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Apologia in German and Japanese Post-War Film: A Comparative Analysis of Exculpatory Discourses on the German and Japanese Military in World War II.

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In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies,

In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies, both emerged from the 20th Century as liberal, prosperous and free. Both made great strides well beyond the expectations of their occupiers, and rebounded from the overwhelming destruction of their national economies within a few short decades. While these changes have yielded dramatic results, the wartime period still looms large in their respective collective memories. Therefore, an ongoing and diverse dialectical process would engage the considerable popular, official, and intellectual energy of their post-war generations. In West Germany, the term Vergangenheitsbewältigung (VGB) emerged to describe a process of coming to terms with the past, while the Japanese chose kako no kokufuku to describe their similar historical sojourns. Although intellectuals of widely varying backgrounds in both nations made great strides toward making Japanese and German citizens cognizant of the roles that their militaries played in gruesome atrocities, popular cinematic productions served to reiterate older, discredited assertions of the fundamental honor and innocence of the average soldier, thereby nurturing a historically revisionist line of reasoning that continues to compete for public attention. All forms of media would play an important role in sustaining this “apologetic narrative,” and cinema, among the most popular and visible of these mediums, was not excluded from this. Indeed, films would play a unique recurring role, like rhetorical time capsules, in offering a sanitized historical image of Japanese and German soldiers that continues to endure in modern times. Nevertheless, even as West Germany and Japan regained their sovereignty and re-examined their pasts with ever greater resolution and insight, their respective film industries continued to “reset” the clock, and accentuated the visibility and relevancy of apologetic forces still in existence within both societies. However, it is important to note that, when speaking of “Germans” and “Japanese,” that they are not meant to be thought of as being uniformly of one mind or another. Rather, the use of these words is meant as convenient shorthand to refer to the dominant forces in Japanese and German civil society at any given time over the course of their respective post- war histories. Furthermore, references to “Germany” during the Cold War period are to be understood to mean the Federal Republic of Germany, rather than their socialist counterpart, the German Democratic Republic, a nation that undertook its own coming to terms with the past in an entirely distinct fashion.

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2012-12

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Recursion: A Lesson in Recursively Defined Functions According to the Common Core State Standards for High School

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The deficiency of American primary and secondary schools as compared to schools worldwide has long been documented. The Teaching Gap highlights exactly where our problems might lie, and lays out a plan for how to deal with it. Progress would

The deficiency of American primary and secondary schools as compared to schools worldwide has long been documented. The Teaching Gap highlights exactly where our problems might lie, and lays out a plan for how to deal with it. Progress would be slow, but tangible. Our country, however, seems to prefer vast and immediate overhauls that have historically failed (see: New math, etc.). If we had implemented the changes in The Teaching Gap in the decade in which it was written, we would be seeing results by now. Instead, every change we make gets reverted. The Common Core State Standards will prove over the next few years to be either another one of these attempts or a large step in the right direction. It might finally be the latter, as its creation was informed by practices that work best in every state in the US, as well as high- performing countries around the world.

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2012-12

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Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Testing Allele Specific Expression Towards the Alternative Allele

Description

Identifying associations between genotypes and gene expression levels using next-generation technology has enabled systematic interrogation of regulatory variation underlying complex phenotypes. Understanding the source of expression variation has important implications for disease susceptibility, phenotypic diversity, and adaptation (Main, 2009). Interest

Identifying associations between genotypes and gene expression levels using next-generation technology has enabled systematic interrogation of regulatory variation underlying complex phenotypes. Understanding the source of expression variation has important implications for disease susceptibility, phenotypic diversity, and adaptation (Main, 2009). Interest in the existence of allele-specific expression in autosomal genes evolved with the increased awareness of the important role that variation in non-coding DNA sequences can play in determining phenotypic diversity, and the essential role parent-of-origin expression has in early development (Knight, 2004). As new implications of high-throughput sequencing are conceived, it is becoming increasingly important to develop statistical methods tailored to large and formidably complex data sets in order to maximize the biological insights derived from next-generation sequencing experiments. Here, a Bayesian hierarchical probability model based on the beta-binomial distribution is proposed as a possible approach for quantifying allele-specific expression from whole genome (WGS) and whole transcriptome (RNA-seq) data. Pipeline for the analysis of WGS and RNA-seq data sets from ten samples was developed and implemented, while allele-specific expression (ASE) was quantified from both haplotypes using individuals heterozygous at the tested variants utilizing the described methodology. Both computational and statistical framework applied accurately quantified ASE, achieving high reproducibility of already described allele-specific genes in the literature. In conclusion, described methodology provides a solid starting point for quantifying allele specific expression across whole genomes.

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2012-12