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The Comprehensive Analysis of Concussions and Their Ramifications on Society

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Over the past several years, there has been growing concern regarding concussions and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in all levels of sports. A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that

Over the past several years, there has been growing concern regarding concussions and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in all levels of sports. A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that occurs from a blow to the head. When a concussion occurs, the brain knocks against the walls of the skull. A concussion causes temporary loss of brain function leading to cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms, such as confusion, vomiting,headache, nausea,depression, disturbed sleep, moodiness, and amnesia. Although the short-term effects of concussions are limited, the long-term effects of concussions, if untreated, can be devastating and even life-threatening. Concussions are having detrimental ramifications on society and it is important to know what these ramifications are. Concussions are a common occurrence in traditional physical sports such as soccer, basketball, and football. However, due to the violent nature of football (American football), concussions are more prevalent and the effects are more severe. Changes to rules and equipment, specifically helmets, have been made to reduce head impacts in football but there is not currently enough evidence to conclude that they significantly lessen the frequency and severity of concussions.

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  • 2015-05

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Analyzing the Achievement and Attitude of Students Using Concept Mapping in an Active Learning Classroom

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Concept mapping is a tool used in order to visually represent a person's understanding of interrelated concepts. Generally the central concept is in the center or at the top and

Concept mapping is a tool used in order to visually represent a person's understanding of interrelated concepts. Generally the central concept is in the center or at the top and the related concepts branch off, becoming more detailed as it continues. Additionally, links between different branches show how those concepts are related to each other. Concept mapping can be implemented in many different types of classrooms because it can be easily adjusted for the needs of the teacher and class specifically. The goal of this project is to analyze both the attitude and achievement of students using concept mapping of college students in an active learning classroom. In order to evaluate the students' concept maps we will use the expert map scoring method, which compares the students concept maps to an expertly created concept map for similarities; the more similar the two maps are, the higher the score. We will collect and record students' scores on concept maps as they continue through the one semester class. Certain chapters correspond to specific exams due to the information contained in the lectures, chapters 1-4 correspond to exam 1 and so forth. We will use this information to correlate the average concept map score across these chapters to one exam score. There was no significant correlation found between the exam grades and the corresponding scores on the concept maps (Pearson's R values of 0.27, 0.26, and -0.082 for Exam 1, 2 and 3 respectively). According to Holm et all "it was found that 85% of students found interest or attainment in the concept mapping session, only 44% thought there was a cost, and 63% thought it would help them to be successful."

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  • 2016-12

Design and Fabrication of Soft Robotic Nautilus

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The field of soft robotics is a very quickly growing field that has yet to be fully explored or implemented in all of the possible applications. Soft robotics shows the

The field of soft robotics is a very quickly growing field that has yet to be fully explored or implemented in all of the possible applications. Soft robotics shows the greatest degree of possibility for mimicking biological systems effectively and accurately. This study seeks to set the groundwork for the development of a biomimetic nautilus using soft robotic methods. The study shows background research and discusses the methods used to develop a nautilus themed sub aquatic robot that uses a double bladder system and a pump to generate thrust for movement. The study shows how the unit would be fabricated and constructed. The study also explores why the second stage of the design failed and how it could potentially be fixed in future iterations.

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  • 2017-05

Metallurgical Test Comparison of Aerospace Material using Additive Manufacturing Technologies vs. Wrought Technologies

Description

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new technology will meet or exceed the requirements met by previous manufacturing methods, as well as producing more cost effective, geometrically-complex products. This investigation evaluated the performance of 3D-printed aerospace test specimens made by Powder Bed Fusion Technologies, and compared them to forged specimens. A design of experiments varying build parameters was conducted in order to determine AM component porosity. Factors such as powder post-processing, directionality of the build, and fractology of the samples were evaluated through tensile strength testing and hardness testing of Inconel 718 wrought and EBM printed materials. Using electron microsopy, the responses to these factors were analyzed for stress fractures, grain boundaries, and other defects that occurred in the testing process. The comparison determined which metallurgical process provides the most effective material for aircraft usage.

