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Studies of the Mechanics of Origami Inspired Foam Structures

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This thesis examines the mechanical properties of an origami inspired structure and its equivalent cube counterpart to determine if this origami configuration is an effective load bearing and energy absorption structure. To test this, a folded paper model was created

This thesis examines the mechanical properties of an origami inspired structure and its equivalent cube counterpart to determine if this origami configuration is an effective load bearing and energy absorption structure. To test this, a folded paper model was created for visual realization and then 3D printed models were created to undergo compression testing using the Instron 4411. The data from testing was used to create stress-strain curves for each sample, which were then used to determine the maximum stress and toughness of each structure. The performance of these structures was also compared to other known material performance. The origami structure was found to outperform the equivalent cube in both maximum stress it could withstand before failure and toughness. These results are grounds for further research to be done to determine the validity of origami structures as viable alternatives to current material configurations.

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2018-05

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Development of a robust and integrated methodology for predicting the reliability of microelectronic packaging systems

Description

Ball Grid Array (BGA) using lead-free or lead-rich solder materials are widely used as Second Level Interconnects (SLI) in mounting packaged components to the printed circuit board (PCB). The reliability of these solder joints is of significant importance to the

Ball Grid Array (BGA) using lead-free or lead-rich solder materials are widely used as Second Level Interconnects (SLI) in mounting packaged components to the printed circuit board (PCB). The reliability of these solder joints is of significant importance to the performance of microelectronics components and systems. Product design/form-factor, solder material, manufacturing process, use condition, as well as, the inherent variabilities present in the system, greatly influence product reliability. Accurate reliability analysis requires an integrated approach to concurrently account for all these factors and their synergistic effects. Such an integrated and robust methodology can be used in design and development of new and advanced microelectronics systems and can provide significant improvement in cycle-time, cost, and reliability. IMPRPK approach is based on a probabilistic methodology, focusing on three major tasks of (1) Characterization of BGA solder joints to identify failure mechanisms and obtain statistical data, (2) Finite Element analysis (FEM) to predict system response needed for life prediction, and (3) development of a probabilistic methodology to predict the reliability, as well as, the sensitivity of the system to various parameters and the variabilities. These tasks and the predictive capabilities of IMPRPK in microelectronic reliability analysis are discussed.

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Date Created
2013

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A molecular electronic transducer based low-frequency accelerometer with electrolyte droplet sensing body

Description

"Sensor Decade" has been labeled on the first decade of the 21st century. Similar to the revolution of micro-computer in 1980s, sensor R&D; developed rapidly during the past 20 years. Hard workings were mainly made to minimize the size of

"Sensor Decade" has been labeled on the first decade of the 21st century. Similar to the revolution of micro-computer in 1980s, sensor R&D; developed rapidly during the past 20 years. Hard workings were mainly made to minimize the size of devices with optimal the performance. Efforts to develop the small size devices are mainly concentrated around Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology. MEMS accelerometers are widely published and used in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming consoles, anti-shake camera and vibration detectors. This study represents liquid-state low frequency micro-accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET), in which inertial mass is not the only but also the conversion of mechanical movement to electric current signal is the main utilization of the ionic liquid. With silicon-based planar micro-fabrication, the device uses a sub-micron liter electrolyte droplet sealed in oil as the sensing body and a MET electrode arrangement which is the anode-cathode-cathode-anode (ACCA) in parallel as the read-out sensing part. In order to sensing the movement of ionic liquid, an imposed electric potential was applied between the anode and the cathode. The electrode reaction, I_3^-+2e^___3I^-, occurs around the cathode which is reverse at the anodes. Obviously, the current magnitude varies with the concentration of ionic liquid, which will be effected by the movement of liquid droplet as the inertial mass. With such structure, the promising performance of the MET device design is to achieve 10.8 V/G (G=9.81 m/s^2) sensitivity at 20 Hz with the bandwidth from 1 Hz to 50 Hz, and a low noise floor of 100 ug/sqrt(Hz) at 20 Hz.

