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Exploring the Design of Vibrotactile Cues for Visio-Haptic Sensory Substitution

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This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions.

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions. Pancake shaftless vibration motors are mounted on the back of a chair to provide vibrotactile stimulation in the context of a dyadic (one-on-one) interaction across a table. This work explores the design of spatiotemporal vibration patterns that can be used to convey the basic building blocks of facial movements according to the Facial Action Unit Coding System. A behavioral study was conducted to explore the factors that influence the naturalness of conveying affect using vibrotactile cues.

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2014-05

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Batch mode active learning for multimedia pattern recognition

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The rapid escalation of technology and the widespread emergence of modern technological equipments have resulted in the generation of humongous amounts of digital data (in the form of images, videos and text). This has expanded the possibility of solving real

The rapid escalation of technology and the widespread emergence of modern technological equipments have resulted in the generation of humongous amounts of digital data (in the form of images, videos and text). This has expanded the possibility of solving real world problems using computational learning frameworks. However, while gathering a large amount of data is cheap and easy, annotating them with class labels is an expensive process in terms of time, labor and human expertise. This has paved the way for research in the field of active learning. Such algorithms automatically select the salient and exemplar instances from large quantities of unlabeled data and are effective in reducing human labeling effort in inducing classification models. To utilize the possible presence of multiple labeling agents, there have been attempts towards a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data instances is selected simultaneously for manual annotation. This dissertation is aimed at the development of novel batch mode active learning algorithms to reduce manual effort in training classification models in real world multimedia pattern recognition applications. Four major contributions are proposed in this work: $(i)$ a framework for dynamic batch mode active learning, where the batch size and the specific data instances to be queried are selected adaptively through a single formulation, based on the complexity of the data stream in question, $(ii)$ a batch mode active learning strategy for fuzzy label classification problems, where there is an inherent imprecision and vagueness in the class label definitions, $(iii)$ batch mode active learning algorithms based on convex relaxations of an NP-hard integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem, with guaranteed bounds on the solution quality and $(iv)$ an active matrix completion algorithm and its application to solve several variants of the active learning problem (transductive active learning, multi-label active learning, active feature acquisition and active learning for regression). These contributions are validated on the face recognition and facial expression recognition problems (which are commonly encountered in real world applications like robotics, security and assistive technology for the blind and the visually impaired) and also on collaborative filtering applications like movie recommendation.

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2013

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Conformal predictions in multimedia pattern recognition

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The fields of pattern recognition and machine learning are on a fundamental quest to design systems that can learn the way humans do. One important aspect of human intelligence that has so far not been given sufficient attention is the

The fields of pattern recognition and machine learning are on a fundamental quest to design systems that can learn the way humans do. One important aspect of human intelligence that has so far not been given sufficient attention is the capability of humans to express when they are certain about a decision, or when they are not. Machine learning techniques today are not yet fully equipped to be trusted with this critical task. This work seeks to address this fundamental knowledge gap. Existing approaches that provide a measure of confidence on a prediction such as learning algorithms based on the Bayesian theory or the Probably Approximately Correct theory require strong assumptions or often produce results that are not practical or reliable. The recently developed Conformal Predictions (CP) framework - which is based on the principles of hypothesis testing, transductive inference and algorithmic randomness - provides a game-theoretic approach to the estimation of confidence with several desirable properties such as online calibration and generalizability to all classification and regression methods. This dissertation builds on the CP theory to compute reliable confidence measures that aid decision-making in real-world problems through: (i) Development of a methodology for learning a kernel function (or distance metric) for optimal and accurate conformal predictors; (ii) Validation of the calibration properties of the CP framework when applied to multi-classifier (or multi-regressor) fusion; and (iii) Development of a methodology to extend the CP framework to continuous learning, by using the framework for online active learning. These contributions are validated on four real-world problems from the domains of healthcare and assistive technologies: two classification-based applications (risk prediction in cardiac decision support and multimodal person recognition), and two regression-based applications (head pose estimation and saliency prediction in images). The results obtained show that: (i) multiple kernel learning can effectively increase efficiency in the CP framework; (ii) quantile p-value combination methods provide a viable solution for fusion in the CP framework; and (iii) eigendecomposition of p-value difference matrices can serve as effective measures for online active learning; demonstrating promise and potential in using these contributions in multimedia pattern recognition problems in real-world settings.