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  • 2017-05

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The Development of a Power System for the Phoenix CubeSat

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The Phoenix CubeSat is a 3U Earth imaging CubeSat which will take infrared (IR) photos of cities in the United Stated to study the Urban Heat Island Effect, (UHI) from

The Phoenix CubeSat is a 3U Earth imaging CubeSat which will take infrared (IR) photos of cities in the United Stated to study the Urban Heat Island Effect, (UHI) from low earth orbit (LEO). It has many different components that need to be powered during the life of its mission. The only power source during the mission will be its solar panels. It is difficult to calculate power generation from solar panels by hand because of the different orientations the satellite will be positioned in during orbit; therefore, simulation will be used to produce power generation data. Knowing how much power is generated is integral to balancing the power budget, confirming whether there is enough power for all the components, and knowing whether there will be enough power in the batteries during eclipse. This data will be used to create an optimal design for the Phoenix CubeSat to accomplish its mission.

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  • 2017-05

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Engineering the Future: Enhancing the Profile of Biomedical Engineers as a Socially Relevant Discipline

Description

Engineers have a strong influence on everyday lives, ranging from electronics and trains to chemicals and organs [1]. However, in the United States, there is a large knowledge gap in

Engineers have a strong influence on everyday lives, ranging from electronics and trains to chemicals and organs [1]. However, in the United States, there is a large knowledge gap in the roles of engineers, especially in K-12 students [2] [3]. The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recognizes the current problems in engineering, such as the dominance of white males in the field and the amount of education needed to become a successful engineer [4]. Therefore, the NAE encourages that the current engineering community begin to expose the younger generations to the real foundation of engineering: problem-solving [4]. The objective of this thesis is to minimize the knowledge gap by assessing the current perception of engineering amongst middle school and high school students and improving it through engaging and interactive presentations and activities that build upon the students’ problem-solving abilities.

The project was aimed towards middle school and high school students, as this is the estimated level where they learn biology and chemistry—key subject material in biomedical engineering. The high school students were given presentations and activities related to biomedical engineering. Additionally, within classrooms, posters were presented to middle school students. The content of the posters were students of the biomedical engineering program at ASU, coming from different ethnic backgrounds to try and evoke within the middle school students a sense of their own identity as a biomedical engineer. To evaluate the impact these materials had on the students, a survey was distributed before the students’ exposure to the materials and after that assesses the students’ understanding of engineering at two different time points. A statistical analysis was conducted with Microsoft Excel to assess the influence of the activity and/or presentation on the students’ understanding of engineering.

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  • 2017-05

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Engineering the Future: Enhancing Diversity and Increasing Awareness of Engineering

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The purpose of this study was to utilize quantitative results gained through surveys to determine the effect of hands-on engineering activities and a poster study on improving understanding and awareness

The purpose of this study was to utilize quantitative results gained through surveys to determine the effect of hands-on engineering activities and a poster study on improving understanding and awareness of engineering disciplines in high school students. There was a focus on increasing participation of women and minorities in engineering to improve diversity, and this study utilized biomedical engineering as a means of achieving these goals. The analysis of this thesis focused on the results of the pre-assessment and post-assessment taken by a group of high school students before and after a program using presentations in combination with engineering activities tackling real-world problems. These assessments objectively ranked both the awareness and interest level in various engineering activities across a number of disciplines. The results were analyzed using percentages of the engineering statements that the students recognized as engineering and were interested in, as well as using t-tests. Statistical significance was found for the percentage of statements that the students expressed the highest interest level in between the initial and final survey. The other factors analyzed did not produce statistical significance, but the increase in interest level does meet one of the primary goals of the project. Since the percentages of all the positive factors did increase between the pre- and post- assessment, the study can be considered a success overall; more data is simply needed to indicate significance in these other factors. Future studies will focus on implementing this program as an after-school activity that can be led by members of the engineering community at ASU.

