Matching Items (53)

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Affordable and Environmentally Conscious Living: Residential Rooftop Solar Solutions for Low-Income and Middle-Income Families

Description

As climate change and air pollution continue to plague the world today, committed citizens are doing their part to minimize their environmental impact. However, financial limitations have hindered a majority of individuals from adopting clean, renewable energy such as roofto

As climate change and air pollution continue to plague the world today, committed citizens are doing their part to minimize their environmental impact. However, financial limitations have hindered a majority of individuals from adopting clean, renewable energy such as rooftop photovoltaic solar systems. England Sustainability Consulting plans to reverse this limitation and increase affordability for residents across Northern California to install solar panel systems for their energy needs. The purpose of this proposal is to showcase a new approach to procuring solar panel system components while offering the same products needed by each customer. We will examine market data to further prove the feasibility of this business approach while remaining profitable and spread our company's vision across all of Northern California.

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2018-05

Streamlining Early Stage Photovoltaic Electrical Subcontracting Scope and Pricing

Description

This paper introduces an excel tool created to improve the accuracy of electrical subcontracting prices for solar photovoltaic energy systems while also minimizing the time needed to create these price estimations. The need for improved precision, specifically during the early

This paper introduces an excel tool created to improve the accuracy of electrical subcontracting prices for solar photovoltaic energy systems while also minimizing the time needed to create these price estimations. The need for improved precision, specifically during the early stages of a project, is examined and the paper also goes into detail about the components and pricing method that are incorporated into the excel tool. Lastly, the results of the price estimation tool are compared to real bids and recommendations are made for improvement to the tool.

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2018-05

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Computational Modeling and Experimentation of Pervaporation Membrane Processes for Brackish Water Recovery

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Fresh water is essential to the human population and is an integral component in global economics for its multiple uses, and population growth/development cause concern for the possible exhaustion of the limited supply of freshwater. A combined computational and experimental

Fresh water is essential to the human population and is an integral component in global economics for its multiple uses, and population growth/development cause concern for the possible exhaustion of the limited supply of freshwater. A combined computational and experimental approach to observe and evaluate pervaporation membrane performance for brackish water recovery was done to assess its efficiency and practicality for real world application. Results from modeling conveyed accuracy to reported parameter values from literature as well as strong dependence of performance on input parameters such as temperature. Experimentation results showed improved performance in flux by 34%-42% with radiative effect and then additional performance improvement (9%-33%) with the photothermal effect from carbon black application. Future work will include improvements to the model to include scaling propensity and energy consumption as well as continued experimentation to assess quality of pervaporation in water recovery.

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2018-05

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Cost Benefit Analysis of Going Solar in Arizona

Description

As more countries move toward renewable energy sources, universal acceptance is only a matter of time. It is no longer a question of if, but of when. For now, these types of energy sources can be too expensive or

As more countries move toward renewable energy sources, universal acceptance is only a matter of time. It is no longer a question of if, but of when. For now, these types of energy sources can be too expensive or too complex for the average homeowner to acquire. A considerable financial investment and logistical specifications are required. My goal for this project is to create an analysis that will convey the most efficient and cost-effective way to move to a solar energy system without sacrificing output. There are many factors that go into the most practical and efficient strategy. These may include: solar tax credits, subsidies, rebates, panel type, utility company, among others. I hope to create an analysis that will enable anyone interested in taking advantage of solar power. The process outlined here will permit subjects to determine the best option for them, based on personal preferences and other related mitigating factors.

