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Description
The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of the anticipated applications of the MESFET is for the pass device for a low dropout linear regulator. Conventional NMOS and PMOS linear regulators suffer from high dropout voltage, low bandwidth and poor stability issues. In contrast, the N-MESFET pass transistor can provide an ultra-low dropout voltage and high bandwidth without the need for an external compensation capacitor to ensure stability. In this thesis, the design theory and problems of the conventional linear regulators are discussed. N-MESFET low dropout regulators are evaluated and characterized. The error amplifier used a folded cascode architecture with gain boosting. The source follower topology is utilized as the buffer to sink the gate leakage current from the MESFET. A shunt-feedback transistor is added to reduce the output impedance and provide the current adaptively. Measurement results show that the dropout voltage is less than 150 mV for a 1A load current at 1.8V output. Radiation measurements were done for discrete MESFET and fully integrated LDO regulators, which demonstrate their radiation tolerance ability for aerospace applications.
ContributorsChen, Bo (Author) / Thornton, Trevor (Thesis advisor) / Bakkaloglu, Bertan (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2013
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Description
The constant scaling of supply voltages in state-of-the-art CMOS processes has led to severe limitations for many analog circuit applications. Some CMOS processes have addressed this issue by adding high voltage MOSFETs to their process. Although it can be a completely viable solution, it usually requires a changing of the

The constant scaling of supply voltages in state-of-the-art CMOS processes has led to severe limitations for many analog circuit applications. Some CMOS processes have addressed this issue by adding high voltage MOSFETs to their process. Although it can be a completely viable solution, it usually requires a changing of the process flow or adding additional steps, which in turn, leads to an increase in fabrication costs. Si-MESFETs (silicon-metal-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors) from Arizona State University (ASU) on the other hand, have an inherent high voltage capability and can be added to any silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) CMOS process free of cost. This has been proved at five different commercial foundries on technologies ranging from 0.5 to 0.15 μm. Another critical issue facing CMOS processes on insulated substrates is the scaling of the thin silicon channel. Consequently, the future direction of SOI/SOS CMOS transistors may trend away from partially depleted (PD) transistors and towards fully depleted (FD) devices. FD-CMOS are already being implemented in multiple applications due to their very low power capability. Since the FD-CMOS market only figures to grow, it is appropriate that MESFETs also be developed for these processes. The beginning of this thesis will focus on the device aspects of both PD and FD-MESFETs including their layout structure, DC and RF characteristics, and breakdown voltage. The second half will then shift the focus towards implementing both types of MESFETs in an analog circuit application. Aside from their high breakdown ability, MESFETs also feature depletion mode operation, easy to adjust but well controlled threshold voltages, and fT's up to 45 GHz. Those unique characteristics can allow certain designs that were previously difficult to implement or prohibitively expensive using conventional technologies to now be achieved. One such application which benefits is low dropout regulators (LDO). By utilizing an n-channel MESFET as the pass transistor, a LDO featuring very low dropout voltage, fast transient response, and stable operation can be achieved without an external capacitance. With the focus of this thesis being MESFET based LDOs, the device discussion will be mostly tailored towards optimally designing MESFETs for this particular application.
ContributorsLepkowski, William (Author) / Thornton, Trevor (Thesis advisor) / Bakkaloglu, Bertan (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Ayyanar, Raja (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2010
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Description
In-field characterization of photovoltaics is crucial to understanding performance and degradation mechanisms, subsequently improving overall reliability and lifespans. Current outdoor characterization is often limited by logistical difficulties, variable weather, and requirements to measure during peak production hours. It becomes a challenge to find a characterization technique that is affordable with