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  • 2017-05

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Enhancing the Profile of Chemical Engineers as Relevant to Society amongst Middle School and High School Students

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The objective of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of a poster-based messaging campaign and engineering-based activities for middle school and high school students to encourage students to

The objective of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of a poster-based messaging campaign and engineering-based activities for middle school and high school students to encourage students to explore and to pursue chemical engineering. Additionally, presentations are incorporated into both methods to provide context and improve understanding of the presented poster material or activity. Pre-assessments and post-assessments are the quantitative method of measuring effectiveness. For the poster campaign, ASU juniors and seniors participated in the poster campaign by producing socially relevant messages about their research or aspirations to address relevant chemical engineering problems. For the engineering-based activity, high school students participated in an Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering program "Young Engineers Shape the World" in which the students participated in six-hour event learning about four engineering disciplines, and the chemical engineering presentation and activity was conducted in one of the sessions. Pre-assessments were given at the beginning of the event, and the post-assessments were provided towards the end of the event. This honors thesis project will analyze the collected data.

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  • 2017-05

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Developing Curriculum to Educate Engineers on Unconscious Bias

Description

Engineers spend several years studying intense technical details of the processes that shape our world, yet few are exposed to classes addressing social behaviors or issues. Engineering culture creates specific

Engineers spend several years studying intense technical details of the processes that shape our world, yet few are exposed to classes addressing social behaviors or issues. Engineering culture creates specific barriers to addressing social science issues, such as unconscious bias, within engineering classrooms. I developed a curriculum that uses optical illusions, Legos, and the instructor's vulnerability to tackle unconscious bias in a way that addresses the barriers in engineering culture that prevent engineers from learning social science issues. Unconscious bias has documented long-term negative impacts on success and personal development, even in engineering environments. Creating a module in engineering education that addresses unconscious bias with the aim of reducing the negative effects of bias would benefit developing engineers by improving product development and team diversity. Engineering culture fosters disengagement with social issues through three pillars: depoliticization, technical/social dualism, and meritocracy. The developed curriculum uses optical illusions and Legos as proxies to start discussions about unconscious bias. The proxies allow engineers to explore their own biases without running into one of the pillars of disengagement that limits the engineer's willingness to discuss social issues. The curriculum was implemented in the Fall of 2017 in an upper-division engineering classroom as a professional communication module. The module received qualitatively positive feedback from fellow instructors and students. The curriculum was only implemented once by the author, but future implementations should be done with a different instructor and using quantitative data to measure if the learning objectives were achieved. Appendix A of the paper contains a lesson plan of the module that could be implemented by other instructors.

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  • 2017-05

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Engineering Self-Organizing Biliary Organoids from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Description

Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells of the bile duct, are the origin of cholangiopathies which often necessitate liver transplants. Current progress in generating functional biliary organoids show potential for modelling cholangiopathies

Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells of the bile duct, are the origin of cholangiopathies which often necessitate liver transplants. Current progress in generating functional biliary organoids show potential for modelling cholangiopathies and validating therapeutic drugs. Organoids by groups Ogawa et al. and Sampaziotis et al. utilize soluble molecule induction, OP9 co-culture, and three-dimensional culture to achieve self-organizing tissues which express mature cholangiocyte markers and show cholangiocyte functionality. This thesis describes our efforts to establish a standard for functional PSC-derived bile duct tissues. By directing cell fate and patterning through external cues alone, we were able to produce CK19+ALB+ hepatoblast-like cells. These soluble molecule-induced cells also expressed EpCAM and CEBPA, suggesting the presence of early liver epithelial cells. However, inconsistent results and high levels of cell death with soluble molecule induction in early stages of differentiation prompted the development of a combinatory differentiation method which utilized multiple differentiation tools. We opted to combine transcription-factor triggered differentiation with soluble molecule-mediated differentiation to produce early biliary cells with the potential to develop into mature cholangiocytes. By combining genetic engineering through the activation of doxycycline-inducible GATA6 switch and microbead-mediated CXCR4 separation, we generated patterned tissues which expressed early biliary markers, CD146, CK19, and SOX9. In the future, three-dimensional cell culture and OP9 co-culture could improve our current results by facilitating 3D cellular self-organization and promoting NOTCH signaling for cholangiocyte maturation. Next steps for this research include optimizing media formulations, tracking gene expression over time, and testing the functionality of generated tissues.

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  • 2017-05