Matching Items (50)

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Computational Modeling and Experimentation of Pervaporation Membrane Processes for Brackish Water Recovery

Description

Fresh water is essential to the human population and is an integral component in global economics for its multiple uses, and population growth/development cause concern for the possible exhaustion of

Fresh water is essential to the human population and is an integral component in global economics for its multiple uses, and population growth/development cause concern for the possible exhaustion of the limited supply of freshwater. A combined computational and experimental approach to observe and evaluate pervaporation membrane performance for brackish water recovery was done to assess its efficiency and practicality for real world application. Results from modeling conveyed accuracy to reported parameter values from literature as well as strong dependence of performance on input parameters such as temperature. Experimentation results showed improved performance in flux by 34%-42% with radiative effect and then additional performance improvement (9%-33%) with the photothermal effect from carbon black application. Future work will include improvements to the model to include scaling propensity and energy consumption as well as continued experimentation to assess quality of pervaporation in water recovery.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Performance Modeling of a Concentrating Photovoltaic Two-Axis Tracker

Description

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of angle of acceptance and mechanical control system noise on the power available to a two-axis solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV)

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of angle of acceptance and mechanical control system noise on the power available to a two-axis solar concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. The efficiency of a solar CPV system is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the tracking system because a strong focal point is needed to concentrate incident solar irradiation on the small, high efficiency cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify tracking accuracy for a performance model which would apply to similar two-axis systems. An analysis comparing CPV to traditional solar photovoltaics from an economic standpoint was conducted as well to evaluate the viability of emerging CPV technology. The research was performed using two calibrated solar radiation sensors mounted on the plane of the tracking system, normal to the sun. One sensor is held at a constant, normal angle (0 degrees) and the other is varied by a known interior angle in the range of 0 degrees to 10 degrees. This was to study the magnitude of the decrease in in irradiance as the angle deviation increases. The results show that, as the interior angle increases, the solar irradiance and thus available power available on the focal point will decrease roughly at a parabolic rate, with a sharp cutoff point at angles greater than 5 degrees. These findings have a significant impact on CPV system tracking mechanisms, which require high precision tracking in order to perform as intended.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Development of a Power System for the Phoenix CubeSat

Description

The Phoenix CubeSat is a 3U Earth imaging CubeSat which will take infrared (IR) photos of cities in the United Stated to study the Urban Heat Island Effect, (UHI) from

The Phoenix CubeSat is a 3U Earth imaging CubeSat which will take infrared (IR) photos of cities in the United Stated to study the Urban Heat Island Effect, (UHI) from low earth orbit (LEO). It has many different components that need to be powered during the life of its mission. The only power source during the mission will be its solar panels. It is difficult to calculate power generation from solar panels by hand because of the different orientations the satellite will be positioned in during orbit; therefore, simulation will be used to produce power generation data. Knowing how much power is generated is integral to balancing the power budget, confirming whether there is enough power for all the components, and knowing whether there will be enough power in the batteries during eclipse. This data will be used to create an optimal design for the Phoenix CubeSat to accomplish its mission.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Design and Optimization of a Building Integrated Solar Thermoelectric Generator

Description

The main objective of this project was to continue research and development of a building integrated solar thermoelectric generator (BISTEG). BISTEG is a promising renewable energy technology that is capable

The main objective of this project was to continue research and development of a building integrated solar thermoelectric generator (BISTEG). BISTEG is a promising renewable energy technology that is capable of generating electrical energy from the heat of concentrated sunlight. In order to perform R&D, the performance of different TEG cells and TEG setups were tested and analyzed, proof-of-concepts and prototypes were built. and the performance of the proof-of-concepts and prototypes were tested and analyzed as well. In order to test different TEG cells and TEG setups, a TEG testing apparatus was designed and fabricated. The apparatus is capable of comparing the performance of TEGs with temperature differentials up to 200 degrees C. Along with a TEG testing apparatus, several proof-of-concepts and prototypes were completed. All of these were tested in order to determine the feasibility of the design. All three proof-of-concepts were only capable of producing a voltage output less than 300mV. The prototype, however, was capable of producing a max output voltage of 17 volts. Although the prototype outperformed all of the proof-of-concepts, optimizations to the design can continue to improve the output voltage. In order to do so, stacked TEG tests were performed. After performing the stacked TEG tests, it was determined that the use of stacked TEGs depended on the Fresnel lens chosen. If BISTEG were to use a point focused Fresnel lens, using a stack of TEGs could increase the power density. If BISTEG were to utilize a linear focused Fresnel lens, however, the TEGs should not be stacked. It would be more efficient to lay them out side by side. They can be stacked, however, if the energy density needs to be increased and the costs of the additional TEGs are not an issue.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Multi-Layer Optical Coatings Composed of Silicon Nanoparticles

Description

To compete with fossil fuel electricity generation, there is a need for higher efficiency solar cells to produce renewable energy. Currently, this is the best way to lower generation costs

To compete with fossil fuel electricity generation, there is a need for higher efficiency solar cells to produce renewable energy. Currently, this is the best way to lower generation costs and the price of energy [1]. The goal of this Barrett Honors Thesis is to design an optical coating model that has five or fewer layers (with varying thickness and refractive index, within the above range) and that has the maximum reflectance possible between 950 and 1200 nanometers for normally incident light. Manipulating silicon monolayers to become efficient inversion layers to use in solar cells aligns with the Ira. A Fulton Schools of Engineering research themes of energy and sustainability [2]. Silicon monolayers could be specifically designed for different doping substrates. These substrates could range from common-used materials such as boron and phosphorus, to rare-earth doped zinc oxides or even fullerene blends. Exploring how the doping material, and in what quantity, affects solar cell energy output could revolutionize the current production methods and commercial market. If solar cells can be manufactured more economically, yet still retain high efficiency rates, then more people will have access to alternate, "green" energy that does not deplete nonrenewable resources.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Affordable and Environmentally Conscious Living: Residential Rooftop Solar Solutions for Low-Income and Middle-Income Families

