy in 2D systems

Alloying in semiconductors has enabled many civilian technologies in optoelectronic, photonic fields and more. While the phenomenon of alloying is well established in traditional bulk semiconductors, owing to vastly available ternary phase diagrams, the ability to alloy in 2D systems are less clear. Recently anisotropic materials such as ReS2 and TiS3 have been extensively studied due to their direct-gap semiconductor and high mobility behaviors. This work is a report on alloys of ReS2 & ReSe2 and TiS3 &TiSe3.

Alloying selenium into ReS2 in the creation of ReS2xSe2-x, tunes the band gap and changes its vibrational spectrum. Depositing this alloy using bottom up approach has resulted in the loss of crystallinity. This loss of crystallinity was evidenced by grain boundaries and point defect shown by TEM images.

Also, in the creation of TiS3xSe3-x, by alloying Se into TiS3, a fixed ratio of 8% selenium deposit into TiS3 host matrix is observed. This is despite the vastly differing precursor amounts and growth temperatures, as evinced by detailed TEM, EDAX, TEM diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. This unusual behavior contrasts with other well-known layered material systems such as MoSSe, WMoS2 where continuous alloying can be attained. Cluster expansion theory calculations suggest that only limited composition (x) can be achieved. Considering the fact that TiSe3 vdW crystals have not been synthesized in the past, these alloying rejections can be attributed to energetic instability in the ternary phase diagrams estimated by calculations performed. Overall findings highlight potential means and challenges in achieving stable alloying in promising direct gap and high carrier mobility TiS3 materials.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

155430-Thumbnail Image.png

Angle resolved polarization and vibrational studies of transition metal trichalcogenides and related alloys

Description

A new class of layered materials called the transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) exhibit strong anisotropic properties due to their quasi-1D nature. These 2D materials are composed of chain-like structures which are weakly bound to form planar sheets with highly directional

A new class of layered materials called the transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) exhibit strong anisotropic properties due to their quasi-1D nature. These 2D materials are composed of chain-like structures which are weakly bound to form planar sheets with highly directional properties. The vibrational properties of three materials from the TMTC family, specifically TiS3, ZrS3, and HfS3, are relatively unknown and studies performed in this work elucidates the origin of their Raman characteristics. The crystals were synthesized through chemical vapor transport prior to mechanical exfoliation onto Si/SiO¬2 substrates. XRD, AFM, and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the crystallinity, thickness, and chemical signature of the exfoliated crystals. Vibrational modes and anisotropic polarization are investigated through density functional theory calculations and angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Particular Raman modes are explored in order to correlate select peaks to the b-axis crystalline direction. Mode III vibrations for TiS3, ZrS3, and HfS3 are shared between each material and serves as a unique identifier of the crystalline orientation in MX3 materials. Similar angle-resolved Raman studies were conducted on the novel Nb0.5Ti0.5S3 alloy material grown through chemical vapor transport. Results show that the anisotropy direction is more difficult to determine due to the randomization of quasi-1D chains caused by defects that are common in 2D alloys. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the vibrational properties of various TMTC materials which is needed to realize applications in direction dependent polarization and linear dichroism.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

158822-Thumbnail Image.png

Fundamentals of Soft, Stretchable Heat Exchanger Design

Description

Deformable heat exchangers could provide a multitude of previously untapped advantages ranging from adaptable performance via macroscale, dynamic shape change (akin to dilation/constriction seen in blood vessels) to enhanced heat transfer at thermal interfaces through microscale, surface deformations. So far,

Deformable heat exchangers could provide a multitude of previously untapped advantages ranging from adaptable performance via macroscale, dynamic shape change (akin to dilation/constriction seen in blood vessels) to enhanced heat transfer at thermal interfaces through microscale, surface deformations. So far, making deformable, ‘soft heat exchangers’ (SHXs) has been limited by the low thermal conductivity of materials with suitable mechanical properties. The recent introduction of liquid-metal embedded elastomers by Bartlett et al1 has addressed this need. Specifically, by remaining soft and stretchable despite the addition of filler, these thermally conductive composites provide an ideal material for the new class of “soft thermal systems”, which is introduced in this work. Understanding such thermal systems will be a key element in enabling technology that require high levels of stretchability, such as thermoregulatory garments, soft electronics, wearable electronics, and high-powered robotics. Shape change inherent to SHX operation has the potential to violate many conventional assumptions used in HX design and thus requires the development of new theoretical approaches to predict performance. To create a basis for understanding these devices, this work highlights two sequential studies. First, the effects of transitioning to a surface deformable, SHX under steady state static conditions in the setting of a liquid cooling device for thermoregulation, electronics and robotics applications was explored. In this study, a thermomechanical model was built and validated to predict the thermal performance and a system wide analysis to optimize such devices was carried out. Second, from a more fundamental perspective, the effects of SHXs undergoing transient shape deformation during operation was explored. A phase shift phenomenon in cooling performance dependent on stretch rate, stretch extent and thermal diffusivity was discovered and explained. With the use of a time scale analysis, the extent of quasi-static assumption viability in modeling such systems was quantified and multiple shape modulation regime limits were defined. Finally, nuance considerations and future work of using liquid metal-silicone composites in SHXs were discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020