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The impact of coordination quality on coordination dynamics and team performance: when humans team with autonomy

Description

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing

This increasing role of highly automated and intelligent systems as team members has started a paradigm shift from human-human teaming to Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT). However, moving from human-human teaming to HAT is challenging. Teamwork requires skills that are often missing in robots and synthetic agents. It is possible that adding a synthetic agent as a team member may lead teams to demonstrate different coordination patterns resulting in differences in team cognition and ultimately team effectiveness. The theory of Interactive Team Cognition (ITC) emphasizes the importance of team interaction behaviors over the collection of individual knowledge. In this dissertation, Nonlinear Dynamical Methods (NDMs) were applied to capture characteristics of overall team coordination and communication behaviors. The findings supported the hypothesis that coordination stability is related to team performance in a nonlinear manner with optimal performance associated with moderate stability coupled with flexibility. Thus, we need to build mechanisms in HATs to demonstrate moderately stable and flexible coordination behavior to achieve team-level goals under routine and novel task conditions.

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Date Created
2017

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Electronic Communication for Professionals—Challenges and Opportunities

Description

The 21st-century professional or knowledge worker spends much of the working day engaging others through electronic communication. The modes of communication available to knowledge workers have rapidly increased due to computerized technology advances: conference and video calls, instant messaging, e-mail,

The 21st-century professional or knowledge worker spends much of the working day engaging others through electronic communication. The modes of communication available to knowledge workers have rapidly increased due to computerized technology advances: conference and video calls, instant messaging, e-mail, social media, podcasts, audio books, webinars, and much more. Professionals who think for a living express feelings of stress about their ability to respond and fear missing critical tasks or information as they attempt to wade through all the electronic communication that floods their inboxes. Although many electronic communication tools compete for the attention of the contemporary knowledge worker, most professionals use an electronic personal information management (PIM) system, more commonly known as an e-mail application and often the ubiquitous Microsoft Outlook program. The aim of this research was to provide knowledge workers with solutions to manage the influx of electronic communication that arrives daily by studying the workers in their working environment. This dissertation represents a quest to understand the current strategies knowledge workers use to manage their e-mail, and if modification of e-mail management strategies can have an impact on productivity and stress levels for these professionals. Today’s knowledge workers rarely work entirely alone, justifying the importance of also exploring methods to improve electronic communications within teams.

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Date Created
2018

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Programmable Insight: A Computational Methodology to Explore Online News Use of Frames

Description

The Internet is a major source of online news content. Online news is a form of large-scale narrative text with rich, complex contents that embed deep meanings (facts, strategic communication frames, and biases) for shaping and transitioning standards, values, attitudes,

The Internet is a major source of online news content. Online news is a form of large-scale narrative text with rich, complex contents that embed deep meanings (facts, strategic communication frames, and biases) for shaping and transitioning standards, values, attitudes, and beliefs of the masses. Currently, this body of narrative text remains untapped due—in large part—to human limitations. The human ability to comprehend rich text and extract hidden meanings is far superior to known computational algorithms but remains unscalable. In this research, computational treatment is given to online news framing for exposing a deeper level of expressivity coined “double subjectivity” as characterized by its cumulative amplification effects. A visual language is offered for extracting spatial and temporal dynamics of double subjectivity that may give insight into social influence about critical issues, such as environmental, economic, or political discourse. This research offers benefits of 1) scalability for processing hidden meanings in big data and 2) visibility of the entire network dynamics over time and space to give users insight into the current status and future trends of mass communication.

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Date Created
2017

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Reasoning about Cyber Threat Actors

Description

Reasoning about the activities of cyber threat actors is critical to defend against cyber

attacks. However, this task is difficult for a variety of reasons. In simple terms, it is difficult

to determine who the attacker is, what the desired goals are

Reasoning about the activities of cyber threat actors is critical to defend against cyber

attacks. However, this task is difficult for a variety of reasons. In simple terms, it is difficult

to determine who the attacker is, what the desired goals are of the attacker, and how they will

carry out their attacks. These three questions essentially entail understanding the attacker’s

use of deception, the capabilities available, and the intent of launching the attack. These

three issues are highly inter-related. If an adversary can hide their intent, they can better

deceive a defender. If an adversary’s capabilities are not well understood, then determining

what their goals are becomes difficult as the defender is uncertain if they have the necessary

tools to accomplish them. However, the understanding of these aspects are also mutually

supportive. If we have a clear picture of capabilities, intent can better be deciphered. If we

understand intent and capabilities, a defender may be able to see through deception schemes.

In this dissertation, I present three pieces of work to tackle these questions to obtain

a better understanding of cyber threats. First, we introduce a new reasoning framework

to address deception. We evaluate the framework by building a dataset from DEFCON

capture-the-flag exercise to identify the person or group responsible for a cyber attack.

We demonstrate that the framework not only handles cases of deception but also provides

transparent decision making in identifying the threat actor. The second task uses a cognitive

learning model to determine the intent – goals of the threat actor on the target system.

The third task looks at understanding the capabilities of threat actors to target systems by

identifying at-risk systems from hacker discussions on darkweb websites. To achieve this

task we gather discussions from more than 300 darkweb websites relating to malicious

hacking.

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Date Created
2018