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Breaking the Glass Canopy: The Ascension of Women in Colombian Revolutionary Groups

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In previous research, little work was done to understand how and to what extent female combatants in Colombian revolutionary groups functioned as leaders. This paper seeks to assess the agency that women in Colombian leftist revolutionary organizations such as M-19

In previous research, little work was done to understand how and to what extent female combatants in Colombian revolutionary groups functioned as leaders. This paper seeks to assess the agency that women in Colombian leftist revolutionary organizations such as M-19 and FARC had access to, specifically with regards to leadership. Colombian revolutionary groups failed to successfully incorporate women into higher ranks, despite claiming otherwise. The military structure particularly favors men by esteeming masculine roles and blaming women for the transgressions of men. This paper specifically evaluates the differences between the M-19 and FARC with regards to female leadership. The M-19 more effectively incorporated women into leadership roles than FARC due to differences regarding representation.

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2017-05

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Analysis of Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) Homodimerization Driven by RXR Ligands Using Yeast Two-Hybrid

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Bexarotene (Targretin®) is an FDA approved drug used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as well as off-label treatments for various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous research has indicated that bexarotene has a specific affinity for retinoid X receptors

Bexarotene (Targretin®) is an FDA approved drug used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as well as off-label treatments for various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous research has indicated that bexarotene has a specific affinity for retinoid X receptors (RXR), which allows bexarotene to act as a ligand-activated-transcription factor and in return control cell differentiation and proliferation. Bexarotene targets RXR homodimerization to drive transcription of tumor suppressing genes; however, adverse reactions occur simultaneously when bound to other nuclear receptors. In this study, we used novel bexarotene analogs throughout 5 iterations synthesized in the laboratory of Dr. Wagner to test for their potency and ability to bind RXR. The aim of our study is to quantitatively measure RXR homodimerization driven by bexarotene analogs using a yeast two-hybrid system. Our results suggests there to be several compounds with higher protein activity than bexarotene, particularly in generations 3.0 and 5.0. This higher affinity for RXR homodimers may help scientists identify a compound that will minimize adverse effects and toxicity of bexarotene and serve as a better cancer treatment alternative.

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2015-05

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Revenge Porn: Ambiguities of Technology, Law, and Responsbility

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Revenge porn is the accepted term used to describe the distribution of explicit photos online with the intent to incite embarrassment or shame. Perpetrators are typically ex-lovers seeking revenge on a former partner. This harassment has become widespread alongside increased

Revenge porn is the accepted term used to describe the distribution of explicit photos online with the intent to incite embarrassment or shame. Perpetrators are typically ex-lovers seeking revenge on a former partner. This harassment has become widespread alongside increased access to online networks and "sexting" culture. Early studies indicate revenge porn reflects a larger cultural attitude of "slut shaming", the tendency to shame women for behaving in a sexual manner outside the boundaries of traditional female sexuality. Focus groups were organized to discuss views regarding revenge porn, Internet privacy, and legislature.

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2015-05

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Characterization of Second and Third Generation, Novel RXR Selction Agonists for the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

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Bexarotene is a commercially produced drug commonly known as Targetin presecribed to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Bex mimics the actions of natural 9-cis retinoic acid in the body, which are derived from Vitamin A in the diet and boost

Bexarotene is a commercially produced drug commonly known as Targetin presecribed to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Bex mimics the actions of natural 9-cis retinoic acid in the body, which are derived from Vitamin A in the diet and boost the immune system. Bex has been shown to be effective in the treatment of multiple types of cancer, including lung cancer. However, the disadvantages of using Bex include increased instances of hypothyroidism and excessive concentrations of blood triglycerides. If an analog of Bex can be developed which retains high affinity RXR binding similar to the 9-cis retinoic acid while exhibiting less interference for heterodimerization pathways, it would be of great clinical significance in improving the quality of life for patients with CTCL. This thesis will detail the biological profiling of additional novel (Generation Two) analogs, which are currently in submission for publication, as well as that of Generation Three analogs. The results from these studies reveal that specific alterations in the core structure of the Bex "parent" compound structure can have dramatic effects in modifying the biological activity of RXR agonists.

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2012-05

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Chronic Pain: Social Responses and Treatment

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Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and the cost, it is necessary to understand factors that influence

Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and the cost, it is necessary to understand factors that influence the chronic pain experience and potential ways to treat it. This literature review examines three demographic factors - gender, ethnicity and age \u2014 and the effect each has on the chronic pain experience. Pain intensity, disability caused by pain, mood and coping were reviewed in relation to gender. No conclusions were able to be drawn based on the literature reviewed for any of the topics; findings were conflicting. Ethnic groups with chronic pain were evaluated for differences in the pain experience, psychological and emotional responses and coping. A lack of consistent findings among studies made it hard to come to conclusions. As children and adolescents get older, the frequency of their pain becomes higher. The literature review then continues by examining three treatment methods: cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis and exercise. Each treatment method discussed had beneficial outcomes in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavioral therapy seemed to be the most beneficial both short- and long-term. Hypnosis was most beneficial short-term for flair-ups and exercise had the best effects long term when the treatment is continued. In the future, I recommend designing a study that takes into consideration multiple variables that may have an effect on the pain experience including gender, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, education, income and duration of pain, and manipulating one at a time.