In-field characterization of photovoltaics is crucial to understanding performance and degradation mechanisms, subsequently improving overall reliability and lifespans. Current outdoor characterization is often limited by logistical difficulties, variable weather, and requirements to measure during peak production hours. It becomes a challenge to find a characterization technique that is affordable with a low impact on system performance while still providing useful device parameters. For added complexity, this characterization technique must have the ability to scale for implementation in large powerplant applications. This dissertation addresses some of the challenges of outdoor characterization by expanding the knowledge of a well-known indoor technique referred to as Suns-VOC. Suns-VOC provides a pseudo current-voltage curve that is free of any effects from series resistance. Device parameters can be extracted from this pseudo I-V curve, allowing for subsequent degradation analysis. This work introduces how to use Suns-VOC outdoors while normalizing results based on the different effects of environmental conditions. This technique is validated on single-cells, modules, and small arrays with accuracies capable of measuring yearly degradation. An adaptation to Suns-VOC, referred to as Suns-Voltage-Resistor (Suns-VR), is also introduced to complement the results from Suns-VOC. This work can potentially be used to provide a diagnostic tool for outdoor characterization in various applications, including residential, commercial, and industrial PV systems.
ContributorsKillam, Alexander Cameron (Author) / Bowden, Stuart G (Thesis advisor) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Augusto, Andre (Committee member) / Rand, James (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2022
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Description
To keep up with the increasing demand for solar energy, higher efficiencies are necessary while keeping cost at a minimum. The easiest theoretical way to achieve that is using silicon-based multi-junction solar cells. However, there are major challenges in effectively implementing such a system. Much work has been done recently

To keep up with the increasing demand for solar energy, higher efficiencies are necessary while keeping cost at a minimum. The easiest theoretical way to achieve that is using silicon-based multi-junction solar cells. However, there are major challenges in effectively implementing such a system. Much work has been done recently to integrate III-V with Si for multi-junction solar cell purposes. The focus of this paper is to explore GaP-based dilute nitrides as a possible top cell candidate for Si-based multi-junctions. The direct growth of dilute nitrides in a lattice-matched configuration epitaxially in literature is reviewed. The problems associated with such growths are outlined and pathways to mitigate these problems are presented. The need for a GaP buffer layer between the dilute nitride film and Si is established. Defects in GaP/Si system are explored in detail and a study on pit formation during such growth is performed. Effective suppression of pits in GaP surface grown on Si is achieved. Issues facing GaP-based dilute nitrides in terms of material properties are outlined. Review of these challenges is done and some possible future areas of interest to improve material quality are established. Finally, the growth process of dilute nitrides using Molecular Beam Epitaxy tool is explained. Results for GaNP grown on Si pre and post growth treatments are detailed.
ContributorsMurali, Srinath (Author) / Honsberg, Christiana (Thesis advisor) / Goodnick, Stephen (Committee member) / King, Richard (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2022
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Description
In this dissertation, the nanofabrication process is characterized for fabrication of nanostructure on surface of silicon and gallium phosphide using silica nanosphere lithography (SNL) and metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process. The SNL process allows fast process time and well defined silica nanosphere monolayer by spin-coating process after mixing N,N-dimethyl-formamide

In this dissertation, the nanofabrication process is characterized for fabrication of nanostructure on surface of silicon and gallium phosphide using silica nanosphere lithography (SNL) and metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process. The SNL process allows fast process time and well defined silica nanosphere monolayer by spin-coating process after mixing N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) solvent. The MACE process achieves the high aspect ratio structure fabrication using the reaction between metal and wet chemical. The nanostructures are fabricated on Si surface for enhanced light management, but, without proper surface passivation those gains hardly impact the performance of the solar cell. The surface passivation of nanostructures is challenging, not only due to larger surface areas and aspect ratios, but also has a direct result of the nanofabrication processes. In this research, the surface passivation of silicon nanostructures is improved by modifying the silica nanosphere lithography (SNL) and the metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) processes, frequently used to fabricate nanostructures. The implementation of a protective silicon oxide layer is proposed prior to the lithography process to mitigate the impact of the plasma etching during the SNL. Additionally, several adhesion layers are studied, chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and titanium (Ti) with gold (Au), used in the MACE process. The metal contamination is one of main damage and Ti makes the mitigation of metal contamination. Finally, a new chemical etching step is introduced, using potassium hydroxide at room temperature, to smooth the surface of the nanostructures after the MACE process. This chemical treatment allows to improve passivation by surface area control and removing surface defects. In this research, I demonstrate the Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) passivation on nanostructure using atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. 10nm of Al2O3 layer makes effective passivation on nanostructure with optimized post annealing in forming gas (N2/H2) environment. However, 10nm thickness is not suitable for hetero structure because of carrier transportation. For carrier transportation, ultrathin Al2O3 (≤ 1nm) layer is used for passivation, but effective passivation is not achieved because of insufficient hydrogen contents. This issue is solved to use additional ultrathin SiO2 (1nm) below Al2O3 layer and hydrogenation from doped a-Si:H. Moreover, the nanostructure is creased on gallium phosphide (GaP) by SNL and MACE process. The fabrication process is modified by control of metal layer and MACE solution.
ContributorsKim, Sangpyeong (Author) / Honsberg, Christiana (Thesis advisor) / Bowden, Stuart (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Augusto, Andre (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2021
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Description
A general review of film growth with various mechanisms is given. Additives and their potential effects on film properties are also discussed. Experimental light-induced aluminum (Al) plating tool design is discussed. Light-induced electroplating of Al as the front electrode on the n-type emitter of silicon (Si) solar cells is proposed

