Matching Items (17)
- All Subjects: engineering
- Genre: Academic theses
- Genre: Masters Thesis
- Creators: Goryll, Michael
- Member of: Theses and Dissertations
High performance microbial fuel cells and supercapacitors using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology
A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 W/m2 and from 6.3 W/m3 to 392 W/m3, respectively, which are still low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. In this dissertation, the impact of scaling effect on the performance of MFCs are investigated, and it is found that by scaling down the characteristic length of MFCs, the surface area to volume ratio increases and the current and power density improves. As a result, a miniaturized MFC fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System(MEMS) technology with gold anode is presented in this dissertation, which demonstrate a high power density of 3300 W/m3. The performance of the MEMS MFC is further improved by adopting anodes with higher surface area to volume ratio, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene based anodes, and the maximum power density is further improved to a record high power density of 11220 W/m3. A novel supercapacitor by regulating the respiration of the bacteria is also presented, and a high power density of 531.2 A/m2 (1,060,000 A/m3) and 197.5 W/m2 (395,000 W/m3), respectively, are marked, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported microbial electrochemical techniques.
A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing
With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.
Total dose sensing systems (or radiation detection systems) have many applications,
ranging from survey monitors used to supervise the generated radioactive waste at
nuclear power plants to personal dosimeters which measure the radiation dose
accumulated in individuals. This dissertation work will present two different types of
novel devices developed at Arizona State University for total dose sensing applications.
The first detector technology is a mechanically flexible metal-chalcogenide glass (ChG)
based system which is fabricated on low cost substrates and are intended as disposable
total dose sensors. Compared to existing commercial technologies, these thin film
radiation sensors are simpler in form and function, and cheaper to produce and operate.
The sensors measure dose through resistance change and are suitable for applications
such as reactor dosimetry, radiation chemistry, and clinical dosimetry. They are ideal for
wearable devices due to the lightweight construction, inherent robustness to resist
breaking when mechanically stressed, and ability to attach to non-flat objects. Moreover,
their performance can be easily controlled by tuning design variables and changing
incorporated materials. The second detector technology is a wireless dosimeter intended
for remote total dose sensing. They are based on a capacitively loaded folded patch
antenna resonating in the range of 3 GHz to 8 GHz for which the load capacitance varies
as a function of total dose. The dosimeter does not need power to operate thus enabling
its use and implementation in the field without requiring a battery for its read-out. As a
result, the dosimeter is suitable for applications such as unattended detection systems
destined for covert monitoring of merchandise crossing borders, where nuclear material
tracking is a concern. The sensitive element can be any device exhibiting a known
variation of capacitance with total ionizing dose. The sensitivity of the dosimeter is
related to the capacitance variation of the radiation sensitive device as well as the high
frequency system used for reading. Both technologies come with the advantage that they
are easy to manufacture with reasonably low cost and sensing can be readily read-out.
Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is an attractive II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct
bandgap of 2.26 eV that is used in many applications in optoelectronic devices. Compared
to the two dimensional (2D) thin-film semiconductors, one-dimensional (1D)
nanowires can have different electronic properties for potential novel applications.
In this work, we present the study of ZnTe nanowires (NWs) that are synthesized
through a simple vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. By controlling the presence or
the absence of Au catalysts and controlling the growth parameters such as growth
temperature, various growth morphologies of ZnTe, such as thin films and nanowires
can be obtained. The characterization of the ZnTe nanostructures and films was
performed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
(EDX), high- resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray
diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and light scattering
measurement. After confirming the crystal purity of ZnTe, two-terminal diodes and
three-terminal transistors were fabricated with both nanowire and planar nano-sheet
configurations, in order to correlate the nanostructure geometry to device performance
including field effect mobility, Schottky barrier characteristics, and turn-on
characteristics. Additionally, optoelectronic properties such as photoconductive gain
and responsivity were compared against morphology. Finally, ZnTe was explored in
conjunction with ZnO in order to form type-II band alignment in a core-shell nanostructure.
Various characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy,
energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy , x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis
reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to investigate the modification
of ZnO/ZnTe core/shell structure properties. In PL spectra, the eliminated PL intensity
of ZnO wires is primarily attributed to the efficient charge transfer process
occurring between ZnO and ZnTe, due to the band alignment in the core/shell structure. Moreover, the result of UV-vis reflectance spectra corresponds to the band
gap energy of ZnO and ZnTe, respectively, which confirm that the sample consists of
ZnO/ZnTe core/shell structure of good quality.