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2013

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Microrheology and particle dynamics at liquid-liquid interfaces

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The rheological properties at liquid-liquid interfaces are important in many industrial processes such as manufacturing foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and petroleum products. This dissertation focuses on the study of linear viscoelastic properties at liquid-liquid interfaces by tracking the thermal motion of

The rheological properties at liquid-liquid interfaces are important in many industrial processes such as manufacturing foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and petroleum products. This dissertation focuses on the study of linear viscoelastic properties at liquid-liquid interfaces by tracking the thermal motion of particles confined at the interfaces. The technique of interfacial microrheology is first developed using one- and two-particle tracking, respectively. In one-particle interfacial microrheology, the rheological response at the interface is measured from the motion of individual particles. One-particle interfacial microrheology at polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oil-water interfaces depends strongly on the surface chemistry of different tracer particles. In contrast, by tracking the correlated motion of particle pairs, two-particle interfacial microrheology significantly minimizes the effects from tracer particle surface chemistry and particle size. Two-particle interfacial microrheology is further applied to study the linear viscoelastic properties of immiscible polymer-polymer interfaces. The interfacial loss and storage moduli at PDMS-polyethylene glycol (PEG) interfaces are measured over a wide frequency range. The zero-shear interfacial viscosity, estimated from the Cross model, falls between the bulk viscosities of two individual polymers. Surprisingly, the interfacial relaxation time is observed to be an order of magnitude larger than that of the PDMS bulk polymers. To explore the fundamental basis of interfacial nanorheology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to investigate the nanoparticle dynamics. The diffusion of single nanoparticles in pure water and low-viscosity PDMS oils is reasonably consistent with the prediction by the Stokes-Einstein equation. To demonstrate the potential of nanorheology based on the motion of nanoparticles, the shear moduli and viscosities of the bulk phases and interfaces are calculated from single-nanoparticle tracking. Finally, the competitive influences of nanoparticles and surfactants on other interfacial properties, such as interfacial thickness and interfacial tension are also studied by MD simulations.

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Agent

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Date Created
2011

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An Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Origami Structures

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The purpose of this project focuses on analyzing how a typically brittle material, such as PLA, can be manipulated to become deformable, through the development of an origami structure, in this case—the Yoshimuri pattern. The experimental methodology focused on creating

The purpose of this project focuses on analyzing how a typically brittle material, such as PLA, can be manipulated to become deformable, through the development of an origami structure, in this case—the Yoshimuri pattern. The experimental methodology focused on creating a base Solidworks model, with varying hinge depths, and 3D printing these various models. A cylindrical shell was also developed with comparable dimensions to the Yoshimuri dimensions. These samples were then tested through compression testing, with the load-displacement, and thus the stress-strain curves are analyzed. From the results, it was found that generally, the Yoshimuri samples had a higher level of deformation compared to the cylindrical shell. Moreover, the cylindrical shell had a higher stiffness ratio, while the Yoshimuri patterns had strain rates as high as 16%. From this data, it can be concluded that by changing how the structure is created through origami patterns, it is possible to shift the characteristics of a structure even if the material properties are initially quite brittle.

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2016-12

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Three dimensional characterization of microstructural effects on spall damage in shocked polycrystalline copper

Description

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to be a key aspect in determining sites of failure initiation. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in the material microstructure where damage will nucleate and grow and to formulate continuum models that account for the variability of the damage process due to microstructural heterogeneity, which is the focus of this research. Shock loading experiments were conducted via flyer-plate impact tests for pressures of 2-6 GPa and strain rates of 105/s on copper polycrystals of varying thermomechanical processing conditions. Serial cross sectioning of recovered target disks was performed along with electron microscopy, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), focused ion beam (FIB) milling, and 3-D X-ray tomogrpahy (XRT) to gain 2-D and 3-D information on the spall plane and surrounding microstructure. Statistics on grain boundaries (GB) containing damage were obtained from 2-D data and GBs of misorientations 25° and 50° were found to have the highest probability to contain damage in as-received (AR), heat treated (HT), and fully recrystallized (FR) microstructures, while {111} Σ3 GBs were globally strong. The AR microstructure’s probability peak was the most pronounced indicating GB strength is the dominant factor for damage nucleation. 3-D XRT data was used to digitally render the spall planes of the AR, HT, and FR microstructures. From shape fitting the voids to ellipsoids, it was found that the AR microstructure contained greater than 55% intergranular damage, whereas the HT and FR microstructures contained predominantly transgranular and coalesced damage modes, respectively. 3-D reconstructions of large volume damage sites in shocked Cu multicrystals showed preference for damage nucleation at GBs between adjacent grains of a high Taylor factor mismatches as well as an angle between the shock direction and the GB physical normal of ~30°-45°. 3-D FIB sectioning of individual voids led to the discovery of uniform plastic zones ~25-50% the size of the void diameter and plastic deformation directions were characterized via local average misorientation maps. Incipient transgranular voids revealed from the sectioning process were present in grains of high Taylor factors along the shock direction, which is expected as materials with a low Taylor factor along the shock direction are susceptible to growth due their accomodation of plastic deformation. Fabrication of square waves using photolithography and chemical etching was developed to study the nature of plasticity at GBs away from the spall plane. Grains oriented close to <0 1 1> had half the residual amplitudes than grains oriented close to <0 0 1>.