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2019-05

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Design and Construction of Controlled Back Reflectors for Bifacial Photovoltaic Modules

Description

Bifacial photovoltaic modules are a relatively new development in the photovoltaic industry which allows for the collection and conversion of light on both sides of photovoltaic modules to usable electricity. Additional energy yield from bifacial photovoltaic modules, despite a slight

Bifacial photovoltaic modules are a relatively new development in the photovoltaic industry which allows for the collection and conversion of light on both sides of photovoltaic modules to usable electricity. Additional energy yield from bifacial photovoltaic modules, despite a slight increase in cost due to manufacturing processes of the bifacial cells, has the potential to significantly decrease the LCOE of photovoltaic installation. The performance of bifacial modules is dependent on three major factors: incident irradiation on the front side of the module, reflected irradiation on the back side of the module, and the module's bifaciality. Bifaciality is an inherent property of the photovoltaic cells and is determined by the performance of the front and rear side of the module when tested at STC. The reflected light on the back side of the module, however, is determined by several different factors including the incident ground irradiance, shading from the modules and racking system, height of the module installation, and ground albedo. Typical ground surfaces have a low albedo, which means that the magnitude of reflected light is a low percentage of the incident irradiance. Non-uniformity of back-side irradiance can also reduce the power generation due to cell-to-cell mismatch losses. This study investigates the use of controlled back-side reflectors to improve the irradiance on the back side of loosely packed 48-cell bifacial modules and compares this performance to the performance of 48 and 60-cell bifacial modules which rely on the uncontrolled reflection off nearby ground surfaces. Different construction geometries and reflective coating materials were tested to determine optimal construction to improve the reflectivity and uniformity of reflection. Results of this study show a significant improvement of 10-14% total energy production from modules with reflectors when compared to the 48-cell module with an uncontrolled ground reflection.

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2018-05

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Design and Optimization of a Building Integrated Solar Thermoelectric Generator

Description

The main objective of this project was to continue research and development of a building integrated solar thermoelectric generator (BISTEG). BISTEG is a promising renewable energy technology that is capable of generating electrical energy from the heat of concentrated sunlight.

The main objective of this project was to continue research and development of a building integrated solar thermoelectric generator (BISTEG). BISTEG is a promising renewable energy technology that is capable of generating electrical energy from the heat of concentrated sunlight. In order to perform R&D, the performance of different TEG cells and TEG setups were tested and analyzed, proof-of-concepts and prototypes were built. and the performance of the proof-of-concepts and prototypes were tested and analyzed as well. In order to test different TEG cells and TEG setups, a TEG testing apparatus was designed and fabricated. The apparatus is capable of comparing the performance of TEGs with temperature differentials up to 200 degrees C. Along with a TEG testing apparatus, several proof-of-concepts and prototypes were completed. All of these were tested in order to determine the feasibility of the design. All three proof-of-concepts were only capable of producing a voltage output less than 300mV. The prototype, however, was capable of producing a max output voltage of 17 volts. Although the prototype outperformed all of the proof-of-concepts, optimizations to the design can continue to improve the output voltage. In order to do so, stacked TEG tests were performed. After performing the stacked TEG tests, it was determined that the use of stacked TEGs depended on the Fresnel lens chosen. If BISTEG were to use a point focused Fresnel lens, using a stack of TEGs could increase the power density. If BISTEG were to utilize a linear focused Fresnel lens, however, the TEGs should not be stacked. It would be more efficient to lay them out side by side. They can be stacked, however, if the energy density needs to be increased and the costs of the additional TEGs are not an issue.

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2017-05

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The Development of a Power System for the Phoenix CubeSat

Description

The Phoenix CubeSat is a 3U Earth imaging CubeSat which will take infrared (IR) photos of cities in the United Stated to study the Urban Heat Island Effect, (UHI) from low earth orbit (LEO). It has many different components that

The Phoenix CubeSat is a 3U Earth imaging CubeSat which will take infrared (IR) photos of cities in the United Stated to study the Urban Heat Island Effect, (UHI) from low earth orbit (LEO). It has many different components that need to be powered during the life of its mission. The only power source during the mission will be its solar panels. It is difficult to calculate power generation from solar panels by hand because of the different orientations the satellite will be positioned in during orbit; therefore, simulation will be used to produce power generation data. Knowing how much power is generated is integral to balancing the power budget, confirming whether there is enough power for all the components, and knowing whether there will be enough power in the batteries during eclipse. This data will be used to create an optimal design for the Phoenix CubeSat to accomplish its mission.