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2010

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A study of boosting based transfer learning for activity and gesture recognition

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Real-world environments are characterized by non-stationary and continuously evolving data. Learning a classification model on this data would require a framework that is able to adapt itself to newer circumstances. Under such circumstances, transfer learning has come to be a

Real-world environments are characterized by non-stationary and continuously evolving data. Learning a classification model on this data would require a framework that is able to adapt itself to newer circumstances. Under such circumstances, transfer learning has come to be a dependable methodology for improving classification performance with reduced training costs and without the need for explicit relearning from scratch. In this thesis, a novel instance transfer technique that adapts a "Cost-sensitive" variation of AdaBoost is presented. The method capitalizes on the theoretical and functional properties of AdaBoost to selectively reuse outdated training instances obtained from a "source" domain to effectively classify unseen instances occurring in a different, but related "target" domain. The algorithm is evaluated on real-world classification problems namely accelerometer based 3D gesture recognition, smart home activity recognition and text categorization. The performance on these datasets is analyzed and evaluated against popular boosting-based instance transfer techniques. In addition, supporting empirical studies, that investigate some of the less explored bottlenecks of boosting based instance transfer methods, are presented, to understand the suitability and effectiveness of this form of knowledge transfer.

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2011

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Zero Shot Learning for Visual Object Recognition with Generative Models

Description

Visual object recognition has achieved great success with advancements in deep learning technologies. Notably, the existing recognition models have gained human-level performance on many of the recognition tasks. However, these models are data hungry, and their performance is constrained by

Visual object recognition has achieved great success with advancements in deep learning technologies. Notably, the existing recognition models have gained human-level performance on many of the recognition tasks. However, these models are data hungry, and their performance is constrained by the amount of training data. Inspired by the human ability to recognize object categories based on textual descriptions of objects and previous visual knowledge, the research community has extensively pursued the area of zero-shot learning. In this area of research, machine vision models are trained to recognize object categories that are not observed during the training process. Zero-shot learning models leverage textual information to transfer visual knowledge from seen object categories in order to recognize unseen object categories.

Generative models have recently gained popularity as they synthesize unseen visual features and convert zero-shot learning into a classical supervised learning problem. These generative models are trained using seen classes and are expected to implicitly transfer the knowledge from seen to unseen classes. However, their performance is stymied by overfitting towards seen classes, which leads to substandard performance in generalized zero-shot learning. To address this concern, this dissertation proposes a novel generative model that leverages the semantic relationship between seen and unseen categories and explicitly performs knowledge transfer from seen categories to unseen categories. Experiments were conducted on several benchmark datasets to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model for both zero-shot learning and generalized zero-shot learning. The dissertation also provides a unique Student-Teacher based generative model for zero-shot learning and concludes with future research directions in this area.

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2020

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Domain Adaptive Computational Models for Computer Vision

Description

The widespread adoption of computer vision models is often constrained by the issue of domain mismatch. Models that are trained with data belonging to one distribution, perform poorly when tested with data from a different distribution. Variations in vision based

The widespread adoption of computer vision models is often constrained by the issue of domain mismatch. Models that are trained with data belonging to one distribution, perform poorly when tested with data from a different distribution. Variations in vision based data can be attributed to the following reasons, viz., differences in image quality (resolution, brightness, occlusion and color), changes in camera perspective, dissimilar backgrounds and an inherent diversity of the samples themselves. Machine learning techniques like transfer learning are employed to adapt computational models across distributions. Domain adaptation is a special case of transfer learning, where knowledge from a source domain is transferred to a target domain in the form of learned models and efficient feature representations.

The dissertation outlines novel domain adaptation approaches across different feature spaces; (i) a linear Support Vector Machine model for domain alignment; (ii) a nonlinear kernel based approach that embeds domain-aligned data for enhanced classification; (iii) a hierarchical model implemented using deep learning, that estimates domain-aligned hash values for the source and target data, and (iv) a proposal for a feature selection technique to reduce cross-domain disparity. These adaptation procedures are tested and validated across a range of computer vision applications like object classification, facial expression recognition, digit recognition, and activity recognition. The dissertation also provides a unique perspective of domain adaptation literature from the point-of-view of linear, nonlinear and hierarchical feature spaces. The dissertation concludes with a discussion on the future directions for research that highlight the role of domain adaptation in an era of rapid advancements in artificial intelligence.

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2017

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Representation, Exploration, and Recommendation of Music Playlists

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Playlists have become a significant part of the music listening experience today because of the digital cloud-based services such as Spotify, Pandora, Apple Music. Owing to the meteoric rise in usage of playlists, recommending playlists is crucial to music services

Playlists have become a significant part of the music listening experience today because of the digital cloud-based services such as Spotify, Pandora, Apple Music. Owing to the meteoric rise in usage of playlists, recommending playlists is crucial to music services today. Although there has been a lot of work done in playlist prediction, the area of playlist representation hasn't received that level of attention. Over the last few years, sequence-to-sequence models, especially in the field of natural language processing have shown the effectiveness of learned embeddings in capturing the semantic characteristics of sequences. Similar concepts can be applied to music to learn fixed length representations for playlists and the learned representations can then be used for downstream tasks such as playlist comparison and recommendation.