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Date Created
2015

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Multiscale reduced order models for the geometrically nonlinear response of complex structures

Description

The focus of this investigation includes three aspects. First, the development of nonlinear reduced order modeling techniques for the prediction of the response of complex structures exhibiting "large" deformations, i.e. a geometrically nonlinear behavior, and modeled within a commercial finite

The focus of this investigation includes three aspects. First, the development of nonlinear reduced order modeling techniques for the prediction of the response of complex structures exhibiting "large" deformations, i.e. a geometrically nonlinear behavior, and modeled within a commercial finite element code. The present investigation builds on a general methodology, successfully validated in recent years on simpler panel structures, by developing a novel identification strategy of the reduced order model parameters, that enables the consideration of the large number of modes needed for complex structures, and by extending an automatic strategy for the selection of the basis functions used to represent accurately the displacement field. These novel developments are successfully validated on the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of a 9-bay panel structure modeled within Nastran. In addition, a multi-scale approach based on Component Mode Synthesis methods is explored. Second, an assessment of the predictive capabilities of nonlinear reduced order models for the prediction of the large displacement and stress fields of panels that have a geometric discontinuity; a flat panel with a notch was used for this assessment. It is demonstrated that the reduced order models of both virgin and notched panels provide a close match of the displacement field obtained from full finite element analyses of the notched panel for moderately large static and dynamic responses. In regards to stresses, it is found that the notched panel reduced order model leads to a close prediction of the stress distribution obtained on the notched panel as computed by the finite element model. Two enrichment techniques, based on superposition of the notch effects on the virgin panel stress field, are proposed to permit a close prediction of the stress distribution of the notched panel from the reduced order model of the virgin one. A very good prediction of the full finite element results is achieved with both enrichments for static and dynamic responses. Finally, computational challenges associated with the solution of the reduced order model equations are discussed. Two alternatives to reduce the computational time for the solution of these problems are explored.

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Date Created
2012

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Dealloying induced stress corrosion cracking

Description

Dealloying induced stress corrosion cracking is particularly relevant in energy conversion systems (both nuclear and fossil fuel) as many failures in alloys such as austenitic stainless steel and nickel-based systems result directly from dealloying. This study provides evidence of the

Dealloying induced stress corrosion cracking is particularly relevant in energy conversion systems (both nuclear and fossil fuel) as many failures in alloys such as austenitic stainless steel and nickel-based systems result directly from dealloying. This study provides evidence of the role of unstable dynamic fracture processes in dealloying induced stress-corrosion cracking of face-centered cubic alloys. Corrosion of such alloys often results in the formation of a brittle nanoporous layer which we hypothesize serves to nucleate a crack that owing to dynamic effects penetrates into the un-dealloyed parent phase alloy. Thus, since there is essentially a purely mechanical component of cracking, stress corrosion crack propagation rates can be significantly larger than that predicted from electrochemical parameters. The main objective of this work is to examine and test this hypothesis under conditions relevant to stress corrosion cracking. Silver-gold alloys serve as a model system for this study since hydrogen effects can be neglected on a thermodynamic basis, which allows us to focus on a single cracking mechanism. In order to study various aspects of this problem, the dynamic fracture properties of monolithic nanoporous gold (NPG) were examined in air and under electrochemical conditions relevant to stress corrosion cracking. The detailed processes associated with the crack injection phenomenon were also examined by forming dealloyed nanoporous layers of prescribed properties on un-dealloyed parent phase structures and measuring crack penetration distances. Dynamic fracture in monolithic NPG and in crack injection experiments was examined using high-speed (106 frames s-1) digital photography. The tunable set of experimental parameters included the NPG length scale (20-40 nm), thickness of the dealloyed layer (10-3000 nm) and the electrochemical potential (0.5-1.5 V). The results of crack injection experiments were characterized using the dual-beam focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Together these tools allow us to very accurately examine the detailed structure and composition of dealloyed grain boundaries and compare crack injection distances to the depth of dealloying. The results of this work should provide a basis for new mathematical modeling of dealloying induced stress corrosion cracking while providing a sound physical basis for the design of new alloys that may not be susceptible to this form of cracking. Additionally, the obtained results should be of broad interest to researchers interested in the fracture properties of nano-structured materials. The findings will open up new avenues of research apart from any implications the study may have for stress corrosion cracking.