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2014-05

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Looking for the Female Gaze: The Search for a Feminine Practice of Looking

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In today’s economy, advertisers understand that sex sells. The foundations of this concept, however, are influenced by patriarchal expectations that women are first and foremost sexual objects for men. Women are sold beauty and demeanor expectations for them to utilize

In today’s economy, advertisers understand that sex sells. The foundations of this concept, however, are influenced by patriarchal expectations that women are first and foremost sexual objects for men. Women are sold beauty and demeanor expectations for them to utilize when making themselves attractive for men and men are sold the idea of beautiful, docile women. This dynamic perpetuates strict definitions of acceptable gender displays and reinforces socially permitted gendered behavior. As a society in the 21st century, we understand the damage of sexist ideals, but where we fall short is in the monitoring of channels that perpetuate and maintain those stereotypes and how affected the public really is by the male gaze, and lack of a female gaze, in media. In this paper, I search for a female gaze, but in doing so recognize the inequalities inherent in yet another gendered practice of looking and instead steer the conversation towards personalized perspectives informed by an understanding of the dominant practice of looking and its inverse.

The primary perspective from which people are depicted in media today is shaped by the male gaze. The male gaze is comprised of patriarchal ideals and relies on the understanding that the spectator or viewer is a standard human being, which heteronormativity tells us is a man. From this perspective, the scope of visual representations of men and women in media has been molded after the hierarchized gender displays within which masculinity has primacy over femininity. By presenting a limited spectrum of behavior acceptable for men and women, the media hegemonically manipulates the social constructs of gender and gendered behavior across all levels of society.

This honors thesis applies semiotic and feminist methodologies to engage visual forms of media through art, film, and social media to challenge the social constructs of gender perpetuated and reinforced by dated stereotypes of gender and gendered behavior. First, the theoretical foundation will provide a framework for semiotic and feminist analysis of visual representations of gender in media. Then, I will present data representing the real-world impact that this social construction of gender has on adolescents in America using The State of Gender Equality for U.S. Adolescents, published by Plan International Inc. I will then bring together the explicated methodologies and evidential data alongside my own experiences as a female consumer of visual media to reveal alternative practices of looking that do not revolve around patriarchal norms, looking for a female gaze. In doing so, I hope to present recourse in the face of persistent use of sexist imagery across all levels of our culture and every medium of visual self-expression by providing tools that can be used to interrogate gendered perceptions and inform self-examination in pursuit of a feminist practice of looking.

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2020-05

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Does Anger Expression Help Attorneys in Court? Perceptions of Angry Male and Female Attorneys

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The objective of this study is to determine if female attorneys are penalized for expressing anger, while male attorneys gain influence when they express anger. I hypothesized that angry male attorneys would be perceived as having more positive traits and

The objective of this study is to determine if female attorneys are penalized for expressing anger, while male attorneys gain influence when they express anger. I hypothesized that angry male attorneys would be perceived as having more positive traits and less negative traits than calm male attorney. In contrast, I hypothesized that angry female attorneys would be perceived as having more negative traits and less positive traits than calm female attorneys. I hypothesized that, as a result, participants would be more likely to hire the angry male attorney than the calm male attorney, while they would be less likely to hire the angry female attorney than the calm female attorney. After having participants view a video of attorneys giving closing arguments, whether it be angry or calm, male or female and having them answer questions, I found that both attorneys were characterized as having both more positive and negative traits than calm attorneys—regardless of their gender. In regards to the likelihood of being hired, I found that angry male attorneys were more likely to be hired than calm male attorneys. In contrast, angry female attorneys were less likely to be hired than calm female attorneys. Thus, although participants found both male and female angry (versus calm) attorneys high on negative and positive characteristics, they were more likely to hire the angry (versus calm) male attorney, which is consistent with previous research showing men are seen as more competent when expressing anger. These data suggest that there might be a systematic bias against women who try to exert influence in the courtroom by expressing anger.

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2016-12

Exploring Appearance-Related Peer Victimization Across Gender Certain and Uncertain Preadolescents

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Appearance-related peer victimization has been shown to have strong social, health, and economic consequences on victims. Low body satisfaction has also been associated with higher appearance-related peer victimization prevalence. Preadolescent children are particularly vulnerable to the exposure and effects of

Appearance-related peer victimization has been shown to have strong social, health, and economic consequences on victims. Low body satisfaction has also been associated with higher appearance-related peer victimization prevalence. Preadolescent children are particularly vulnerable to the exposure and effects of appearance-related peer victimization. Research shows gender minorities have been particularly at risk for peer victimization. More studies are needed to adequately capture the appearance-related peer victimization experiences of gender minorities within this vulnerable age group. The current study aimed to explore the prevalence rate of appearance-related peer victimization and associated variables across gender certain and uncertain preadolescents residing in the United States. 5354 children between the ages of 8 and 13 participated in this cross-sectional study. Gender groups were categorized as certain (children reported identifying as boy or girl) and uncertain (children reported being unsure of their gender or other). The sample was racially and ethnically diverse. A two-tailed independent samples t-test was performed for each variable to examine mean differences across gender certain and uncertain groups. Key findings revealed significant mean differences in appearance-related peer victimization [t(139) = 3.21, p < .001, d =.36], body satisfaction [t(211) = 6.32, p <.001, d = .55], body esteem [ t(5352) = 10.77, p = <.001, d = .71], and self-esteem [t(231) = 9.25, p = <.001, d = .73] such that gender uncertain children reported higher mean levels of appearance-related peer victimization; gender uncertain children also reported lower levels of body satisfaction, body esteem, and self-esteem. A correlational analysis indicated that as peer victimization frequency increased all children reported lower body satisfaction, body esteem, and general self-esteem. Body satisfaction and general self-esteem were more strongly positively correlated among gender uncertain children versus gender certain children. However, gender certain children reported stronger positive associations between body esteem and general self-esteem in comparison with gender uncertain children. Gender uncertain children report higher rates of appearance-related peer victimization and lower body satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to replicate and expand research on the appearance-related peer victimization experiences of preadolescent gender minority children and the related effects to body satisfaction.

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2022-05