Within the last decade there has been remarkable interest in single-cell metabolic analysis as a key technology for understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Technologies have been developed for oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurements using various configurations of microfluidic devices. The technical challenges of current approaches include: (1) deposition of multiple sensors for multi-parameter metabolic measurements, e.g. oxygen, pH, etc.; (2) tedious and labor-intensive microwell array fabrication processes; (3) low yield of hermetic sealing between two rigid fused silica parts, even with a compliance layer of PDMS or Parylene-C. In this thesis, several improved microfabrication technologies are developed and demonstrated for analyzing multiple metabolic parameters from single cells, including (1) a modified "lid-on-top" configuration with a multiple sensor trapping (MST) lid which spatially confines multiple sensors to micro-pockets enclosed by lips for hermetic sealing of wells; (2) a multiple step photo-polymerization method for patterning three optical sensors (oxygen, pH and reference) on fused silica and on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface; (3) a photo-polymerization method for patterning tri-color (oxygen, pH and reference) optical sensors on both fused silica and on the PET surface; (4) improved KMPR/SU-8 microfabrication protocols for fabricating microwell arrays that can withstand cell culture conditions. Implementation of these improved microfabrication methods should address the aforementioned challenges and provide a high throughput and multi-parameter single cell metabolic analysis platform.
The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of the anticipated applications of the MESFET is for the pass device for a low dropout linear regulator. Conventional NMOS and PMOS linear regulators suffer from high dropout voltage, low bandwidth and poor stability issues. In contrast, the N-MESFET pass transistor can provide an ultra-low dropout voltage and high bandwidth without the need for an external compensation capacitor to ensure stability. In this thesis, the design theory and problems of the conventional linear regulators are discussed. N-MESFET low dropout regulators are evaluated and characterized. The error amplifier used a folded cascode architecture with gain boosting. The source follower topology is utilized as the buffer to sink the gate leakage current from the MESFET. A shunt-feedback transistor is added to reduce the output impedance and provide the current adaptively. Measurement results show that the dropout voltage is less than 150 mV for a 1A load current at 1.8V output. Radiation measurements were done for discrete MESFET and fully integrated LDO regulators, which demonstrate their radiation tolerance ability for aerospace applications.
Study of minority carrier lifetime and transport in InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices using a real-time baseline correction method
Sb-based type-II superlattices (T2SLs) are potential alternative to HgCdTe for infrared detection due to their low manufacturing cost, good uniformity, high structural stability, and suppressed Auger recombination. The emerging InAs/InAsSb T2SLs have minority carrier lifetimes 1-2 orders of magnitude longer than those of the well-studied InAs/InGaSb T2SLs, and therefore have the potential to achieve photodetectors with higher performance. This work develops a novel method to measure the minority carrier lifetimes in infrared materials, and reports a comprehensive characterization of minority carrier lifetime and transport in InAs/InAsSb T2SLs at temperatures below 77 K.
A real-time baseline correction (RBC) method for minority carrier lifetime measurement is developed by upgrading a conventional boxcar-based time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) experimental system that suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio due to strong low frequency noise. The key is to modify the impulse response of the conventional TRPL system, and therefore the system becomes less sensitive to the dominant noise. Using this RBC method, the signal-to-noise ratio is improved by 2 orders of magnitude.
A record long minority carrier lifetime of 12.8 μs is observed in a high-quality mid-wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb T2SLs at 15 K. It is further discovered that this long lifetime is partially due to strong carrier localization, which is revealed by temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and TRPL measurements for InAs/InAsSb T2SLs with different period thicknesses. Moreover, the PL and TRPL results suggest that the atomic layer thickness variation is the main origin of carrier localization, which is further confirmed by a calculation using transfer matrix method.
To study the impact of the carrier localization on the device performance of InAs/InAsSb photodetectors, minority hole diffusion lengths are determined by the simulation of external quantum efficiency (EQE). A comparative study shows that carrier localization has negligible effect on the minority hole diffusion length in InAs/InAsSb T2SLs, and the long minority carrier lifetimes enhanced by carrier localization is not beneficial for photodetector operation.