In this thesis, the problem of learning a fixed-length representation is formulated in an unsupervised manner, using Neural Machine Translation (NMT), where playlists are interpreted as sentences and songs as words. This approach is compared with other encoding architectures and evaluated using the suite of tasks commonly used for evaluating sentence embeddings, along with a few additional tasks pertaining to music. The aim of the evaluation is to study the traits captured by the playlist embeddings such that these can be leveraged for music recommendation purposes. This work lays down the foundation for analyzing music playlists and learning the patterns that exist in the playlists in an end-to-end manner. This thesis finally concludes with a discussion on the future direction for this research and its potential impact in the domain of Music Information Retrieval.

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2019

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Language Image Transformer

Description

Humans perceive the environment using multiple modalities like vision, speech (language), touch, taste, and smell. The knowledge obtained from one modality usually complements the other. Learning through several modalities helps in constructing an accurate model of the environment. Most of

Humans perceive the environment using multiple modalities like vision, speech (language), touch, taste, and smell. The knowledge obtained from one modality usually complements the other. Learning through several modalities helps in constructing an accurate model of the environment. Most of the current vision and language models are modality-specific and, in many cases, extensively use deep-learning based attention mechanisms for learning powerful representations. This work discusses the role of attention in associating vision and language for generating shared representation. Language Image Transformer (LIT) is proposed for learning multi-modal representations of the environment. It uses a training objective based on Contrastive Predictive Coding (CPC) to maximize the Mutual Information (MI) between the visual and linguistic representations. It learns the relationship between the modalities using the proposed cross-modal attention layers. It is trained and evaluated using captioning datasets, MS COCO, and Conceptual Captions. The results and the analysis offers a perspective on the use of Mutual Information Maximisation (MIM) for generating generalizable representations across multiple modalities.

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2020

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Accessible Retail Shopping For The Visually Impaired Using Deep Learning

Description

Over the past decade, advancements in neural networks have been instrumental in achieving remarkable breakthroughs in the field of computer vision. One of the applications is in creating assistive technology to improve the lives of visually impaired people by making

Over the past decade, advancements in neural networks have been instrumental in achieving remarkable breakthroughs in the field of computer vision. One of the applications is in creating assistive technology to improve the lives of visually impaired people by making the world around them more accessible. A lot of research in convolutional neural networks has led to human-level performance in different vision tasks including image classification, object detection, instance segmentation, semantic segmentation, panoptic segmentation and scene text recognition. All the before mentioned tasks, individually or in combination, have been used to create assistive technologies to improve accessibility for the blind.

This dissertation outlines various applications to improve accessibility and independence for visually impaired people during shopping by helping them identify products in retail stores. The dissertation includes the following contributions; (i) A dataset containing images of breakfast-cereal products and a classifier using a deep neural (ResNet) network; (ii) A dataset for training a text detection and scene-text recognition model; (iii) A model for text detection and scene-text recognition to identify product images using a user-controlled camera; (iv) A dataset of twenty thousand products with product information and related images that can be used to train and test a system designed to identify products.

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2020

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Incremental Learning With Sample Generation From Pretrained Networks

Description

In the last decade deep learning based models have revolutionized machine learning and computer vision applications. However, these models are data-hungry and training them is a time-consuming process. In addition, when deep neural networks are updated to augment their prediction

In the last decade deep learning based models have revolutionized machine learning and computer vision applications. However, these models are data-hungry and training them is a time-consuming process. In addition, when deep neural networks are updated to augment their prediction space with new data, they run into the problem of catastrophic forgetting, where the model forgets previously learned knowledge as it overfits to the newly available data. Incremental learning algorithms enable deep neural networks to prevent catastrophic forgetting by retaining knowledge of previously observed data while also learning from newly available data.

This thesis presents three models for incremental learning; (i) Design of an algorithm for generative incremental learning using a pre-trained deep neural network classifier; (ii) Development of a hashing based clustering algorithm for efficient incremental learning; (iii) Design of a student-teacher coupled neural network to distill knowledge for incremental learning. The proposed algorithms were evaluated using popular vision datasets for classification tasks. The thesis concludes with a discussion about the feasibility of using these techniques to transfer information between networks and also for incremental learning applications.

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2020