A general review of film growth with various mechanisms is given. Additives and their potential effects on film properties are also discussed. Experimental light-induced aluminum (Al) plating tool design is discussed. Light-induced electroplating of Al as the front electrode on the n-type emitter of silicon (Si) solar cells is proposed as a substitute for screen-printed Silver (Ag). The advantages and disadvantages of Al over copper (Cu) as a suitable Ag replacement are examined. Optimization of the power given to a green laser for silicon nitride (SiNx) anitreflection coating patterning is performed. Laser damage and contamination removal conditions on post-patterned cell surfaces are identified. Plating and post-annealing temperature effects on Al morphology and film resistivity are explored. Morphology and resistivity improvement of the Al film are also investigated through several plating additives. The lowest resistivity of 3.1 µΩ-cm is given by nicotinic acid. Laser induced damage to the cell emitter experimentally limits the contact resistivity between light-induced Al and Si to approximately 69 mΩ-cm2. Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5) is introduced into the plating bath and improved the the contact resistivity between light induced Al and Si to a range of 0.1-1 mΩ-cm2. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was performed on a film deposited with PCl5 and showed a phosphorus peak, indicating emitter phosphorus concentration may be the reason for the low contact resistivity between light-induced Al and Si. SEM also shows that PCl5 improves Al film density and plating throwing power. Post plating annealing performed at a temperature of 500°C allows Al to spike through the thin n-type emitter causing cell failure. Atmospheric moisture causes poor process reproducibility.
ContributorsRicci, Lewis (Author) / Tao, Meng (Thesis advisor) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Kozicki, Michael (Committee member) / Yu, Hongbin (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2021
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Description
With the demand growing for more sustainable forms of energy in replacement of fossil fuels, a major obstacle arises in the end-of life solar modules that are disposed of in landfills. Aside from the hazardous materials, silicon solar modules contain valuable and scarce materials such as silver. Silver is used

With the demand growing for more sustainable forms of energy in replacement of fossil fuels, a major obstacle arises in the end-of life solar modules that are disposed of in landfills. Aside from the hazardous materials, silicon solar modules contain valuable and scarce materials such as silver. Silver is used in many industries and many applications therefore the recycling and recovering of it is financially beneficial. The purpose of this research was to achieve high purity and recovery of silver using hydrofluoric acid. The following work presents the feasibility of silver recovery through the process of leaching and electrowinning by examining the percent recovery and cathodic coulombic efficiency, followed by a chemical analysis to determine the purity. Varying conditions in leaching and electrowinning parameters are conducted in a synthetic solution to determine the effect on silver recovery and cathodic coulombic efficiency. It was determined that the silver recovery was dependent on the applied potential, system configuration and time. The system is capable of recovery rates of over 95% at -1 V. The system is further tested on solar cells to prove that silver can be recovered. There was over 99% purity from the experiments conducted in synthetic solution and from solar cells. Additionally, a circular chemistry is proposed that allows the reuse of hydrofluoric acid for leaching and electrowinning.
ContributorsChen, Theresa (Author) / Tao, Meng (Thesis advisor) / Deng, Shuguang (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2024
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Description
In this project, current-voltage (I-V) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to (a) characterize the electrical properties of Nb/p-type Si Schottky barriers, (b) identify the concentration and physical character of the electrically active defects present in the depletion region, and (c) use thermal processing to reduce the

In this project, current-voltage (I-V) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are used to (a) characterize the electrical properties of Nb/p-type Si Schottky barriers, (b) identify the concentration and physical character of the electrically active defects present in the depletion region, and (c) use thermal processing to reduce the concentration or eliminate the defects. Barrier height determinations using temperature-dependent I-V measurements indicate that the barrier height decreases from 0.50 eV to 0.48 eV for anneals above 200 C. The electrically-active defect concentration measured using DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) drops markedly after anneals at 250 C.