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2017-05

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Performance Modeling of a Concentrating Photovoltaic Two-Axis Tracker

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The purpose of this research is to study the effect of angle of acceptance and mechanical control system noise on the power available to a two-axis solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. The efficiency of a solar CPV system is greatly

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of angle of acceptance and mechanical control system noise on the power available to a two-axis solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. The efficiency of a solar CPV system is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the tracking system because a strong focal point is needed to concentrate incident solar irradiation on the small, high efficiency cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify tracking accuracy for a performance model which would apply to similar two-axis systems. An analysis comparing CPV to traditional solar photovoltaics from an economic standpoint was conducted as well to evaluate the viability of emerging CPV technology. The research was performed using two calibrated solar radiation sensors mounted on the plane of the tracking system, normal to the sun. One sensor is held at a constant, normal angle (0 degrees) and the other is varied by a known interior angle in the range of 0 degrees to 10 degrees. This was to study the magnitude of the decrease in in irradiance as the angle deviation increases. The results show that, as the interior angle increases, the solar irradiance and thus available power available on the focal point will decrease roughly at a parabolic rate, with a sharp cutoff point at angles greater than 5 degrees. These findings have a significant impact on CPV system tracking mechanisms, which require high precision tracking in order to perform as intended.

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2017-05

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Design of Advanced DC-AC Converter for Underprivileged Communities

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Growing up in Ghana West Africa, I realized there were a few major obstacles hindering the education of the youth. One of them was the consistent supply of all year-round power. Therefore, pursuing a career in power electronics, I decided

Growing up in Ghana West Africa, I realized there were a few major obstacles hindering the education of the youth. One of them was the consistent supply of all year-round power. Therefore, pursuing a career in power electronics, I decided to research and implement a budget-friendly DC-AC converter that can take power from a DC source such as a solar panel to make AC power, suitable for grid-implementation. This project was undertaken with two other colleagues (Ian Vogt and Brett Fennelly), as our Senior Design Capstone project. My colleagues primarily researched into the "advanced" part of the converter such as Volt-VAR, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), and variable power factor, making the Capstone project be dubbed as "Smart Inverter". In this paper, I elaborate on the entire process of my research and simulation, through the design and layout of the PCB board to milling, soldering and testing. That was my contribution to the capstone project. After testing the board, it was concluded that although the inverter was intended to be the very inexpensive, some electrical and design principles could not be compromised. The converter did successfully invert DC power to AC, but it was only at low voltage levels; it could not withstand the higher voltages. This roadblock stymied the testing of advanced functionalities, paving way for an avenue of further research and implementation.

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2018-05

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Medium-scale Automation System Design and Implementation

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Under the supervision of Pofessor Robert Hammond, I handled the programming and record-keeping needs of a project at the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research Center (STAR). In the course of the first year that I worked there, I

Under the supervision of Pofessor Robert Hammond, I handled the programming and record-keeping needs of a project at the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research Center (STAR). In the course of the first year that I worked there, I became aware that STAR's Data Management System (DMS) was in need of an overhaul due to an increasingly volatile date set that was quickly growing in size. STAR management was looking for a software system that would retrieve and store data automatically, that would contain a friendly user-interface, that minimized space usage on a crowded hard drive, that provided quick access to charts, and that generated statistical analysis of solar plant operation. STAR's current DMS consists of four top-level procedures. The latest version of STAR's DMS began operation two and a half years ago. The goal of the following chapters is to document and critique the software development process that I used to bring the Visual Basic for Excel version of the current software components into existence. In addition, the conclusion will include a look into the future of STAR's DMS as management introduces an Access database version for the implementation of the DMS.

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2003-05