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2012

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A new atomistic simulation framework for mechanochemical reaction analysis of mechanophore embedded nanocomposites

Description

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes from specimen preparation to mechanical loading test. Ultra-violet photodimerization for mechanophore synthesis and epoxy curing for thermoset polymer generation are successfully simulated by developing a numerical covalent bond generation method using the classical force field within the framework. Mechanical loading tests to activate mechanophores are also virtually conducted by deforming the volume of a simulation unit cell. The unit cell deformation leads to covalent bond elongation and subsequent bond breakage, which is captured using the bond order based force field. The outcome of the virtual loading test is used for local work analysis, which enables a quantitative study of mechanophore activation. Through the local work analysis, the onset and evolution of mechanophore activation indicating damage initiation and propagation are estimated; ultimately, the mechanophore sensitivity to external stress is evaluated. The virtual loading tests also provide accurate estimations of mechanical properties such as elastic, shear, bulk modulus, yield strain/strength, and Poisson’s ratio of the system. Experimental studies are performed in conjunction with the simulation work to validate the hybrid MD simulation framework. Less than 2% error in estimations of glass transition temperature (Tg) is observed with experimentally measured Tgs by use of differential scanning calorimetry. Virtual loading tests successfully reproduce the stress-strain curve capturing the effect of mechanophore inclusion on mechanical properties of epoxy polymer; comparable changes in Young’s modulus and yield strength are observed in experiments and simulations. Early damage signal detection, which is identified in experiments by observing increased intensity before the yield strain, is captured in simulations by showing that the critical strain representing the onset of the mechanophore activation occurs before the estimated yield strain. It is anticipated that the experimentally validated hybrid MD framework presented in this dissertation will provide a low-cost alternative to additional experiments that are required for optimizing material design parameters to improve damage sensing capability and mechanical properties.

In addition to the study of mechanochemical reaction analysis, an atomistic model of interphase in carbon fiber reinforced composites is developed. Physical entanglement between semi-crystalline carbon fiber surface and polymer matrix is captured by introducing voids in multiple graphene layers, which allow polymer matrix to intertwine with graphene layers. The hybrid MD framework is used with some modifications to estimate interphase properties that include the effect of the physical entanglement. The results are compared with existing carbon fiber surface models that assume that carbon fiber has a crystalline structure and hence are unable to capture the physical entanglement. Results indicate that the current model shows larger stress gradients across the material interphase. These large stress gradients increase the viscoplasticity and damage effects at the interphase. The results are important for improved prediction of the nonlinear response and damage evolution in composite materials.

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Date Created
2017

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A study on the use of kilohertz acoustic energy for aluminum shaping and mass transport in ambient condition metal 3D printing

Description

This research work demonstrates the process feasibility of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling process as a metal additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing (or 3d printing) is the method to manufacture 3d objects layer by layer. Current direct or indirect metal additive manufacturing

This research work demonstrates the process feasibility of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling process as a metal additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing (or 3d printing) is the method to manufacture 3d objects layer by layer. Current direct or indirect metal additive manufacturing processes either require a high power heat source like a laser or an electron beam, or require some kind of a post processing operation to produce net-shape fully-dense 3D components. The novel process of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling uses ultrasonic energy to achieve voxel deformation and inter-layer and intra-layer mass transport between voxels causing metallurgical bonding between the voxels. This enables the process to build net-shape 3D components at room temperature and ambient conditions. Two parallel mechanisms, ultrasonic softening and enhanced mass transport due to ultrasonic irradiation enable the voxel shaping and bonding respectively. This work investigates ultrasonic softening and the mass transport across voxels. Microstructural changes in aluminium during the voxel shaping have also been investigated. The temperature evolution during the process has been analyzed and presented in this work.

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Date Created
2016