Description

As climate change and air pollution continue to plague the world today, committed citizens are doing their part to minimize their environmental impact. However, financial limitations have hindered a majority

As climate change and air pollution continue to plague the world today, committed citizens are doing their part to minimize their environmental impact. However, financial limitations have hindered a majority of individuals from adopting clean, renewable energy such as rooftop photovoltaic solar systems. England Sustainability Consulting plans to reverse this limitation and increase affordability for residents across Northern California to install solar panel systems for their energy needs. The purpose of this proposal is to showcase a new approach to procuring solar panel system components while offering the same products needed by each customer. We will examine market data to further prove the feasibility of this business approach while remaining profitable and spread our company's vision across all of Northern California.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Global Climate Crisis: Why is Arizona Behind The Renewable Energy Curve?

Description

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) continue to contribute heavily to global warming. It is estimated that the international community has only until 2050 to eliminate total carbon emissions or risk irreversible

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) continue to contribute heavily to global warming. It is estimated that the international community has only until 2050 to eliminate total carbon emissions or risk irreversible climate change. Arizona, despite its vast solar energy resources, is particularly behind in the global transition to carbon-free energy. This paper looks to explore issues that may be preventing Arizona from an efficient transition to carbon-free generation technologies. Identifiable factors include outdated state energy generation standards, lack of oversight and accountability of Arizona’s electricity industry regulatory body, and the ability for regulated utilities to take advantage of “dark money” campaign contributions. Various recommendations for mitigating the factors preventing Arizona from a carbon-free future are presented. Possibilities such as modernizing state energy generation standards, increasing oversight and accountability of Arizona’s electricity industry regulatory body, and potential market restructuring which would do away with the traditional regulated utility framework are explored. The goal is to inform readers of the issues plaguing the Arizona energy industry and recommend potential solutions moving forward.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Engaging Organization Members Through Tailored Sustainable Competitions

Description

As ASU students, we saw that our peers had opinions regarding sustainable issues, but did not feel like their voices were being heard by the university. We saw a

As ASU students, we saw that our peers had opinions regarding sustainable issues, but did not feel like their voices were being heard by the university. We saw a space we could fill to promote engagement and let students know that they could participate in finding sustainable solutions to problems they faced around campus. This created our venture which works to promote engagement through sustainable solutions. We ran a successful competition with students and local professionals by focusing on sustainability topics students were interested in. Promoting engagement can often come across as disingenuous and thus serve the opposite effect of its function. By centering around the topic of tailored sustainability related competitions, we can direct goodwill to the organizations by harnessing the positive feelings individuals have toward sustainability topics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Wire Interconnections in Solar Modules

Description

Wire connected solar cells are a promising new technology that can increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of solar modules. The use of wire rather than ribbon bus bars

Wire connected solar cells are a promising new technology that can increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of solar modules. The use of wire rather than ribbon bus bars can lead to reduced shading, better light trapping, and reduced material costs, all while eliminating the need for soldering. This research first analyzes the optimal wire gauge to reduce cracking and improve efficiency. Wire sizes between 20 AWG and 28 AWG were tested, with the optimal size being between 24 AWG and 26 AWG for the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) layer used in the module. A polyethylene sheet was then added between the wires and EVA layer to prevent the EVA from running underneath the wires during lamination, ultimately allowing for a more uniform contact and only a slight reduction in quantum efficiency. Then, a comparison between tinned copper wires and indium coated copper wires is shown. A mini-module efficiency of 20.0% has been achieved using tinned copper wires, while indium coated copper wires have produced a mini-module efficiency of 21.2%. Thus, tinned copper wires can be a viable alternative to indium coated copper wires, depending on the needs of the customers and the current price of indium. The module design throughout the research utilizes a planar assembly method, which improves the ease of manufacturing for wire interconnection technology. A two-cell base component is constructed and shown, with the intended future application of making large wire connected modules. Finally, wire applications in both single-cell and four-cell flexible modules are explored, with an efficiency of 18.65% achieved on a single-cell, flexible, heterojunction solar module using wire interconnections. A fully flexible four-cell string is developed, and future recommendations for related research are included.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Medium-scale Automation System Design and Implementation

Description

Under the supervision of Pofessor Robert Hammond, I handled the programming and record-keeping needs of a project at the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research Center (STAR). In the

Under the supervision of Pofessor Robert Hammond, I handled the programming and record-keeping needs of a project at the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research Center (STAR). In the course of the first year that I worked there, I became aware that STAR's Data Management System (DMS) was in need of an overhaul due to an increasingly volatile date set that was quickly growing in size. STAR management was looking for a software system that would retrieve and store data automatically, that would contain a friendly user-interface, that minimized space usage on a crowded hard drive, that provided quick access to charts, and that generated statistical analysis of solar plant operation. STAR's current DMS consists of four top-level procedures. The latest version of STAR's DMS began operation two and a half years ago. The goal of the following chapters is to document and critique the software development process that I used to bring the Visual Basic for Excel version of the current software components into existence. In addition, the conclusion will include a look into the future of STAR's DMS as management introduces an Access database version for the implementation of the DMS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2003-05