Biosensors aiming at detection of target analytes, such as proteins, microbes, virus, and toxins, are widely needed for various applications including detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and drug screening. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), as a surface-sensitive analytical tool, can very sensitively respond to minute changes of refractive index occurring adjacent to a metal film, offering detection limits up to a few ppt (pg/mL). Through SPR, the process of protein adsorption may be monitored in real-time, and transduced into an SPR angle shift. This unique technique bypasses the time-consuming, labor-intensive labeling processes, such as radioisotope and fluorescence labeling. More importantly, the method avoids the modification of the biomarker’s characteristics and behaviors by labeling that often occurs in traditional biosensors. While many transducers, including SPR, offer high sensitivity, selectivity is determined by the bio-receptors. In traditional biosensors, the selectivity is provided by bio-receptors possessing highly specific binding affinity to capture target analytes, yet their use in biosensors are often limited by their relatively-weak binding affinity with analyte, non-specific adsorption, need for optimization conditions, low reproducibility, and difficulties integrating onto the surface of transducers. In order to circumvent the use of bio-receptors, the competitive adsorption of proteins, termed the Vroman effect, is utilized in this work. The Vroman effect was first reported by Vroman and Adams in 1969. The competitive adsorption targeted here occurs among different proteins competing to adsorb to a surface, when more than one type of protein is present. When lower-affinity proteins are adsorbed on the surface first, they can be displaced by higher-affinity proteins arriving at the surface at a later point in time. Moreover, only low-affinity proteins can be displaced by high-affinity proteins, typically possessing higher molecular weight, yet the reverse sequence does not occur. The SPR biosensor based on competitive adsorption is successfully demonstrated to detect fibrinogen and thyroglobulin (Tg) in undiluted human serum and copper ions in drinking water through the denatured albumin.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a potential ingredient for grain boundary passivation of multicrystalline silicon. Sulfur is already established as a good surface passivation material for crystalline silicon (c-Si). Sulfur can be used both from solution and hydrogen sulfide gas. For multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells, increasing efficiency is a major challenge because passivation of mc-Si wafers is more difficult due to its randomly orientated crystal grains and the principal source of recombination is contributed by the defects in the bulk of the wafer and surface.
In this work, a new technique for grain boundary passivation for multicrystalline silicon using hydrogen sulfide has been developed which is accompanied by a compatible Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) surface passivation. Minority carrier lifetime measurement of the passivated samples has been performed and the analysis shows that success has been achieved in terms of passivation and compared to already existing hydrogen passivation, hydrogen sulfide passivation is actually better. Also the surface passivation by Al2O3 helps to increase the lifetime even more after post-annealing and this helps to attain stability for the bulk passivated samples. Minority carrier lifetime is directly related to the internal quantum efficiency of solar cells. Incorporation of this technique in making mc-Si solar cells is supposed to result in higher efficiency cells. Additional research is required in this field for the use of this technique in commercial solar cells.
To date, the most popular and dominant material for commercial solar cells is
crystalline silicon (or wafer-Si). It has the highest cell efficiency and cell lifetime out
of all commercial solar cells. Although the potential of crystalline-Si solar cells in
supplying energy demands is enormous, their future growth will likely be constrained
by two major bottlenecks. The first is the high electricity input to produce
crystalline-Si solar cells and modules, and the second is the limited supply of silver
(Ag) reserves. These bottlenecks prevent crystalline-Si solar cells from reaching
terawatt-scale deployment, which means the electricity produced by crystalline-Si
solar cells would never fulfill a noticeable portion of our energy demands in the future.
In order to solve the issue of Ag limitation for the front metal grid, aluminum (Al)
electroplating has been developed as an alternative metallization technique in the
fabrication of crystalline-Si solar cells. The plating is carried out in a
near-room-temperature ionic liquid by means of galvanostatic electrolysis. It has been
found that dense, adherent Al deposits with resistivity in the high 10^–6 ohm-cm range
can be reproducibly obtained directly on Si substrates and nickel seed layers. An
all-Al Si solar cell, with an electroplated Al front electrode and a screen-printed Al
back electrode, has been successfully demonstrated based on commercial p-type
monocrystalline-Si solar cells, and its efficiency is approaching 15%. Further
optimization of the cell fabrication process, in particular a suitable patterning
technique for the front silicon nitride layer, is expected to increase the efficiency of
the cell to ~18%. This shows the potential of Al electroplating in cell metallization is
promising and replacing Ag with Al as the front finger electrode is feasible.