A significant increase in leakage currents is almost always observed in near-ideal devices upon annealing. In contrast, non-ideal devices dominated by leakage currents annealed at 150 C to 250 C exhibit a significant decrease in such currents.
ContributorsKrishna Murthy, Madhu (Author) / Newman, Nathan (Thesis advisor) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Alford, Terry (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2018
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Description
Over the past several decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of fluorescent probes in low-cost diagnostic devices for resource-limited environments. This dissertation details the design, development, and deployment of an inexpensive, multiplexed, and quantitative, fluorescence-based lateral flow immunoassay platform, in light of the specific constraints associated

Over the past several decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of fluorescent probes in low-cost diagnostic devices for resource-limited environments. This dissertation details the design, development, and deployment of an inexpensive, multiplexed, and quantitative, fluorescence-based lateral flow immunoassay platform, in light of the specific constraints associated with resource-limited settings.

This effort grew out of the need to develop a highly sensitive, field-deployable platform to be used as a primary screening and early detection tool for serologic biomarkers for the high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. A hrHPV infection is a precursor for developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3+). Early detection requires high sensitivity and a low limit-of-detection (LOD). To this end, the developed platform (DxArray) takes advantage of the specificity of immunoassays and the selectivity of fluorescence for early disease detection. The long term goal is to improve the quality of life for several hundred million women globally, at risk of being infected with hrHPV.

The developed platform uses fluorescent labels over the gold-standard colorimetric labels in a compact, high-sensitivity lateral flow assay configuration. It is also compatible with POC settings as it substitutes expensive and bulky light sources for LEDs, low-light CMOS cameras, and photomultiplier tubes for photodiodes, in a transillumination architecture, and eliminates the need for expensive focusing/transfer optics. The platform uses high-quality interference filters at less than $1 each, enabling a rugged and robust design suitable for field use.

The limit of detection (LOD) of the developed platform is within an order of magnitude of centralized laboratory diagnostic instruments. It enhances the LOD of absorbance or reflectometric and visual readout lateral flow assays by 2 - 3 orders of magnitude. This system could be applied toward any chemical or bioanalytical procedure that requires a high performance at low-cost.

The knowledge and techniques developed in this effort is relevant to the community of researchers and industry developers looking to deploy inexpensive, quantitative, and highly sensitive diagnostic devices to resource-limited settings.
ContributorsObahiagbon, Uwadiae (Author) / Blain Christen, Jennifer M (Thesis advisor) / Anderson, Karen S (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Smith, Barbara S. (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2018
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Description
To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is

crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out

of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in

supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained

by two

To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is

crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out

of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in

supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained

by two major bottlenecks. The first is the high electricity input to produce

crystalline-Si solar cells and modules, and the second is the limited supply of silver

(Ag) reserves. These bottlenecks prevent crystalline-Si solar cells from reaching

terawatt-scale deployment, which means the electricity produced by crystalline-Si

solar cells would never fulfill a noticeable portion of our energy demands in the future.

In order to solve the issue of Ag limitation for the front metal grid, aluminum (Al)

electroplating has been developed as an alternative metallization technique in the

fabrication of crystalline-Si solar cells. The plating is carried out in a

near-room-temperature ionic liquid by means of galvanostatic electrolysis. It has been

found that dense, adherent Al deposits with resistivity in the high 10^–6 ohm-cm range

can be reproducibly obtained directly on Si substrates and nickel seed layers. An

all-Al Si solar cell, with an electroplated Al front electrode and a screen-printed Al

back electrode, has been successfully demonstrated based on commercial p-type

monocrystalline-Si solar cells, and its efficiency is approaching 15%. Further

optimization of the cell fabrication process, in particular a suitable patterning

technique for the front silicon nitride layer, is expected to increase the efficiency of

the cell to ~18%. This shows the potential of Al electroplating in cell metallization is

promising and replacing Ag with Al as the front finger electrode is feasible.
ContributorsSun, Wen-Cheng (Author) / Tao, Meng (Thesis advisor) / Vasileska, Dragica (Committee member) / Yu, Hongbin (Committee member) / Goryll, Michael (Committee member) / Arizona State University (Publisher)
Created2016